Learning and Cognition in Autism pp 89-117

Part of the Current Issues in Autism book series (CIAM)

The Assessment and Interpretation of Intellectual Abilities in People with Autism

  • Alan J. Lincoln
  • Mark H. Allen
  • Angela Kilman

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the nature and specificity of intellectual and cognitive abilities in people with autism. The developmental ramifications on intellectual and cognitive development of early brain pathology are initially reviewed, followed by a detailed discussion of specific research findings employing the Wechsler intelligence scales. In addition, the use of the Wechsler scales and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children are reviewed with respect to assessing sequential and simultaneous processing abilities in children with autism. Memory functions in persons with autism are reviewed. Practical and clinical considerations for testing children with autism are then summarized. Finally, the conclusion attempts to theoretically integrate the findings of cognitive and intellectual abilities in persons with autism into a neuropsychological developmental model.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, M. H., Lincoln, A. J., and Kaufman, A. S. (1991). Sequential and simultaneous processing abilities of high functioning autistic and language impaired children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 22(4), 483–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ameli, R., Courchesne, E., Lincoln, A., Kaufman, A., & Grillon, C. (1988). Visual memory processes in high-functioning individuals with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 18, 601–615.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., rev.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  4. Bartak, L., Rutter, M., & Cox, A. (1975). A comparative study of infantile autism and specific developmental receptive language disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 126, 127–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bartak, L., Rutter, ML., & Cox, A. (1977). A comparative study of infantile autism and specific developmental receptive language disorders: III. Discriminant function analysis. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 7(4), 383–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Benton, A. L. (1978). The cognitive functioning of children with developmental dysphasia. In M A. Wyke (Ed.), Developmental dysphasia (pp. 43–62). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  7. Blackstock, E. G. (1978). Cerebral asymmetry and the development of early infantile autism. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 8, 339–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bogen, J. E. (1969). The other side of the brain (Parts I, II, and III). Bulletin of the Los Angeles Neurological Society, 34, 73–105, 135-162, 191-203.Google Scholar
  9. Boucher, J. (1978). Echoic memory capacity in autistic children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 19, 161–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boucher, J. (1981). Memory for recent events in autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 11, 293–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boucher, J., & Lewis, V. (1989). Memory impairments and communication in relatively able autistic children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30, 99–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boucher, J., & Warrington, E. K. (1976). Memory deficits in early infantile autism: Some similarities to the amnesic syndrome. British Journal of Psychology, 67, 73–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cohen, D. J., Caparulo, B., & Shawitz, B. (1976). Primary childhood aphasia and childhood autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 15, 604–645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Courchesne, F., Townsend, J., Akshoomoff, N., Yeung-Courchesne, R., Press, G., Murakemi, J., Lincoln, A. J., James, H., Saitoh, O., Haas, R., & Schreibman, L. (1993). A new finding in autism: Impairment in shifting attention. In S. H. Broman and J. Grafman (Eds.), Atypical cognitive deficits in developmental disorders: Implications to brain functions (pp. 107-137).Google Scholar
  15. Crosson, B. (1985). Subcortical functions in language: A working model. Brain and Language, 25, 257–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Das, J. P., Kirby, J., & Jarman, R. F. (1975). Simultaneous and successive synthesis: An alternative model for cognitive abilities. Psychological Bulletin, 32, 37–103.Google Scholar
  17. Das, J. P., Kirby, J., & Jarman, R. F. (1979). Successive and simultaneous cognitive processes. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  18. Dawson, G. (1983). Lateralized brain function in autism: Evidence from the Halstead-Reitan neuropsychological battery. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 13, 369–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dawson, G., & Lewy, A. (1989a). Reciprocal subcortical-cortical influences in autism: The role of attentional mechanisms. In G. Dawson (Ed.), Autism: Nature, Diagnosis and Treatment (pp. 144–173). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  20. Dawson, G., & Lewy, A. (1989b). Arousal, attention and the socioemotional impairments of individuals with autism. In G. Dawson (Ed.), Autism: Nature, Diagnosis and Treatment (pp. 49–74). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  21. Fein, D., Waterhouse, L., Lucci, D., & Snyder, D. (1985). Cognitive subtypes in developmentally disabled children: A pilot study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15(1), 77–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Feurerstein, R., Rand, Y., Jensen, M. R., Kaniel, S., & Tzuriel, D. (1987). Prerequisites for assessment of learning potential: The LPAD model. In C. S. Lidz (Ed.), Dynamic Assessment: An Interactional Approach to Evaluating Learning Potential (pp. 35–51). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  23. Feurerstein, R., Rand, Y., Jemsem, M., Kaniel, S., Tzuriel, D., Shachar, N. D., & Mintzker, Y. (1986). Learning potential assessment. Assessment of Exceptional Children, 2(2-3), 85–106.Google Scholar
  24. Freeman, B. J., Lucas, J. C., Forness, S. R., Ritvo, E. R. (1985). Cognitive processing of high-functioning autistic children: Comparing the K-ABC and the WISC-R. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 4, 357–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gazzaniga, M. S. (1975). Recent research on hemispheric lateralization of the human brain: Review of the split-brain. UCLA Educator, 17, 9–12.Google Scholar
  26. Hermelin, B. (1976). Coding and the sense modalities. In L. Wing (Ed.), Early childhood autism: Clinical, educational and social aspects (pp. 135–168). Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  27. Hermelin, B., & O’Connor, N. (1975). The recall of digits by normal, deaf and autistic children. British Journal of Psychology, 66, 203–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hermelin, B., & Frith, U. (1971). Psychological studies of childhood autism: Can autistic children make sense of what they see and hear. Journal of Special Education, 5, 107–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hobson, P. (1989). Beyond cognition: A theory of autism. In G. Dawson (Ed.), Autism: Nature, Diagnosis and Treatment (pp. 22–48). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  30. Hoffman, W. L., & Prior, M. R. (1982). Neuropsychological dimensions of autism in children: A test of the hemispheric dysfunction hypothesis. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 4, 27–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jocobson, R., Le Couteur, A., & Rutter, M. (1988). Selective subcortical abnormalities in autism. Psychological Medicine, 18, 39–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child, 2, 217–250.Google Scholar
  33. Kaufman, A. S. (1975). Factor analysis if the WISC-R at eleven age levels between 6 1/2 and 16 1/2 years. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 135–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kaufman, A. S. (1979). Intelligent testing with the WISC-R. New York: Wiley-Interscience.Google Scholar
  35. Kaufman, A. S., & Kaufman, N. L. (1983a). Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children: Administration and Scoring Manual. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  36. Kaufman, A. S., & Kaufman, N. L. (1983b). Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children: Interpretive Manual Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  37. Kaufman, A. (1990). Assessing adolescent and adult intelligence. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  38. Lezak, M. D. (1983). Neuropsychological assessment (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Lincoln, A. J., Courchesne, E., & Elmasian, R. (1990). Considerations for the study of event-related brain potentials and developmental psychopathology. In A. Rothenberger (Ed.), Brain and Behavior in Child Psyciatry (pp. 17–33). New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  40. Lincoln, A. J., Courchesne, E., Harms, L., & Allen, M. (1993). ERP abnormalities in autistic children associated with context evaluation and decision making: Part 1. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 23(1), 37–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lincoln, A. J., Courchesne, E., Kilman, B. A., Elmasian, R., & Allen, M. H. (1988). A study of intellectual abilities in people with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 18(4), 505–524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lincoln, A. J., Dickstein, P., Courchesne, E., Elmasian, R., & Tallal, P. (1992). Auditory processing abilities in non-retarded adolescents and young adults with developmental language disorder and autism. Brain and Language, 43, 613–622.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lockyer, L., & Rutter, M. (1970). A 5-to 15-year follow-up study of infantile psychosis: IV. Patterns of cognitive ability. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 9, 152–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lord, C., & Schopler, E. (1989). The role of age at assessment, developmental level, and test in the stability in intelligence scores in young autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19(4), 483–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ludlow, C. L. (1980). Children’s language disorders: Recent research advances. Annals of Neurology, 7, 497–507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Luria, A. R. (1966). Higher cortical functions in man. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  47. Luria, A. R. (1973). The working brain: An introduction to neuropsychology. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  48. Menyuk, P. (1978). Linguistic problems in children with developmental dysphasia. In M. Wyke (Ed.), Developmental dysphasia (pp. 135–158). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  49. Naglieri, J. A., & Das, J. P. (1988). Planning-arousal-simultaneous-successive (PASS): A model for assessment. Journal of School Psychology, 26, 35–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Naglieri, J. A., Kamphaus, R. W., & Kaufman, A. S. (1983). The Luria-Das successive-simultaneous model applied to the WISC-R data. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 1, 25–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Neisser, U. (1967). Cognitive Psychology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crafts.Google Scholar
  52. Ohta, M. (1987). Cognitive disorders of infantile autism: A study employing the WISC., spatial relationship, conceptualization and gesture imitations. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 17(1), 45–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ornitz, E. M. (1974). The modulation of sensory input and motor output in autistic children. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophreniz, 4, 197–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ornitz, E. M. (1978). Neurophysiologic studies. In M. Rutter & E. Schopler (Eds.), Autism: A reappraisal of concepts and treatment (pp. 117–139). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  55. Ornitz, E. M., & Ritvo, E. R. (1968). Perceptual inconstancy in early infantile autism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 18, 76–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Prior, M. R., & Bradshaw, J. L. (1979). Hemispheric functioning in autistic children. Cortex, 15, 73–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Prior, M. R., & Chen, C. S. (1976). Short-term and serial memory in autistic, retarded, and normal children. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 6, 121–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Regan, J., & Kilman, B. Application of anthropological linguistic theory to the study of autistic children’s discourse. In G. D. Haydu (Ed.), Experience Forms: Their Cultural and Individual Places and Function (pp. 61–93). The Hague, Netherlands: Mouton.Google Scholar
  59. Reitan, R. M. (1984). Aphasia and sensory-perceptual deficits in children. Tucson, AZ: Neuropsychological Press.Google Scholar
  60. Reitan, R. (1985). Relationships between measures of brain function and geberal intelligence. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41, 245–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ricks, D. M. (1975). Vocal communication in pre-verbal normal and autistic children. In N. O’Connor (Ed.), Language, cognitive deficits and retardation. London: Butterworths.Google Scholar
  62. Rumsey, J. (1985). Conceptual problem-solving in high verbal, nonretarded autistic men. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15(1), 23–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rumsey, J., & Hamburger, S. (1990). Neuropsychological divergence in high-level autism and severe dyslexia. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 20(2), 155–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rutter, M. (1978). Language disorder and infantile autism. In M. Rutter & E. Schopler (Eds.), Autism: A reappraisal of concepts and treatment (pp. 247–264). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  65. Schneider, P., & Asarnow, R. F. (1987). A comparison of cognitive/neuropsychological impairments of nonretarded autistic and schizophrenic children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 15(1), 29–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Shah, A., & Holmes, N. (1985). Brief report: The use of the Leiter International Performance Scale with autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15(2), 195–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Szatmari, P., Tuff, L., Finlayson, A., & Bartolucci, G. (1990). Asperger’s syndrome and autism: Neurocognitive aspects. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29(1), 130–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Tallal, P. (1978). An experimental investigation of the role of auditory temporal processing in normal and disordered language development. In A. Caramazza & E. B. Zurif (Eds.), Language acquisition and language breakdown: Parallels and divergencies. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Tallal, P. (1987). Neuropsychological foundations of specific developmental disorders of speech and language: Implications for theories of hemisphere specialization. In J. O. Cavenar (Ed.), Psychiatry, Vol. 3 (section 67, 1–15). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  70. Tallal, P., & Piercy, M. (1978). Defects of auditory perception in children with developmental dysphasia. In M A. Wyke (Ed.), Developmental dysphasia. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  71. Tallal, P., Starks, R., Kallman, G., & Mellits, D. (1981). A re-examination of some non-verbal perceptual abilities of language impaired and normal children as a function of age and sensory modality. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 24, 351–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Tanguay, P. E. (1976). Clinical and electrophysiological research. In E. R. Ritvo (Ed.), Autism: Diagnosis, current research and management (pp. 75–84). New York: Spectrum.Google Scholar
  73. Tanguay, P. E. (1984). Toward a new classification of serious psychopathology in children. Journal of American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 373–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wechsler, D. (1958). The measurement and appraisal of adult intelligence (p. 7). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan J. Lincoln
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mark H. Allen
    • 1
  • Angela Kilman
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Neuropsychology Research LaboratoryChildren’s Hospital Research CenterSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.California School of Professional PsychologySan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations