Ontogeny of the Tympanic Floor and Roof in Archontans

  • John R. Wible
  • James R. Martin
Part of the Advances in Primatology book series (AIPR)

Abstract

To say that the middle ear and surrounding basicranium have played a critical role in current views of mammalian phylogeny is not an overstatement. Nearly every recent morphological treatment of phylogenetic relationships, be it higher or lower level, has included some characters from this complex region. The basicranium is certainly not a taxonomic touchstone, but it has been a helpful guide for elucidating affinities in many instances.

References

  1. Adkins, R. M., and Honeycutt, R. L. 1991. Molecular phylogeny of the superorder Archonta. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:10317–10321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beard, K. C. 1990a. Flying lemurs, primates, and fossils. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 81:192.Google Scholar
  3. Beard, K. C. 1990b. Gliding behaviour and palaeoecology of the alleged primate family Par-omomyidae (Mammalia, Dermoptera). Nature 345:340–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beard, K. C. 1991. Postcranial fossils of the archaic primate family Microsyopidae. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. Suppl. 12:48–49.Google Scholar
  5. Cartmill, M., and MacPhee, R. D. E. 1980. Tupaiid affinities: The evidence of the carotid arteries and cranial skeleton, in: W. P. Luckett (ed.), Comparative Biology and Evolutionary Relationships of Tree Shrews, pp. 95–132. Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. De Beer, G. R. 1937. The Development of the Vertebrate Skull. Oxford University Press (Clarendon), London.Google Scholar
  7. Diamond, M. K. 1991. Homologies of the stapedial artery in humans, with a reconstruction of the primitive stapedial artery configuration of Euprimates. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 84:433–462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fawcett, E. 1919. The primordial cranium of Miniopterus schreibersi at the 17 millimetre total length stage. J. Anat. 53:315–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Fischer, M. S. 1989. Zur Ontogenese der Tympanalregion der Procaviidae (Mammalia: Hy-racoidea). Gegenbaurs Morph. Jb. 135:795–840.Google Scholar
  10. Frick, H. 1954. Die Entwicklung und Morphologie des Chondrokraniums von Myotis Kaup. Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  11. Frick, H., and Heckmann, U. 1955. Ein Beitrag zur Morphogenese des Kaninchenschädels. Acta Anat. 24:268–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gaunt, W. A., and Gaunt, P. N. 1978. Three Dimensional Reconstruction in Biology. University Park Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  13. Gaupp, E. 1907. Demonstration von Präparaten, betreffend Knorpelbildung in Deckknochen. Verh. Anat. Ges. 21:251–252.Google Scholar
  14. Gaupp, E. 1908. Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte und vergleichenden Morphologie des Schädels von Echidna aculeata var. typica. Semon’s Zool. Forschungsreisen Australien 6(2):539–788.Google Scholar
  15. Gregory, W. K. 1910. The orders of mammals. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 27:1–524.Google Scholar
  16. Halbsguth, A. 1973. Das Cranium eines Foeten des Flattermaki Cynocephalus volans (Galeopithecus volans) (Mammalia. Dermoptera) von 63 mm SchStlg. Inaug. Diss. Med., Frankfurt am Main.Google Scholar
  17. Henckel, K. O. 1929. Die Entwicklung des Schädels von Galeopithecus temmincki Waterh. und ihre Bedeutung für die stammesgeschichtliche und systematische Stellung der Galeopithecidae. Gegenbaurs Morph. Jb. 62:179–205.Google Scholar
  18. Hunt, R. M., Jr. 1974. The auditory bulla in Carnivora: An anatomical basis for reappraisal of carnivore evolution. J. Morphol. 143:21–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hunt, R. M., Jr. 1987. Evolution of the aeluroid Carnivora: Significance of auditory structure inthe nimravid cat Dinictis. Am. Mus. Novit. 2886:1–74.Google Scholar
  20. Hunt, R. M., Jr., and Korth, W. K. 1980. The auditory region of Dermoptera: Morphology and function relative to other living mammals. J Morphol. 164:167–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jurgens, J. D. 1963. Contributions to the descriptive and comparative anatomy of the cranium of the Cape fruit-bat. Ann. Univ. Stellenbosch 38:3–37.Google Scholar
  22. Kampen, P. N. van. 1905. Die Tympanalgegend des Säugetierschädels. Gegenbaurs Morph. Jb. 34:321–722.Google Scholar
  23. Kampen, P. N. van. 1915. De phylogenie van het entotympanicum. Tijdschr. Ned. Dierkd. Ver. 14:xxiv.Google Scholar
