Advertisement

Feline Oncoretroviruses

  • William D. HardyJr.
Chapter
Part of the The Viruses book series (VIRS)

Abstract

Elucidation of the biology of feline oncoretroviruses over the past 20 years has changed the concepts of retroviruses in all animals, including humans. This chapter considers the history, virology, epidemiology, immune responses, pathology, and vaccination of feline oncoretroviruses.

Keywords

Aplastic Anemia Feline Leukemia Virus Regenerative Anemia FeLV Infection Simian Sarcoma Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abelson, H. T., and Rabstein, L. S., 1970, Lymphosarcoma, virus-induced thymic independent disease in mice, Cancer Res. 30:2213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abkowitz, J. L., Holly, R. D., and Adamson, J. W., 1987, Retrovirus-induced feline pure red cell aplasia: The kinetics of marrow failure, J. Cell Physiol. 132:571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akerblom, L., Stromstedt, K., Hoglund, S., Osterhaus, A., and Morein, B., 1989, Formation and characterization of FeLV ISCOMS, Vaccine 7:142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aldrich, C. D., and Pedersen, N. C. 1974, Persistent viremia after regression of primary virus-induced feline fibrosarcomas, Am. J. Vet. Res. 35:1383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, L. J., Jarrett, W. F. H., Jarrett, O., and Laird, H. M., 1971, Feline leukemia-virus infection of kittens: Mortality associated with atrophy of the thymus and lymphoid depletion, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 47:807.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson, S. J., Furth, M., Wolff, L., Ruscetti, S. K., and Sherr, C. J., 1982, Monoclonal antibodies to the transformation specific glycoprotein encoded by the feline retroviral oncogene v-fms. J. Virol. 44:696.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Anderson, D. M., Lyman, S. D., Baird, A., Wignall, J. M., Eisenman, J., Rauch, C., March, C. J., Boswell, H. S., Gimpel, S. D., Cosman, D., and Williams, D. E., 1990, Molecular cloning of mast cell growth factor, a hematopoietin that is active in both membrane bound and soluble forms. Cell 63:235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aziz, D. C., Hanna, Z., and Jolicoeur, P., 1989, Severe immunodeficiency disease induced by a defective murine leuaemia virus, Nature 338:505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baluda, M. A., and Roy-Burman, P., 1973, Partial characterization of RD-114 virus by DNA-RNA hybridization studies, Nature 244:59.Google Scholar
  10. Barbacid, M., Lauver, A. V., and Devare, S. G., 1980, Biochemical and immunological characterization of polyproteins coded for by the McDonough, Gardner-Arnstein, and Snyder-Theilen strains of feline sarcoma virus, J. Virol. 33:196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Benveniste, R. E., and Todaro, G. J., 1973, Homology between type-G viruses of various species as determined by molecular hybridization, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 70:3316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Benveniste, R. E., Sherr, C. J., and Todaro, G. J., 1975, Evolution of type C viral genes: Origin of feline leukemia virus, Science 190:886.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bergold, P. J., Wang, J. Y. J., Hardy, W. D., Jr., Littau, V., Johnson, E., and Besmer, P., 1987, Structure and origins of the HZ2-feline sarcoma virus, Virology 158:320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Besmer, P., 1983, Acute transforming feline retroviruses, Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 107:1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Besmer, P., Snyder, H. W., Jr., Murphy, J. E., Hardy, W. D., Jr., and Parodi, A., 1983a, The Parodi-Irgens feline sarcoma virus and simian sarcoma virus have homologous oncogenes, but in different contexts of the viral genomes, J. Virol. 46:606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Besmer, P., Hardy, W. D., Jr., Zuckerman, E. E., Bergold, P., Lederman, L., and Snyder, H. W., Jr., 1983b, The Hardy-Zuckerman 2-FeSV, a new feline retrovirus with oncogene homology to Abelson-MuLV, Nature 303:825.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Besmer, P., Lader, E., George, P., Bergold, P. J., Qui, F-H., Zuckerman, E. E., and Hardy, W. D., Jr., 1986a, A new acute transforming feline retrovirus with fms homology specifies a c-terminally truncated version of the c-fms protein that is different from SM-feline sarcoma virus v-fms protein, J. Virol. 60:194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Besmer, P., Murphy, J. E., George, P. C., Qui, F. H., Bergold, P. J., Snyder, H. W., Jr., Brodeur, D., Zuckerman, E. E., and Hardy, W. D., Jr., 1986b, A new acute transforming feline retrovirus and relationship of its oncogene kit with the protein kinase gene family, Nature 320:415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bishop, J. M., 1981, Enemies within: The genesis of retrovirus oncogenes, Cell 23:5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Blue, J. T., 1988, Myelofibrosis in cats with myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia, Vet. Pathol. 25:154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bolognesi, D. P., Montelaro, R. C., Frank, H., and Schafer, W., 1978, Assembly of type C oncorna-viruses: A model, Science 199:183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bonham, L., Lobelle-Rich, P. A., Henderson, L. A., and Levy, L. S., 1987, Transforming potential of a myc-containing variant of feline leukemia virus in vitro in early-passage feline cells, J. Virol. 61:3072.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bonner, T. I., and Todaro, G. J., 1979, Carnivores have sequences in their cellular DNA distantly related to the primate endogenous virus, Virology 94:224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Boyce, J. T., Kociba, G. J., Jacobs, R. M., and Weiser, M. G., 1986, Feline leukemia virus-induced thrombocytopenia and macrothrombocytosis in cats, Vet. Pathol. 23:16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Brodey, R. S., McDonough, S., Frye, F. L., and Hardy, W. D., Jr., 1970, Epidemiology of feline leukemia, in: Comparative Leukemia Research (R. M. Dutcher ed.), pp. 333–342, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  26. Case, M. T., 1970, A case of myelogenous leukemia in the cat, Zentralbl Veterinarmed 17:273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Casey, J. W., Roach, A., Mullins, J. T., Burck, K. B., Nicolson, M. O., Gardner, M. B., and Davidson, N., 1981, The U3 portion of the feline leukemia virus identifies horizontally acquired proviruses in leukemic cats, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78:7778.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chapman, A. L., Weitlauf, H. M., and Bopp, W., 1974, Effect of feline leukemia virus on transferred hamster fetuses, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 52:583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Chattopadhyay, S. K., Cloyd, M. W., Linemeyer, D. L., Lander, M. R., Rands, E., and Lowy, D. R., 1982, Cellular origin and role of mink cell focus-forming viruses in murine thymic lymphomas, Nature 295:25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Clark, N., Kushner, N. N., Barrett, C., Kensil, C. R., Salsbury, D., and Cotter, S., 1991, Efficacy and safety field trials of a recombinant DNA vaccine against feline leukemia virus infection, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 199:1433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cockerell, G. L., and Hoover, E. A., 1977, Inhibition of normal lymphocyte mitogenic reactivity by serum from feline leukemia virus-infected cats, Cancer Res. 37:3985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Cockerell, G. L., Hoover, E. A., Krakowka, S., Olsen, R. G., and Yohn, D. S., 1976, Lymphocyte mitogen reactivity and enumeration of circulating B-and T-cells during feline leukemia virus infection in the cat, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 57:1095.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Cole, G. E., Stacy-Phipps, S., and Nunberg, J. H., 1990, Recombinant feline herpesviruses expressing feline leukemia virus envelope and gag proteins, J. Virol. 64:4930.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Cotter, S. M., Hardy, W. D., Jr., and Essex, M., 1975, The association of the feline leukemia virus with lymphosarcoma and other disorders, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 166:449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Crighton, G. W., 1969, Lymphosarcoma in the cat, Vet. Rec. 84:329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dameshek, W., 1951, Some speculations on the myeloproliferative syndromes, Blood 6:372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Day, N. K., O’Reilly-Felice, C., Hardy, W. D., Jr., Good, R. A., and Witken, S. S., 1980, Circulating immune complexes associated with naturally occurring lymphosarcoma in pet cats, J. Immunol. 126:2363.Google Scholar
  38. Deinhardt, F., Wolfe, L. G., Theilen, G. H., and Snyder, S. P., 1970, ST-feline fibrosarcoma virus: Induction of tumors in marmoset monkeys, Science 167:881.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dezzutti, C. S., Lafrado, L. J., Lewis, M. G., and Olsen, R. G., 1990, Inhibition of phorbol ester-induced neutrophil chemiluminescence by FeLV, Arch. Virol. 111:75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Donner, L., Turek, L. P., Ruscetti, S. K., Fedele, L. A., and Sherr, C. J., 1980, Transformation defective mutants of feline sarcoma virus which express a product of the viral src gene, J. Virol. 35:129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Doolittle, R. F., Hunkapiller, M. W., Hood, L. E., Devare, S. G., Robbins, K. C., Aaronson, S. A., and Antoniades, H. N., 1983, Simian sarcoma virus one gene, v-sis, is derived from the gene (or genes) encoding a platelet-derived growth factor, Science 221:275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dorn, C. R., Taylor, D. O. N., Schneider, R., Hibbard, H. H., and Klauber, M. R., 1968, Survey of animal neoplasms in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California. II: Cancer morbidity in dogs and cats from Alameda County, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 40:307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Dornsife, R. E., Gasper, P. W., Mullins, J. I., and Hoover, E. A., 1989, Induction of aplastic anemia by intra-bone marrow inoculation of a molecularly cloned feline retrovirus, 1989, Lenk. Res. 13:745.Google Scholar
  44. Dworkin, B. M., Rosenthal, W. S., Wormser, G. P., and Weiss, L., 1986, Selenium deficiency in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, J. Parenter. Nutr. 10:405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Elder, J. H., and Mullins, J. T., 1983, Nucleotide sequence of the envelope gene of Gardner-Arnstein feline leukemia virus B reveals unique sequence homologies with a murine mink cell focus-forming virus, J. Virol. 46:871.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Elder, J. H., Gautsch, J. W., Jensen, F. C., Lerner, R. A., Hartley, J. W., and Rowe, W. P., 1977, Biochemical evidence that MCF murine leukemia viruses are envelope (env) gene recombinants, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74:4676.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Essex, M., 1980, Feline leukemia and sarcoma viruses, in: Viral Oncology (G. Klein, ed.), pp. 205–229, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  48. Essex, M., Klein, G., Snyder, S. P., and Harrold, J. B., 1971, Correlation between humoral antibody and regression of tumours induced by feline sarcoma virus, Nature 233:195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Essex, M., Sliski, A., Cotter, S. M., Jakowski, R. M., and Hardy, W. D., Jr., 1975, Immunosurveillance of naturally occurring feline leukemia, Science 190:790.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Essex, M., Cotter, S. M., Sliski, A. H., Hardy, W. D., Jr., Stephenson, J. R., Aaronson, S. A., and Jarrett, O., 1977a, Horizontal transmission of feline leukemia virus under natural conditions in a feline leukemia cluster household, Int. J. Cancer, 19:90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Essex, M., Cotter, S. M., Stephenson, J. R., Aaronson, S. A., and Hardy, W. D., Jr., 1977b, Leukemia, lymphoma and fibrosarcoma of cats as models for similar diseases of man, in: Origins of Human Cancer (H. W. Hiatt, J. D. Watson, and J. A. Winston eds.), pp. 1197–1214, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.Google Scholar
  52. Fischinger, P. G., Pebbles, P. T., Nomura, S., and Haapala, D. K., 1973, Isolation of RD-114-like oncornavirus from cat cell lines, J. Virol. 11:978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Flanagan, J. G., and Leder, P., 1990, The kit ligand: A cell surface molecule altered in steel mutant fibroblasts, Cell 63:185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Forrest, D., Onions, D., Lees, G., and Neil, J. C., 1987, Altered structure and expression of c-myc in feline T-cell tumors, Virology 158:194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Francis, D. P., Essex, M., and Hardy, W. D., Jr., 1977, Excretion of feline leukemia virus by naturally infected pet cats, Nature 269:252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Francis, D. P., Cotter, S. M., Hardy, W. D., Jr., and Essex, M., 1979, Comparison of virus-positive and virus-negative cases of feline leukemia and lymphoma, Cancer Res. 39:3866.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Frankel, A. E., Gilbert, J. H., Porzig, F. J., Scolnick, E. M., and Aaronson, S. A., 1979, Nature and distribution of feline sarcoma virus nucleotide sequences, J. Virol. 30:821.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Fraser, C.J., Joiner, G. N., Jardine, J. H., and Gleiser, C. A., 1974, Acute granulocytic leukemia in cats, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 165:355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Fujinami, A., and Inamoto, K., 1914, Ueber geschwulste bei japanischen haushuhnern insbesondere uber einen transplantablen tumor, Z. Krebsforsch 14:94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gallo, R. C., Salahuddin, S. Z., Popovic, M., Shearer, G. M., Kaplan, M., Haynes, B. F., Palker, T. J., Redfield, R., Oleske, J., Safai, B., White, G., Foster, P., and Markham, P. D., 1984, Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS, Science 224:500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gardner, M. B., Arnstein, P., Rongey, R. W., Estes, J. D., Sarma, P. S., Rickard, C. F., and Huebner, R. J., 1970, Experimental transmission of feline fibrosarcoma to cats and dogs, Nature 226:807.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gardner, M. B., Arnstein, P., Johnson, E., Rongey, R. W., and Charman, H. P., 1971a, Feline sarcoma virus tumor induction in cats and dogs, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 158:1046.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Gardner, M. B., Rongey, R. W., Johnson, F. V., De Journett, R., and Huebner, R. J., 1971b, C-type virus particles in salivary tissue of domestic cats, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 47:561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Gardner, M. B., Henderson, B. E., Officer, J. E., Rongey, R. W., Parker, J. C., Oliver, C., Estes, J. D., and Huebner, R. J., 1973, A spontaneous lower motor neuron disease apparently caused by indigenous type C RNA virus in wild mice, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 51:1243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Gardner, M. B., Brown, J. C., Charman, H. P., Stephenson, J. R., Rongey, R. W., Hauser, D. E., Diegmann, F., Howard, E., Dworsky, R., Gilden, R. V., and Huebner, R. J., 1977, FeLV epidemiology in Los Angeles cats: Appraisal of detection methods, Int. J. Cancer 19:581.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Gilbert, J. H., Pedersen, N. C., and Nunberg, J. H., 1987, Feline leukemia virus envelope protein expression encoded by a recombinant vaccinia virus: Apparent lack of immunogenicity in vaccinated animals, Virus Res. 7:49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Glick, A. D., Horn, R. G., and Holscher, M., 1978, Characterization of feline glomerulonephritis associated with viral-induced hematopoietic neoplasms, Am. J. Pathol. 92:321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Goff, S. P., and Baltimore, D., 1982, The cellular oncogene of the Abelson murine leukemia virus genome, in: Advances in Viral Oncology (G. Klein, ed.), pp. 127–139, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  69. Gottlieb, M., Schroff, R., Schanker, H. M., Weisman, J. D., Fan, P. T., Wolf, R. A., and Saxon, A., 1981, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and mucosal candidiasis in previously healthy homosexual men, N. Engl J. Med. 305:1425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Grundwald, D. J., Dale, B., Dudley, J., Lamph, W., Sugden, B., Ozanne, B., and Risser, R., 1982, Loss of viral gene expression and retention of tumorigenicity by Abelson lymphoma cells. J. Virol. 43:92.Google Scholar
  71. Gwalter, R. H., 1981, FeLV-testmethoden, IFA order ELISA, Kleintier Praxis 26:23.Google Scholar
  72. Haffer, K. N., Koertje, W. D., Derr, J. T. and Beckenhauer, W. H., 1990, Evaluation of immunosuppressive effect and efficacy of an improved-potency feline leukemia vaccine, Vaccine 8:12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hammar, L., Eriksson, S., Malm, K., and Morein, B., 1989, Concentration and purification of feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and its outer envelope protein gp70 by aqueous two-phase systems, J. Virol. Methods 24:91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Handsfield, H. H., 1985, Screening for HTLV-III antibody, N. Engl. J. Med. 313:888.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Hardy, W. D., Jr., 1980a, Feline leukemia virus disease, in: Feline Leukemia Virus (W. D. Hardy, Jr., M. Essex, and A. J. McClelland, eds.), pp. 3–31, Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  76. Hardy, W. D., Jr., 1980b, The biology and virology of the feline sarcoma viruses, in: Feline Leukemia Virus (W. D. Hardy, Jr., M. Essex, and A. J. McClelland eds.), pp. 79–118, Else-vier, New York.Google Scholar
  77. Hardy, W. D., Jr., 1981a, Feline leukemia virus non-neoplastic diseases, J. Am. Anim. Hosp. Assoc. 17:941.Google Scholar
  78. Hardy, W. D., Jr., 1981b, The feline leukemia virus, J. Am. Anim. Hosp. Assoc. 17:951.Google Scholar
  79. Hardy, W. D., Jr., 1981c, The feline sarcoma viruses, J. Am. Anim. Hosp. Assoc. 17:981.Google Scholar
  80. Hardy, W. D., Jr., 1981d, Hematopoietic tumors of cats, J. Am. Anim. Hosp. Assoc. 17:921.Google Scholar
  81. Hardy, W. D., Jr., 1982, Immunopathology induced by the feline leukemia virus, in: Springer Semin. Immunopathol (G. Klein, ed.), pp. 75–105, Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  82. Hardy, W. D., Jr., 1983a, Naturally occurring retroviruses (RNA tumor viruses). I: Cancer Invest. 1:67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Hardy, W. D., Jr., 1983b, Naturally occurring retroviruses (RNA tumor viruses). II: Cancer Invest. 1:163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Hardy, W. D., Jr., 1984, Feline leukemia virus as an animal retrovirus model for the human T-cell leukemia virus, in: Human T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma Viruses (R. C. Gallo, M. Essex, and L. Gross, eds.), pp. 35–43, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.Google Scholar
  85. Hardy, W. D., Jr., 1985, Feline retroviruses, in: Advances in Viral Oncology, Vol. 5. (G. Klein, ed.), pp. 1–34, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  86. Hardy, W. D., Jr., 1988, Feline T-lymphotropic lentivirus: Retrovirus-induced immunosuppression in cats, J. Am. Anim. Hosp. Assoc. 24:241.Google Scholar
  87. Hardy, W. D., Jr., 1990, Biology of feline retroviruses, in: Retrovirus Biology and Human Disease (R. C. Gallo and F. Wong-Staal, eds.), pp. 33–86, Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  88. Hardy, W. D., Jr., 1991, General principles of retrovirus immunodetection tests, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 199:1282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Hardy, W. D., Jr., and Essex, M., 1986, FeLV-Induced feline acquired immune deficiency syndrome (FAIDS): A model for human AIDS, in: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Progress in Allergy 37 (E. Klein, ed.), pp. 353–376, Karger, Basel.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Hardy, W. D., Jr., and Zuckerman, E. E., 1991a, Development of the immunofluorescent antibody test for detection of feline leukemia virus infection in cats, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 199:1327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Hardy, W. D., Jr., and Zuckerman, E. E., 1991b, Ten-year study comparing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the immunofluorescent antibody test for detection of feline leukemia virus infection in cats, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 199:1365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Hardy, W. D., Jr., Geering, G., Old, L. J., deHarven, E., Brodey, R. S., and McDonough, S., 1969, Feline leukemia virus; occurrence of viral antigen in the tissues of cats with lymphosarcoma and other diseases, Science 166:1019.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hardy, W. D., Jr., Old, L. J., Hess, P. W., Essex, M., and Cotter, S., 1973a, Horizontal transmission of feline leukaemia virus, Nature 244:266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Hardy, W. D., Jr., Hirshaut, Y., and Hess, P., 1973b, Detection of the feline leukemia virus and other mammalian oncornaviruses by immunofluorescence, in: Unifying Concepts of Leukemia (R. M. Dutcher and L. Chieco-Bianchi, eds.), pp. 778–799, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  95. Hardy, W. D., Jr., McClelland, A. J., Hess, P. W., and MacEwen, G., 1974, Veterinarians and the control of feline leukemia virus, J. Am. Anim. Hosp. Assoc. 10:367.Google Scholar
  96. Hardy, W. D., Jr., Hess, P. W., MacEwen, E. G., McClelland, A. J., Zuckerman, E. E., Essex, M., Cotter, S. M., and Jarrett, O., 1976a, Biology of feline leukemia virus in the natural environment, Cancer Res. 36:582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Hardy, W. D., Jr., McClelland, A. J., Zuckerman, E. E., Hess, P. W., Essex, M., Cotter, S. M., MacEwen, E. G., and Hayes, A. A., 1976b, Prevention of the contagious spread of feline leukaemia virus and the development of leukaemia in pet cats, Nature 263:326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Hardy, W. D., Jr., Zuckerman, E. E., MacEwen, E. G., Hayes, A. A., and Essex, M., 1977, A feline leukaemia virus-and sarcoma virus-induced tumour-specific antigen, Nature 270:249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Hardy, W. D., Jr., Zuckerman, E. E., Essex, M., MacEwen, E. G., and Hayes, A. A., 1978, Feline oncornavirus-associated cell-membrane antigen: An FeLV-and FeSV-induced tumorspecific antigen, in: Differentiation of Normal and Neoplastic Hematopoietic Cells (B. Clarkson, P. A. Marks, and J. E. Till, eds.), pp. 601–623, Cold Spring Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.Google Scholar
  100. Hardy, W. D., Jr., McClelland, A. J., Zuckerman, E. E., Snyder, H. W., Jr., MacEwen, E. G., Francis, D., and Essex, M., 1980a, Development of virus non-producer lymphosarcomas in pet cats exposed to FeLV, Nature 288:90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Hardy, W. D., Jr., McClelland, A. J., Zuckerman, E. E., Snyder, H. W., MacEwen, E. G., Francis, D. P., and Essex, M., 1980b, Immunology and epidemiology of feline leukemia virus non-producer lymphosarcomas, in: Viruses in Naturally Occurring Cancers (M. Essex, G. Todaro, and H. ZurHausen, eds.), pp. 677–697, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.Google Scholar
  102. Hardy, W. D., Jr., MacEwen, E. G., Hayes, A. A., and Zuckerman, E. E., 1980c, FOCMA antibody as specific immunotherapy for lymphosarcoma of pet cats, in: Feline Leukemia Virus (W. D. Hardy, Jr., M. Essex, and A. J. McClelland, eds.), pp. 227–233, Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  103. Hardy, W. D., Jr., Zuckerman, E., Markovich, R., Besmer, P., and Snyder, H. W., 1982, Isolation of feline sarcoma viruses from pet cats with multicentric fibrosarcomas, in: Advances in Comparative Leukemia Research 1981 (D. S. Yohn and J. R. Blakeslee, eds.), pp. 205–206, Elsevier, North-Holland, New York.Google Scholar
  104. Hardy, W. D., Jr., Zuckerman, E. E., Lehrman, S. N., and Barry, D. W., 1985, Anti-viral effects of BW A509U (AZT) against a naturally occurring feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (FAIDS)-inducing retrovirus, in: Abstracts of the Twenty-fifth Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, p. 171.Google Scholar
  105. Hartley, J. W., Wolford, N. K., Old, L. J., and Rowe, W. P., 1977, A new class of murine leukemia virus associated with development of spontaneous lymphomas, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74:789.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Herz, A., Theilen, G. H., and Schalm, O. W., 1970, C-type virus in bone marrow cells of cats with myeloproliferative disorders, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 44:339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Hoover, E. A., 1984, Experimental studies of the pathogenesis of feline leukemia virus infection, in: RNA Tumor Viruses, Oncogenes, Human Cancer and AIDS: On the Frontiers of Understanding (P. Furmanski, J. C. Hager, and M. A. Rich, eds.), pp. 267–288, Martinus Nijhoff, Boston.Google Scholar
  108. Hoover, E. A., and Kociba, G. J., 1974, Bone lesions in cats with anemia induced by feline leukemia virus, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 53:1277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Hoover, E. A., Perryman, L. E., and Kociba, G. J., 1973, Early lesions in cats inoculated with feline leukemia virus, Cancer Res. 33:145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Hoover, E. A., Kociba, G. J., Hardy, W. D., Jr., and Yohn, D. S., 1974, Erythroid hypoplasis in cats inoculated with feline leukemia virus, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 53:1271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Hoover, E. A., Olsen, R. G., Hardy, W. D., Jr., Schaller, J. P., and Mathes, L. E., 1976, Feline leukemia virus infection: Age related variation in response of cats to experimental infection, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 57:365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Hoover, E. A., Rojko, J. L., and Olsen, R. G., 1980, Host-virus interactions in progressive versus regressive feline leukemia virus infection in cats, in: Viruses in Naturally Occurring Cancers (M. Essex, G. Todaro, and H. zurHausen, eds.), pp. 635–651, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.Google Scholar
  113. Hoover, E. A., Rojko, J. L., Wilson, P. L., and Olsen, R. G., 1981, Determinants of susceptibility and resistance to feline leukemia virus infection. I: Role of macrophages, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 67:889.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Hoover, E. A., Rojko, J. L., and Quackenbush, S. L., 1983, Congenital feline leukemia virus infection, Leuk. Rev. Intl. 1:7.Google Scholar
  115. Hoover, E. A., Zeidner, N. S., Perigo, N. A., Quackenbush, S. L., Strobel, J. D., Hill, D. L., and Mullins, J. I., 1989, Feline leukemia virus-induced immunodeficiency syndrome in cats as a model for evaluation of antiretroviral therapy, Intervirology 30(Suppl. 1):12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Huang, E., Nocka, K., Beier, D. R., Chu, T-Y., Buck, J., Lahm, H-W., Wellner, D., Leder, P., and Besmer, P., 1990, The hematopoietic growth factor KL is encoded by the SI locus and is the ligand of the c-kit receptor, the gene product of the W locus, Cell 63:225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Huebner, R. J., and Todaro, G. J., 1969, Oncogenesis of RNA tumor viruses as determinants of cancer, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 64:1087.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Irgens, K., Wyers, M., Moraillon, A., Parodi, A., and Fortuny, V., 1973, Isolement d’un virus sarcomatogene feline a partir d’un fibrosarcome spontane du chat, etude du pouvoir sarcomatogene in vivo, C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 276:1783.Google Scholar
  119. Jacobs, R. M., Boyce, J. T., and Kociba, G. J., 1986, Flow cytometric and radioisotopic determinations of platelet survival time in normal cats and feline leukemia virus-infected cats, Cytometry 7:64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Jahner, P., and Haenisch, R., 1985, Chromosomal position and specific demethylation in enhancer sequences of germ-line transmitted retroviral genomes during mouse development, Mol. Cell Biol. 5:2212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Jakowski, R. M., Essex, M., Hardy, W. D., Jr., Stephenson, J. R., and Cotter, S. M., 1980, Membranous glomerulonephritis in a household of cats persistently viremic with feline leukemia virus, in: Feline Leukemia Virus (W. D. Hardy, Jr., M. Essex, and A. J. McClelland, eds.), pp. 141–149, Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  122. Jarrett, W. F. H., Crawford, E. M., Martin, W. B., and Davie, F., 1964, A virus-like particle associated with leukemia (lymphosarcoma), Nature 202:567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Jarrett, W. F. H., Jarrett, O., Mackey, L., Laird, H., Hardy, W. D., Jr., and Essex, M., 1973a, Horizontal transmission of leukemia virus and leukemia in the cat. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 51:833.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Jarrett, O., Laird, H. M., and Hay, D., 1973b, Determinants of the host range of feline leukaemia viruses, J. Gen. Virol 20:169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Jarrett, W., Mackey, L., Jarrett, O., Laird, H., and Hood, C., 1974, Antibody response and virus survival in cats vaccinated against feline leukemia, Nature 248:230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Jarrett, O., Hardy, W. D., Jr., Golder, M. C., and Hay, D., 1978, The frequency of occurrence of feline leukemia virus subgroups in cats, Int. J. Cancer 21:334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Jarrett, O., Golder, M. C., and Weijer, K., 1982, A comparison of three methods of feline leukaemia virus diagnosis, Vet. Kec. 110:325.Google Scholar
  128. Jones, F. R., Yoshida, L. H., Ladiges, W. C., and Kenny, M. A., 1980, Treatment of feline leukemia and reversal of FeLV by ex vivo removal of IgG, Cancer 46:675.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Kahn, D. E., Mia, A. S., and Tierney, M. M., 1980, Field evaluation of Leukassay F, an FeLV detection test kit, Feline Pract. 10:41.Google Scholar
  130. Kensil, C. R., Barrett, C., Kushner, N., Beltz, G., Storey, J., Patel, U., Aubert, A., and Marciani, D., 1991, Development of a genetically engineered vaccine against feline leukemia virus infection, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 199:1423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Kobilinsky, L., Hardy, W. D., Jr., and Day, N. K., 1979, Hypocomplementemia associated with naturally occurring lymphosarcoma in pet cats, J. Immunol. 122:2139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Kociba, G. J., Lange, R. D., Dunn, C. D. R., and Hoover, E. A., 1983, Serum erythropoietin changes with feline leukemia virus-induced erythroid aplasia, Vet. Pathol. 20:548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Koshy, R., Wong-Staal, F., Gallo, R. C., Hardy, W. D., Jr., and Essex, M., 1979, Distribution of feline leukemia virus DNA sequences in tissues of normal and leukemic domestic cats, Virology 99:135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Lafrado, L. J., and Olsen, R. G., 1986, Demonstration of depressed polymorphonuclear leukocyte function in non-viremic FeLV-infected cats, Cancer Invest. 4:297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Lafrado, L. J., Dezzutti, C. S., Lewis, M. G., and Olsen, R. G., 1989, Immunodeficiency in latent feline leukemia virus infections, Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 21:39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Lederman, L., Singhal, M. C., Besmer, P., Zuckerman, E. E., Hardy, W. D., Jr., and Snyder, H. W., Jr., 1985, Immunological and biochemical characterization of HZ2 feline sarcoma virus and Abelson murine leukemia virus translation products, J. Gen. Virol. 66:2057.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Legendre, A. M., Mitchener, K. L., and Potgieter, L. N., 1990, Efficacy of a feline leukemia virus vaccine in a natural exposure challenge, J. Vet. Intern. Med. 4:92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Leis, J., Baltimore, D., Bishop, J. M., Coffin, J., Fleissner, E., Goff, S. P., Oroszlan, S., Robinson, H., Skalka, A. M., Temin, H. M., and Vogt, V., 1988, Standardized and simplified nomenclature for proteins common to all retroviruses, J. Virol. 62:1808.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Levesque, K. S., Bonham, L., and Levy, L. S., 1990, Flvi-1, a common integration domain of feline leukemia virus in naturally occurring lymphomas of a particular type, J. Virol. 64:3455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Levin, R., Ruscetti, S. F., Parks, W. P., and Scolnick, E. M., 1976, Expression of feline type-C virus in normal and tumor tissues of the domestic cat, Int. J. Cancer 18:661.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Levy, J. A., 1978, Xenotropic type-C viruses, Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 79:111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Levy, L. S., Gardner, M. B., and Casey, J. W., 1984, Isolation of a feline leukaemia provirus containing the oncogene myc from a feline lymphosarcoma, Nature 308:853.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Levy, L. S., Fish, R. E., and Baskin, G. B., 1988, Tumorigenic potential of a myc-containing strain of feline leukemia virus in vivo in domestic cats, J. Virol. 62:4770.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Livingston, D. M., and Todaro, G. J., 1973, Endogenous type-C virus from a cat cell clone with properties distinct from previously described feline viruses, Virology 53:142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Lutz, H., Pedersen, N. C., Harris, C. W., Higgins, B. S., and Theilen, G. H., 1980, Detection of feline leukemia virus infection, Feline Pract. 10:13.Google Scholar
  146. Lyman, S. D., Park, L., and Rohrschneider, L. R., 1988, Colony stimulating factor-1 induced growth stimulation of v-fms transformed fibroblasts, Oncogene 3:391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Mackey, L. J., Jarrett, W., Jarrett, O., and Laird, H., 1975, Anemia associated with feline leukemia virus infection in cats, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 54:209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Majumder, S., Ray, P., and Besmer, P., 1990, Tyrosine protein kinase activity of the HZ-4-feline sarcoma virus P80gas-kit-transforming protein, Oncogene Res. 5:329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Mandel, M. P., Stephenson, J. R., Hardy, W. D., Jr., and Essex, M., 1979, Endogenous RD-114 virus of cats: Absence of antibodies to RD-114 envelope antigens in cats naturally exposed to the feline leukemia virus, Infect. Immunol. 24:282.Google Scholar
  150. Mastro, J. M., Lewis, M., Mathes, L. E., Sharpee, R., Tarr, M. J., and Olsen, R. G., 1986, Feline leukemia vaccine: Efficacy, contents and probable mechanism, Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 11:205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Masur, H., Michelis, M. A., Greene, J. B., Onorato, I., Vande Stouwe, R. A., Holzman, R. S., Wormser, G., Brettman, L., Lange, M., Murray, H. W., and Cunningham-Rundles, S., 1981, An outbreak of community-acquired pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Initial manifestation of cellular immune dysfunction, N. Engl. J. Med. 305:1431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Mathes, L. E., Olsen, R. G., Hebebrand, L. C., Hoover, E. A., and Schaller, J. P., 1978, Abrogation of lymphocyte blastogenesis by a feline leukemia virus protein, Nature 274:687.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. McAllister, R. M., Nicolson, M., Gardner, M. B., Rongey, R. W., Rasheed, S., Sarma, P. S., Huebner, R. J., Hatanaka, M., Oroszlan, S., Gilden, R. V., Kabigting, A., and Vernon, L., 1973, RD-114 comparison with feline and murine type C viruses released from RD cells, Nature 242:75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. McClelland, A. J., Hardy, W. D., Jr., and Zuckerman, E. E., 1980, Prognosis of healthy feline leukemia virus infected cats, in: Feline Leukemia Virus (W. D. Hardy, Jr., M. Essex, and A. J. McClelland, eds.), pp. 121–126, Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  155. McCullough, B., Schaller, J., Shadduck, J. A., and Yohn, D. S., 1973, Induction of malignant melanomas associated with fibrosarcoma in gnotobiotic cats inoculated with Gardner feline fibrosarcoma virus, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 48:1893.Google Scholar
  156. McDonough, S. K., Larsen, S., Brodey, R. S., Stock, N. D., and Hardy, W. D., Jr., 1971, A transmissible feline fibrosarcoma of viral origin, Cancer Res. 31:953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Moore, F. M., Emerson, W. E., Cotter, S. M., and DeLellis, R. A., 1986, Distinctive peripheral lymph node hyperplasia of young cats, Vet. Pathol. 23:386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Mullins, J. I., and Hoover, E. A., 1990, Molecular aspects of feline leukemia virus pathogenesis, in: Retrovirus Biology: An Emerging Role in Human Disease (R. C. Gallo and F. Wong-Staal, eds), Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  159. Mullins, J. T., Casey, J. W., Nicolson, M. D., Burck, K. B., and Davidson, N., 1981, Sequence arrangement and biological activity of cloned feline leukemia proviruses from a virus productive human cell line, J. Virol. 38:688.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Mullins, J. T., Brody, D. S., Binari, R. C., Jr., and Cotter, S. M., 1984, Viral transduction of c-myc gene in naturally occurring feline leukaemias, Nature 308:856.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Mullins, J. T., Chen, C. S., and Hoover, E. A., 1986, Disease-specific and tissue-specific production of unintegrated feline leukemia virus variant DNA in feline AIDS, Nature 319:332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Naharro, G., Dunn, C. Y., and Robbins, K. C., 1983, Analysis of the primary translational product and integrated DNA of a new feline sarcoma virus, GR-FeSV, Virology 125:502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Naharro, G., Robbins, K. C., and Reddy, E. P., 1984, Gene product of v-fgr onc: Hybrid protein containing a portion of actin and a Tyrosine-specific protein kinase, Science 223:63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Neil, J. C., Hughes, D., McFarlane, R., Wilkie, N. M., Onions, D. E., Lees, G., and Jarrett, O., 1984, Transduction and rearrangement of the myc gene by feline leukaemia virus in naturally occurring T-cell leukaemias, Nature 308:814.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Neil, J. C., Forrest, D., Doggett, D. L., and Mullins, J. I., 1987, The role of feline leukaemia virus in naturally occurring leukaemias, Cancer Surv. 6:117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Neil, J. C., Fulton, R., McFarlane, R., Rigby, M., Stewart, M., Terry, A., and Tzavaras, T., 1988, Receptor-mediated leukaemogenesis: Hypothesis revisited, Br. J. Cancer Suppl. 9:76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Niederkorn, J. Y., Shadduck, J. A., Albert, D., and Essex, M., 1980, Humoral antibody response to FOCMA in feline sarcoma virus-induced ocular melanoma, in: Feline Leukemia Virus (W. D. Hardy, Jr., M. Essex, and A. J. McClelland, eds.), pp. 181–185, Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  168. Niman, H. L., Stephenson, J. R., Gardner, M. B., and Roy-Burman, P., 1977, RD-114 and feline leukemia virus genome expression in natural lymphomas of domestic cats, Nature 226:357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Noronha, F., Grant, C. K., Lutz, H., and Keyes, A., 1983, Circulating levels of feline leukemia and sarcoma viruses and fibrosarcoma regression in persistently viremic cats, Cancer Res. 43:1663.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Nuttall, P., Pratt, R., Nuttall, L., and Daly, C., 1986, False-positive results with HIV ELISA kits, Lancet ii:512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Okabe, H., Twiddy, E., Gilden, R. V., Hatanaka, M., Hoover, E. A., and Olsen, R. G., 1976, FeLV-related sequences in DNA from a FeLV-free cat colony, Virology 69:798.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Okabe, H., DuBuy, J., Gilden, R. V., and Gardner, M. B., 1978, A portion of the feline leukemia virus genome is not endogenous in cat cells, Int. J. Cancer 22:70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Olsen, R. G., Hoover, E. A., Mathes, L. E., Heding, L. D., and Schaller, J. P., 1976, Immunization against feline oncornavirus disease using a killed tumor cell vaccine, Cancer Res. 36:3642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Olsen, R. G., Lewis, M., Mathes, L. E., and Hause, W., 1980, Feline leukemia vaccine, efficacy testing in a large multicat household, Feline Pract. 10:13.Google Scholar
  175. Onions, D. E., and Jarrett, O., 1987, Viral oncogenesis: Lessons from naturally occurring animal viruses, Cancer Surv. 6:161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Onions, D., Jarrett, O., Testa, N., Frassoni, F., and Toth, S., 1982, Selective effect of feline leukaemia virus on early erythroid precursors, Nature 296:156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Onions, D. E., Lees, G., Forrest, D., and Neil, J. C., 1987, Recombinant feline viruses containing the myc gene rapidly produce clonal tumors expressing T-cell antigen receptor gene transcripts, Int. J. Cancer 40:40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Osame, M., Usuku, K., Izumo, S., Ijichi, N., Amitani, H., Igata, A., Matsumoto, M., and Tara, M., 1986, HTLV-I associated myelopathy, a new clinical entity, Lancet i:1031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Osterhaus, A., Weijer, K., Uytdehaag, F., Jarrett, O., Sundquist, B., and Morein, B., 1985, Induction of protective immune response in cats by vaccination with feline leukemia virus ISCOM, J. Immunol. 135:591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Osterhaus, A., Weijer, K., UytdeHaag, F., Knell, P., Jarrett, O., Akerblom, L., and Morein, B., 1989a, Serological responses in cats vaccinated with FeLV ISCOM and an inactivated FeLV vaccine, Vaccine 7:137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Osterhaus, A. D., Rimmelzwaan, G. F., Weijer, K., and Uytdehaag, A. G., 1989b, Induction of antiviral immune response by immunization with monoclonal anti-idiotype antibodies directed to private idiotopes, Viral Immunol. 2:255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Overbaugh, J., Donahue, P. R., Quackenbush, S. L., Hoover, E. A., and Mullins, J. I., 1988a, Molecular cloning of a feline leukemia virus that induces fatal immunodeficiency disease in cats, Science 239:906.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Overbaugh, J., Riedel, N., Hoover, E. A., and Mullins, J. I., 1988b, Transduction of endogenous envelope genes by feline leukemia virus in vitro, Nature 332:731.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Pacitti, A. M., Jarrett, O., and Hay, D., 1986, Transmission of feline leukemia virus in the milk of a non-viraemic cat, Vet. Rec. 118:381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Pearson, L. D., Snyder, S. P., and Aldrich, C. D., 1973, Oncogenic activity of feline firbosarcoma virus in newborn pigs, Am. J. Vet. Res. 34:405.Google Scholar
  186. Pedersen, N. C., and Ott, R. L., 1985, Evaluation of a commercial feline leukemia virus vaccine for immunogenicity and efficacy, Feline Pract. 15:7.Google Scholar
  187. Pedersen, N. C., Theilen, G., Keane, M. A., Fairbanks, L., Mason, T., Orser, B., Chen, D-H., and Allison, C., 1977, Studies of naturally transmitted feline leukemia virus infection, Am. J. Vet. Res. 38:1523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Pedersen, N. C., Theilen, G. H., and Werner, L. L., 1979, Safety and efficacy studies of live-and killed-feline leukemia virus vaccines, Am. J. Vet. Res. 40:1120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Pedersen, N. C., Meric, S. M., Ho, E., Johnson, L., Plucker, S., and Theilen, G. H., 1984a, The clinical significance of latent feline leukemia virus infections in cats, Feline Pract. 14:328.Google Scholar
  190. Pedersen, N. C., Johnson, L., and Theilen, G. H., 1984b, Biological behavior of tumors and associated retroviremia in cats inoculated with Snyder-Theilen fibrosarcoma virus and the phenomenon of tumor recurrence after primary regression, Infect. Immun. 43:631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Pedersen, N. C., Ho, E. W., Brown, M. L., and Yamamoto, J. K., 1987, Isolation of a T-lymphotropic virus from domestic cats with an immunodeficiency-like syndrome, Science 235:790.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Pedersen, N. C., Torten, M., Rideout, B., Sparger, E., Tonachini, T., Luciw, P. A., Ackley, C., Levy, N., and Yamamoto, J., 1990, Feline leukemia virus infection as a potentiating cofactor for the primary and secondary stages of experimentally induced feline immunodeficiency virus infection, J. Virol. 64:598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Perryman, L. E., Hoover, E. A., and Yohn, D. S., 1972, Immunologic reactivity of the cat: Immunosuppression in experimental feline leukemia, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 49:1357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Pierce, J. H., and Aaronson, S. A., 1983, In vitro transformation of murine pre-B lymphoid cells by Snyder-Theilen feline sarcoma virus, J. Virol. 46:993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Poiesz, B. G., Ruscetti, F. W., Gazdar, A. F., Bunn, P. A., Minna, J. D., and Gallo, R. C., 1980, Detection and isolation of type C retrovirus particles from fresh and cultured lymphocytes of a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77:7415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Pollock, R. V., and Scarlett, J. M., 1990, Randomized blind trial of a commercial FeLV vaccine, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 196:611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Pool, R. R., and Harris, J. M., 1975, Feline osteochondromatosis, 1975, Feline Pract. 5:24.Google Scholar
  198. Poss, M. L., Mullins, J. I., and Hoover, E. A., 1989, Posttranslational modifications distinguish the envelope glycoprotein of the immunodeficiency disease-inducing feline leukemia virus retrovirus, J. Virol. 63:198.Google Scholar
  199. Poss, M. L., Quackenbush, S. L., Mullins, J. I., and Hoover, E. A., 1990, Characterization and significance of delayed processing of the feline leukemia virus FeLV-FAIDS envelope glycoprotein, J. Virol. 64:4338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Post, J. E., and Warren, L., 1980, Reactivation of latent feline leukemia virus, in: Feline Leukemia Virus (W. D. Hardy, Jr., M. Essex, and A. J. McClelland, eds.), pp. 151–155, Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  201. Quackenbush, S. L., Mullins, J. I., and Hoover, E. A., 1989, Colony forming T lymphocyte deficit in the development of feline retrovirus induced immunodeficiency syndrome, Blood 73:509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Qiu, F., Ray, P., Brown, K., Barker, P. E., Jhanwar, S., Ruddle, F. H., and Besmer, P., 1990, Primary structure of c-kit: Relationship with the CSF-1/PDGF receptor kinase family-oncogenic activation of v-kit involves deletion of extracellular domain and C terminus, EMBO J. 7:1003.Google Scholar
