Advertisement

The Use of Modern Methods in the Development of Calcium Carbonate Inhibitors for Cooling Water Systems

  • R. V. Davis
  • P. W. Carter
  • M. A. Kamrath
  • D. A. Johnson
  • P. E. Reed

Abstract

Cooling water systems represent the single largest area of industrial water use. Most of these systems operate by evaporative cooling, allowing the system water to become supersaturated with respect to dissolved mineral salts. In such a cooling system, cool water is pumped across metal heat exchange tubes which are in contact with a hot process. The heated water then enters a cooling tower and, through evaporation, becomes cooled. The remaining cool water reenters the system to repeat the process. Since heated system water is lost through evaporation, the concentration of dissolved solids in the system water increases. As a result, the cooling water can become highly supersaturated with respect to mineral salts. Calcium carbonate, for example, can deposit on the heat transfer surfaces of the cooling system, thus lowering heat transfer efficiency, increasing pumping costs and requiring frequent system cleaning. Substoichiometric deposition control chemicals have long been the most cost effective solution to the problem of mineral salt deposition.1 The addition of a small amount of deposit treatment chemical can have a dramatic effect on the formation of mineral scales. Continuous improvement of inhibitor chemistries is necessary due to constantly progressing technical, financial, and environmental treatment requirements. A key to the efficient development of acceptable calcium carbonate control chemistries is an understanding of the influence of inhibitor structural parameters on the fundamental processes involved in scale formation.2

Keywords

Calcium Carbonate Calcium Carbonate Precipitation Diphosphonic Acid Time Lapse Video Microscopy Atomic Force Micrographs 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Burger, R., 1990, Cooling Water Technology, Fairmont Press, Lilburn.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kamrath, M. A., R. V. Davis, D. A. Johnson, “ANovel Approach to the Evaluation of Calcium Carbonate Scale Inhibitors”, Corrosion/94, Paper No. 198, National Association of Corrosion Engineers.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Khamskii, E. V., 1969, Crystallization From Solutions, Consultants Bureau, New York.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chalmers, B., 1964, Principles of Solidification, Robert E. Krieger Co., Huntington.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brice, J.C., 1986, Crystal Growth Processes, John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chen, Thomas, and Shih-Ruey (Calgon Corporation), European Patent Publication Number 516382, “Polyether Polyamino Methylene Phosphonates for High pH Scale Control”, December 2, 1992.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Carter, P. W, A.C. Hillier, M.D. Ward, 1994, “Nanoscale Surface Topography and Growth of Molecular Crystals: The Role of Anisotropic Intermolecular Bonding”, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 116, 944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Carter, P. W., A.C. Hillier, M.D. Ward, 1994, “Molecular Single Crystal Interfaces: Topographical Structure and Crystal Growth”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 242, 53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dove, P. M. and M.F. Hochella, 1993, “Calcite Precipitation Mechanisms and Inhibition by Orthophos-phate: In Situ Observations by Scanning Force Microscopy”, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 57, 705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gratz, A. J. and P.E. Hillner, 1993, “Poisoning of Calcite Growth Viewed in the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)”, J. Crystal Growth, 129, 789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tomson, M. B. and G.H. Nancollas, 1978, “Minerization Kinetics: A Constant Composition Approach”, Science, 200, 1059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nancollas, G. H., T.F. Kazmierczak, and E. Schuttringer, 1981, “A Constant Composition Study of CaCO3 Crystal Growth: The Influence of Scale Inhibitors”, Corrosion, 226, 18.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Amjad, Z. 1987, “Kinetic Study of the Seeded Growth of CaCO3 in the Presence of Benzenetricarboxylic Acid”, Langmuir, 3, 224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. V. Davis
    • 1
  • P. W. Carter
    • 1
  • M. A. Kamrath
    • 1
  • D. A. Johnson
    • 1
  • P. E. Reed
    • 1
  1. 1.One Nalco CenterNalco Chemical CompanyNapervilleUSA

Personalised recommendations