  24. Kay, R. F., Thorington, R. W., Jr., and Houde, P. 1990. Eocene plesiadapiform shows affinities with flying lemurs not primates. Nature 345:342–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. King, A. J. 1991. Re-examination of the basicranial anatomy of the Megachiroptera. Acta Anat. 140:313–318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Klaauw, C. J. van der. 1922. Uber die Entwickelung des Entotympanicums. Tijdschr. Ned. Dierkd. Ver. 18:135–174.Google Scholar
  27. Klaauw, C. J. van der. 1923. Die Skelettstückchen in der Sehne des Musculus stapedius und nahe dem Ursprung der Chorda tympani. Z. Anat. Entwicklungsgesch. 69:32–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Klaauw, C. J. van der. 1931. On the auditory bulla in some fossil mammals. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 62:1–352.Google Scholar
  29. Le Gros Clark, W. E. 1926. On the anatomy of the skull of the pen-tailed tree-shrew (Ptilocercuslowii). Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1926:1179–1309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. McKenna, M. C. 1975. Towards a phylogenetic classification of the Mammalia, in: W. P. Luckett and F. S. Szalay (eds.), Phylogeny of the Primates: A Multidisciplinary Approach, pp. 21–46. Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. MacPhee, R. D. E. 1979. Entotympanics, ontogeny and primates. Folia Primatol. 27:245–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. MacPhee, R. D. E. 1981. Auditory regions of primates and eutherian insectivores: Morphology, ontogeny and character analysis. Contrib. Primatol. 18:1–282.Google Scholar
  33. MacPhee, R. D. E., and Cartmill, M. 1986. Basicranial structures and primate systematics, in: D. R. Swindler and J. Erwin (eds.), Comparative Primate Biology, Vol. 1, pp. 219–275. Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  34. MacPhee, R. D. E., and Novacek, M.J. 1993. Definition and relationships of Lipotyphla, in: F. S. Szalay, M. J. Novacek, and M. C. McKenna (eds.), Mammal Phylogeny: Placentals. Springer- Verlag, Berlin (in press).Google Scholar
  35. MacPhee, R. D. E., Cartmill, M., and Gingerich, P. D. 1983. New Paleogene primate basicrania and definition of the order Primates. Nature 301:509–511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. MacPhee, R. D. E., Novacek, M. J., and Storch, G. 1988. Basicranial morphology of early Tertiary erinaceomorphs and the origin of primates. Am. Mus. Novit. 2921:1–42.Google Scholar
  37. MacPhee, R. D. E., Cartmill, M., and Rose, K. D. 1989. Craniodental morphology and relationships of the supposed Eocene dermopteran Plagiomene (Mammalia). J. Vertebr. Paleontol. 9:329–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Martin, J. R. 1991. The development of the auditory region of the rousette fruit bat Rousettus leschenaulti (Mammalia, Megachiroptera). M.S. thesis, University of Louisville.Google Scholar
  39. Mindell, D. P., Dick, C. W., and Baker, R.J. 1991. Phylogenetic relationships among megabats, microbats, and primates. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:10322–10326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Novacek, M. J. 1977. Aspects of the problem of variation, origin and evolution of the eutherian auditory bulla. Mammal Rev. 7:131–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Novacek, M. J. 1980a. Cranioskeletal features in tupaiids and selected Eutheria as phylogenetic evidence, in: W. P. Luckett (ed.), Comparative Biology and Evolutionary Relationships of Tree Shrews, pp. 35–93. Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Novacek, M.J. 1980b. Phylogenetic analysis of the chiropteran auditory region, in: D. E. Wilson and A. L. Gardner (eds.), Proc. 5th Int. Bat Res. Conf. pp. 347–365. Texas Tech Press, Lubbock.Google Scholar
  43. Novacek, M. J. 1982. Information for molecular studies from anatomical and fossil evidence on higher eutherian phylogeny, in: M. Goodman (ed.), Macromolecular Sequences in Systematics and Evolutionary Biology, pp. 3–41. Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Novacek, M. J., and Wyss, A. 1986. Higher-level relationships of the recent eutherian orders: Morphological evidence. Cladistics 2:257–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Novacek, M. J. 1986. The skull of leptictid insectivorans and the higher-level classification ofeutherian mammals. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 183:1–112.Google Scholar
  46. Novacek, M. J., Wyss, A. R., and McKenna, M. C. 1988. The major groups of eutherian mammals, in: M. J. Benton (ed.), The Phylogeny and Classification of Tetrapods. Oxford University Press (Clarendon), London.Google Scholar
  47. Parker, W. K. 1886. On the structure and development of the skull of the Mammalia. Part III. Insectivora. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 176:121–275.Google Scholar
  48. Patterson, B., Segall, W., Turnbull, W. D., and Gaudin, T.J. 1992. The ear region in xenarthrans (=Edentata: Mammalia). Part II. Pilosa (sloths, anteaters), palaeanodonts, and a miscellany. Fieldiana, Geoi, n.s. 24:1–79.Google Scholar
  49. Patterson, C. 1982. Morphological characters and homology, in: K. A. Joysey and A. E. Friday (eds.), Problems of Phylogenetic Reconstruction, pp. 21–74. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  50. Pettigrew, J. D., Jamieson, B. G. M., Robson, S. K., Hall, L. S., McAnally, K. I., and Cooper, H. M. 1989. Phylogenetic relations between microbats, megabats, and primates (Mammalia: Chi- roptera and Primates). Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 325:489–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Reinbach, W. 1952. Zur Entwicklung des Primordialcraniums von Dasypus novemcinctus Linne (Tatusia novemcincta Lesson) II. Z. Morphol. Anthropol. 45:1–72.Google Scholar
  52. Russell, D. E. 1964. Les mammiferes paleocenes d’Europe. Mem. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris Ser. C 13:1–321.Google Scholar
  53. Saban, R. 1963. Contribution à l’etude de l’os temporal des Primates. Mem. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris Ser. A 29:1–378.Google Scholar
  54. Sitt, W. 1943. Zur Morphologie des Primordialcraniums und des Osteocraniums eines Embryos von Rhinolophus rouxii von 15 mm Scheitl-Steiß-Länge. Gegenbaurs Morph. Jb. 88:268–342.Google Scholar
  55. Spatz, W. B. 1966. Zur Ontogenese der Bulla tympanica von Tupaia glis Diard 1820 (Prosimiae, Tupaiiformes). Folia Primatol. 4:26–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Starck, D. 1943. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Morphologie und Entwicklungsgeschichte des Chiropterancraniums. Das Chondrocranium von Pteropus seminudus. Z. Anat. Entwicklungsgesch. 112:588–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Starck, D. 1975. The development of the chondrocranium in primates, in: W. P. Luckett and F. S. Szalay (eds.), Phylogeny of the Primates: A Multidisciplinary Approach, pp. 127–155. Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Szalay, F. S. 1972. Cranial morphology of the early Tertiary Phenacolemur and its bearing on primate phylogeny. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 36:59–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wible, J. R. 1984. The ontogeny and phylogeny of the mammalian cranial arterial pattern. Ph.D. dissertation, Duke University.Google Scholar
  60. Wible, J. R. 1986. Transformations in the extracranial course of the internal carotid artery in mammalian phylogeny. J. Vertebr. Paleontol. 6:313–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wible, J. R. 1987. The eutherian stapedial artery: Character analysis and implications for super-ordinal relationships. Zool.J. Linn. Soc. 91:107–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wible, J. R. 1990. Late Cretaceous marsupial petrosal bones from North America and a cladistic analysis of the petrosal in therian mammals. J. Vertebr. Paleontol. 10:183–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wible, J. R. 1991. Origin of Mammalia: The craniodental evidence reexamined. J. Vertebr. Paleontol. 11:1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wible, J. R. 1992. Further examination of the basicranium of the Megachiroptera: A reply to A. J. King. Acta Anat. 143:309–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wible, J. R., and Covert, H. H. 1987. Primates: Cladistic diagnosis and relationships. J. Hum. Evol. 16:1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wible, J. R., and Novacek, M. J. 1988. Cranial evidence for the monophyletic origin of bats. Am. Mus. Novit. 2911:1–19.Google Scholar
  67. Zeller, U. 1986. Ontogeny and cranial morphology of the tympanic region of the Tupaiidae, with special reference to Ptilocercus. Folia Primatol. 47:61–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Zeller, U. 1987. Morphogenesis of the mammalian skull with special reference to Tupaia, in: H.-J. Kuhn and U. Zeller (eds.), Morphogenesis of the Mammalian Skull. Verlag Paul Parey, Hamburg.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • John R. Wible
    • 1
  • James R. Martin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, School of MedicineUniversity of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations