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Mechanisms Regulating Adipocyte Lipolysis

  • Gale B. Carey
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 441)

Abstract

Mechanisms regulating adipocyte lipolysis are reviewed in three stages. The first stage examines plasma membrane hormone receptors and G-proteins. The primary regulators of adipose tissue lipolysis, the catecholamines, bind to the α2, β1, β2, and β3 adrenergic receptors. The α2 receptor couples with Gi-proteins to inhibit cyclic AMP formation and lipolysis, while the β receptors couple with Gs-proteins to stimulate cyclic AMP formation and lipolysis. The β1 receptor may mediate low level catecholamine stimulation, while the β3 receptor, which is activated by higher levels of catecholamines, may deliver a more sustained signal. The second stage examines the regulation of cyclic AMP, the intracellular messenger that activates protein kinase A. Adenylyl cyclase synthesizes cyclic AMP from ATP and is regulated by the G-proteins. Phosphodiesterase 3B hydrolyzes cyclic AMP to AMP and is activated and phosphorylated by both insulin and the catecholamines norepinephrine and epinephrine. The third stage focuses on the rate-limiting enzyme of lipolysis, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). This 82 to 88 kDa protein is regulated by reversible phosphorylation. Protein kinase A activates and phosphorylates the enzyme at 2 sites, and 3 phosphatases have been implicated in HSL dephosphorylation. The translocation of HSL from the cytosol to the lipid droplet in response to lipolytic stimulation may be facilitated by a family of lipid-associated droplets called perilipins that are heavily phosphorylated by protein kinase A and dephosphorylated by insulin. As the mechanisms regulating adipocyte lipolysis continue to be uncovered, we look forward to the challenges of integrating these findings with research at the in situ and in vivo levels.

Keywords

Adipose Tissue Lipid Droplet Adenylyl Cyclase Adrenergic Receptor White Adipocyte 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gale B. Carey
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Animal and Nutritional SciencesKendall Hall, University of New HampshireDurhamUSA

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