  203. Rasheed, S., Barbacid, M., Aaronson, S., and Gardner, M. B., 1982, Origin and biological properties of a new feline sarcoma virus, Virology 117:238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Reinacher, M., 1987, Feline leukemia virus-associated enteritis: A condition with features of feline panleukopenia, Vet. Pathol. 24:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Reynolds, F. H., Van de Ven, W. J. M., Blomberg, J., and Stephenson, J. R., 1981, Differences in mechanism of transformation by independent feline sarcoma virus isolates, J. Virol. 38:1084.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Rice, J. B., Schaller, J. P., Lewis, M. G., Mathes, L. E., Hoover, E. A., and Olsen, R. G., 1981, Infection of feline embryo adherent cells with feline leukemia virus: Feline oncornavirusassociated cell membrane antigen expression and morphologic transformation, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 66: 89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Rickard, C. G., Post, J. E., Noronha, F., and Barr, L. M., 1973, Interspecies infection by feline leukemia virus: Serial cell-free transmission in dogs of malignant lymphomas induced by feline leukemia virus, in: Unifying Concepts of Leukemia (R. M. Dutcher, and L. Chieco-Bianchi, eds.), pp. 102–112, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  208. Riedel, N., Hoover, E. A., Gasper, P. W., Nicolson, M. O., and Mullins, J. I., 1986, Molecular analysis and pathogenesis of the feline aplastic anemia retrovirus, feline leukemia virus C-SARMA, J. Virol. 60:242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Riedel, N., Hoover, E. A., Dornsife, R. E., and Mullins, J. I., 1988, Pathogenic and host range determinants of the feline aplastic anemia retrovirus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:2758.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Riggs, I. L., Oshiro, L. S., Taylor, D. O. N., and Lennette, E. H., 1969, Syncytium-forming agent isolated from domestic cats. Nature 222:1190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Robbins, K. C., Antoniades, H. N., Devare, S. G., Hunkapiller, M. W., and Aaronson, S. A., 1983, Structural and immunological similarities between simian sarcoma virus gene product(s) and human platelet-derived growth factor, Nature 305:605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Rojko, J. L., and Hardy, W. D., Jr., 1989, Feline leukemia virus and other retroviruses, in: Diseases of the Cat: Diagnosis and Management (R. G. Sherding, ed.), pp. 229–332, Churchill Livingstone, New York.Google Scholar
  213. Rojko, J. L., Hoover, E. A., Mathes, L. E., Hause, W. R., Schaller, J. P., and Olsen, R. G., 1978, Detection of feline leukemia virus in tissues of cats by a paraffin embedding immunofluorescence procedure, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 61:1315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Rojko, J. L., Hoover, E. A., Mathes, L. E., Olsen, R. G., and Schaller, J. P., 1979, Pathogenesis of experimental feline leukemia virus infection, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 63:759.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Rojko, J. L., Hoover, E. A., Quackenbush, S. L., and Olsen, R. G., 1982, Reactivation of latent feline leukaemia virus infection, Nature 298:385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Rojko, J. L., Cheney, C. M., Gasper, P. W., Hamilton, K. L., Hoover, E. A., Mathes, L. F., and Kociba, G. J., 1986, Infectious feline leukemia virus is erythrosuppression in vitro, Leukemia Res. 10:1193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Rosenberg, Z., Pedersen, F. S., and Haseltine, W. A., 1980, Comparative analysis of the genomes of feline leukemia viruses, J. Virol. 35:542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Roussel, M., Saule, S., Lagrou, C., Rommens, C., Beug, H., Graf, T., and Stehelin, D., 1979, Three new types of viral oncogenes of cellular origin specific for haematopoietic cell transformation, Nature 281:452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Ruegg, C. L., Monell, C. R., and Strand, M., 1989, Identification, using synthetic peptides, of the minimum amino acid sequence from the retroviral transmembrane protein p15E required for inhibition of lymphoproliferation and its similarity to gp21 of human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II, J. Virol. 63:3250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Russell, P. H., and Jarrett, O., 1978, The occurrence of feline leukemia virus neutralizing antibodies in cats, Int. J. Cancer 22:351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Sacca, R., Stanley, E. R., Sherr, C. J., and Rettenmier, C. W., 1986, Specific binding of the mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor CSF-1 to the product of the v-fms oncogene, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:3331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Sariban, E., Mitchell, T., and Kufe, D., 1985, Expression of the c-fms proto-oncogene during human monocyte differentiation, Nature 316:164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Sarma, P. S., and Log, T., 1973, Subgroup classification of feline leukemia and sarcoma viruses by viral interference and neutralization tests, Virology 54:160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Scolnick, E. M., 1982, Hyperplastic and neoplastic erythroproliferative diseases induced by oncogenic murine retroviruses, Acta Biochem. Biophys. 651:273.Google Scholar
  225. Shadduck, J. A., Albert, D. M., and Niederkorn, J. Y., 1981, Feline uveal melanomas induced with feline sarcoma virus: Potential model of the human counterpart, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 67:619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Sherr, C. J., Rettenmier, C. W., Sacca, R., Roussel, M. F., Look, A. T., and Stanley, D. R., 1985, The c-fms proto-oncogene product is related to the receptor for the mononuclear phagocyte growth factor, CSF-1, Cell 41:665.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Shibuya, M., Hanafusa, T., Hanafusa, H., and Stephenson, J. R., 1980, Homology exists among the transforming sequences of avian and feline sarcoma viruses, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77:6536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Snider, W. B., Simpson, D. M., Kielsen, S., Gold, J. W. M., Metroka, C. E., and Posner, J. B., 1983, Neurological complications of acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Analysis of 50 patients, Ann. Neurol. 14:403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Snyder, H. W., Jr., 1982, Biochemical characterization of protein kinase activities associated with transforming gene products of the Snyder-Theilen and Gardner-Arnstein strains of feline sarcoma virus, Virology 117:165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Snyder, S. P., and Theilen, G. H., 1969, Transmissible feline fibrosarcoma, Nature 221:1074.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Snyder, H. W., Jr., Hardy, W. D., Jr., Zuckerman, E. E., and Fleissner, E., 1978, Characterization of a tumour-specific antigen on the surface of feline lymphosarcoma cells, Nature 275:656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Snyder, H. W., Jr., Phillips, K. J., Hardy, W. D., Jr., Zuckerman, E. E., Essex, M., Sliski, A. H., and Rhim, J., 1980, Isolation and characterization of proteins carrying the feline oncornavirusassociated cell-membrane antigen, Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 44:787.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Snyder, H. W.; Jr., Jones, F. R., Day, N. K., and Hardy, W. D., Jr., 1982, Isolation and characterization of circulating feline leukemia virus-immune complexes from plasma of persistently infected pet cats removed by ex vivo immunosorption, J. Immunol. 128:2726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Snyder, H. W., Jr., Singhal, M. C., Zuckerman, E. E., Jones, F. R., and Hardy, W. D., Jr., 1983, The feline oncornavirus-associated cell membrane antigen (FOCMA) is related to, but distinguishable from, FeLV-C gp70, Virology 131:315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Snyder, H. W., Jr., Singhal, M. C., Zuckerman, E. E., and Hardy, W. D., Jr., 1984a, Isolation of a new feline sarcoma virus (HZI-FeSV), Biochemical and immunological characterization of its translation product, Virology 132:205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Snyder, H. W., Jr., Singhal, M. C., Hardy, W. D., Jr., and Jones, F. R., 1984b, Clearance of feline leukemia virus from persistently infected pet cats treated by extracorporeal immunoadsorption is correlated with an enhanced antibody response to FeLV gp70, J. Immunol. 132:1538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Soe, L. H., Devi, B. C., Mullins, J. I., and Roy-Burman, P., 1983, Molecular cloning and characterization of endogenous feline leukemia virus sequences from a cat genomic library, J. Virol. 