GLUT5 Expression and Fructose Transport in Human Skeletal Muscle
Biochemical and immunocytochemical studies have revealed that, in addition to GLUTI and GLUT4, human skeletal muscle also expresses the GLUT5 hexose transporter. The subcellular distribution of GLUT5 is distinct from that of GLUT4, being localised exclusively in the sarcolemmal membrane. The substrate selectivity of GLUT5 is also considered to be different to that of GLUTI and GLUT4 in that it operates primarily as a fructose transporter. Consistent with this suggestion studies in isolated human sarcolemmal vesicles have shown that fructose transport obeys saturable kinetics with a Vmax of 477 ± 37 pmol mg protein−1 min−1 and a Km of 8.3 ± 1.2 mM. Unlike glucose uptake, fructose transport in sarcolemmal vesicles was not inhibited by cytochalasin B suggesting that glucose and fructose are unlikely to share a common route of entry into human muscle. Muscle exercise, which stimulates glucose uptake through the increased translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, does not increase fructose transport or sarcolemmal GLUT5 content. In contrast, muscle inactivity, induced as a result of limb immobilisation, caused a significant reduction in muscle GLUT4 expression with no detectable effects on GLUT5. The presence of a fructose transporter in human muscle is compatible with studies showing that this tissue can utilise fructose for both glycolysis and glycogenesis. However, the full extent to which provision of fructose via GLUT5 is important in meeting the energy requirements of human muscle during both physiological and pathophysiological circumstances remains an issue requiring further investigation.
KeywordsGlucose Transporter Human Muscle Glut Expression Fructose Uptake Sarcolemmal Membrane
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