46:829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Soe, L. H., Shimizu, R. W., Landolph, J. R., and Roy-Burman, P., 1985, Molecular analysis of several classes of endogenous feline leukemia virus elements, J. Virol. 56:701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Stewart, M. A., Forrest, D., McFarlane, R., Onions, D., Wilkie, N., and Neil, J. C., 1986a, Conservation of the c-myc coding sequence in transduced feline v-myc genes, Virology 154:121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Stewart, M. A., Warnock, M., Wheeler, A., Wilkie, N., Mullins, J. I., Onions, D. E., and Neil, J. C., 1986b, Nucleotide sequences of a feline leukemia virus subgroup A envelope gene and long terminal repeat and evidence for the recombinational origin of subgroup B viruses, J. Virol. 58:825.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Sugita, K., Gutkind, J. S., Katamine, S., Kawakami, T., and Robbins, K. C., 1989, The actin domain of Gardner-Rasheed feline sarcoma virus inhibits kinase and transforming activities, J. Virol. 63:1715.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Swenson, C. L., Kociba, G. J., Mathes, L. E., Hand, P. J., Neer, C. A., Hayes, K. A., and Olsen, R. G., 1990, Prevalence of disease in nonviremic cats previously exposed to feline leukemia virus, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 196:1049.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Teich, N., 1982, Taxonomy of retroviruses, in: RNA Tumor Viruses (R. Weiss, N. Teich, H. Varmus, and J. Coffin, eds.), pp. 25–207, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.Google Scholar
  244. Temin, H. M., 1988, Mechanisms of cell killing/cytopathic effects by nonhuman retroviruses, Rev. Infect. Dis. 10:399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Testa, N. G., Onions, D., Jarrett, O., Frassoni, F., and Eliason, J. F., 1983, Haematopoietic colony formation (BFU-E, GM-CFC) during the development of pure red cell hypoplasia induced in the cat by feline leukemia virus, Lenk. Res. 7:103.Google Scholar
  246. Theilen, G. H., 1971, Continuing studies with transmissible feline fibrosarcoma virus in fetal and newborn sheep, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 158:1040.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Theilen, G. H., Kawakami, T. G., Rush, J. D., and Munn, R. J., 1969, Replication of cat leukaemia virus in cell suspension cultures, Nature 222:589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Theilen, G. H., Snyder, S. P., Wolfe, L. G., and Landon, J. L., 1970, Biological studies with viral induced fibrosarcomas in cats, dogs, rabbits, and nonhuman primates, in: Comparative Leukemia Research 1969 (R. M. Dutcher, ed.), pp. 393–400, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  249. Todaro, G. J., 1977, RNA tumor virus genes (virogenes) and the transforming genes (oncogenes): Genetic transmission, infectious spread, and modes of expression, in: Origins of Human Cancer (H. H. Hiatt, J. D. Watson, and J. A. Winsten, eds.), pp. 1169–1196, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.Google Scholar
  250. Todaro, G. J., 1980, Interspecies transmission of mammalian retroviruses, in: Viral Oncology (G. Klein, ed.), pp. 291–309, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  251. Todaro, G. J., Benveniste, R. E., Lieber, M. M., and Livingston, D. M., 1973, Infectious type-C viruses released by normal cat embryo cells, Virology 55:506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Todaro, G. J., Tevethia, S., and Melnick, J., 1974, Isolation of an RD-114 related type-C from feline sarcoma virus-transformed baboon cells, Intervirology 1:399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Todaro, G. J., Benveniste, R. E., Sherwin, S. A., and Sherr, C. J., 1978, MAC-1, a new genetically transmitted type-C virus of primate: Low frequency activation from stumptail monkey cell cultures, Cell 13:775.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Tompkins, M. B., Ogilvie, G. K., Gast, A. M., Franklin, R., Weigel, R., and Tompkins, W. A., 1989, Interleukin-2 suppression in cats naturally infected with feline leukemia virus, J. Biol. Response Mod. 8:86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Trainin, Z., Wernicke, D., Ungar-Waron, H., and Essex, M., 1983, Suppression of the humoral antibody response in natural retrovirus infections, Science 220:858.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Tzavaras, T., Stewart, M., McDougall, A., Fulton, R., Testa, N., Onions, D. E., and Neil, J. C., 1990, Molecular cloning and characterization of a defective recombinant feline leukaemia virus associated with myeloid leukaemia, J. Gen. Virol. 71:343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Vedbrat, S. S., Rasbeed, S., Lutz, H., Gonda, M. A., Ruscetti, S., Gardner, M. B., and Prensky, W., 1983, Feline oncornavirus-associated cell membrane antigen: A viral and not a cellularly coded transformation-specific antigen of cat lymphomas, Virology 124:445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Vernant, J. C., Maurs, L., Gessain, A., Barin, F., Gout, O., Delaporte, J. M., Sanhadji, K., Buisson, G., and de-The, G., 1987, Endemic tropical spastic paraparesis associated with human T-lymphotropic virus type I: A clinical and seroepidemiological study of 25 cases, Ann. Neurol. 21:123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Wardrop, K. J., Kramer, J. W., Abkowitz, J. L., Clemons, G., and Adamson, J. W., 1986, Quantitative studies of erythropoiesis in the clinically normal, phlebotomized, and feline leukemia virus-infected cat, Am. J. Vet. Res. 47:2274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Waterfield, M. D., Scrace, G. T., Whittle, N., Stroobant, P., Johnsson, A., Wasteson, A., Westermark, B., Heldin, C-H., Huang, J. S., and Deuel, T. F., 1983, Platelet-derived growth factor is structurally related to the putative transforming protein p28sis of simian sarcoma virus, Nature 304:35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Weijer, K., and Daams, J. H., 1978, The control of lymphosarcoma/leukaemia and feline leukaemia virus, J. Small Anim. Pract. 19:631.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Weksler, M. E., Ryning, F. W., and Hardy, W. D., Jr., 1975, Immune complex disease in cancer, Clinical Bull. 5:109.Google Scholar
  263. Weiler, S. K., Joy, A. E., and Temin, H. M., 1980, Correlation between cell killing and massive second-round superinfection by members of some subgroups of avian leukosis virus, J. Virol. 33:494.Google Scholar
  264. Wellman, M. L., Kociba, G. J., Lewis, M. G., Mathes, L. E., and Olsen, R. G., 1984, Inhibition of erythroid colony-forming cells by a 15,000 dalton protein of feline leukemia virus, Cancer Res. 44:1527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Wellman, M. L., Kociba, G. J., Mathes, L. E., and Olsen, R. G., 1988, Suppression of feline bone marrow fibroblast colony-forming units by feline leukemia virus, Am. J. Vet. Res. 49:227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Wong-Staal, F., and Gallo, R. C., 1985, Human T-lymphotropic retroviruses, Nature 317:395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Yoshiki, T., Mellors, R. C., Hardy, W. D., Jr., and Fleissner, E., 1974, Common cell surface antigen associated with mammalian C-type RNA viruses, J. Exp. Med. 139:925.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Youngren, S. D., and deNoronha, F., 1983, A transmissible feline sarcoma virus containing sequences related to the K-ras one gene, in: RNA Tumor Viruses (E. Scolnick and N. Hopkins eds.), p. 33, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.Google Scholar
  269. Ziemiecki, A., Hennig, D., Gardner, L., Ferdinand, F. J., Friis, R. R., Bauer, H., Pedersen, N. C., Johnson, L., and Theilen, G. H., 1984, Biological and biochemical characterization of a new isolate of feline sarcoma virus: Theilen-Pedersen (TP1-FeSV), Virology 138:324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • William D. HardyJr.
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Infectious DiseasesBronx Lebanon Hospital Center, and Albert Einstein School of MedicineBronxUSA
  2. 2.Infectious Disease ServiceMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations