Abstract

The eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been estimated to affect between .5% and 2% of young women in Western societies (Cooper, Charnock, & Taylor, 1987; Crisp, Palmer, & Kalucy, 1976) and are probably becoming more common. For anorexia nervosa, case register and hospital record studies as well as population surveys indicate that the increase in the number of patients is probably due to an increase in incidence rather than in case referral (Crisp et al., 1976; Jones, Fox, Babigan, & Hutton, 1980; Kendell, Hall, Hailey, & Babigan, 1973; Szmukler, McCance, McCrone, & Hunter, 1986; Theander, 1970; Willi & Grossman, 1983). This finding has clear implications for our search for the etiology of the eating disorders. Some have dismissed the search for causes as being irrelevant on the grounds that the disorders represent interactional and thus circular processes (e.g., Moley, 1983). This attitude is unfortunate because it may lead to premature foreclosure on further discussion and research. And it is misguided for the simple reason that, even if the process is interactive, self-reinforcing, and circular, the question remains why such processes, presumably present in all families, become pathological (i.e., correlated with the presence of an eating disorder) in some families and not in others.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders ( 3rd ed.; DSM-III). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed. rev.; DSM-III-R). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. Berkman, J. M. (1930). Anorexia nervosa, anorexia inanition and low basal metabolic rate. American Journal of Medical Science, 180, 411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beumont, P. J. V., George, G. C. W., and Smart, D. E. (1976). Dieters and vomiters and purgers in anorexia nervosa. Psychological Medicine, 6, 617–622.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bliss, E. L., and Branch, C. H. H. (Eds.). (1960). Anorexia nervosa: Its history, psychology and biology. New York: Paul B. Hoeber.Google Scholar
  6. Boskind-Lodahl, M. (1976). Cinderella’s step-sister: A feminist perspective on anorexia and bulimia. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 2 (11), 342–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown, W. L. (1931). Anorexia nervosa. In L. Brown (Ed.), Anorexia nervosa (pp. 11–17 ). London: C. W. Daniels.Google Scholar
  8. Bruch, H. (1962). Perceptual and conceptual disturbances in anorexia nervosa. Psychosomatic Medicine, 24, 187–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bruch, H. (1970). Psychotherapy in primary anorexia nervosa. Journal of Nervous Mental Disorders, 150, 5167.Google Scholar
  10. Bruch, H. (Ed.). (1973). Eating disorders. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  11. Bruch, H. (1982). Anorexia nervosa: Therapy and theory. American Journal of Psychiatry, 132, 1531–1538.Google Scholar
  12. Buhrich, N. (1981). Frequency of presentation of anorexia in malaysia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 15, 153–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Button, E. J., and Whitehouse, A. (1981). Subclinical anorexia nervosa. Psychological Medicine, 11, 509–516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cantwell, D. P., Sturzenberger, S., Burroughs, J., Salkin, B., and Green, J. K. (1977). Anorexia nervosa: An affective disorder? Archives of General Psychiatry, 34, 1087–1093.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Casper, R. C. (1982). Treatment principles in anorexia nervosa. Adolescent Psychiatry, 10, 86–100.Google Scholar
  16. Casper, R. C. (1987). The psychopathology of anorexia nervosa: The pathological psychodynamic processes. In: P. J. V. Beumont, G. D. Burrows, and R. C. Casper (Eds.), Handbook of eating disorders: 1: Anorexia and bulimia nervosa (pp. 159–179). Elsevier.Google Scholar
  17. Cooper, P. J., Charnock, D. J., and Taylor, M. J. (1987). The prevalence of bulimia nervosa. A replication study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 684–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Crisp, A. H. (1967). Anorexia nervosa. Hospital Medicine, 1, 713–718.Google Scholar
  19. Crisp, A. H. (1977). Diagnosis and outcome of anorexia nervosa. Proceedings of the Royal Social Medicine, 70, 464–470.Google Scholar
  20. Crisp, A. H. (1980). Anorexia nervosa: Let me be. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  21. Crisp, A. H. (1981). Therapeutic outcome in anorexia nervosa. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 26, 232–235.Google Scholar
  22. Crisp, A. H., Palmer, R. L., and Kalucy, R. S. (1976). How common is anorexia nervosa? A prevalence study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 128, 549–554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Daily, P. (1969). Anorexia nervosa. London: Heinemann Medical.Google Scholar
  24. Dare, C. (1983). Family therapy for families containing an anorectic youngster. In Understanding anorexia nervosa and bulimia (pp. 28–36 ). Report of the Fourth Ross Conference on Medical Research. Ohio: Ross Laboratories.Google Scholar
  25. Dejerine, J., and Gauckler, E. (1913). The psychoneuroses and their treatment by psychotherapy. Philadelphia: Lippincott.Google Scholar
  26. Erikson, E. H. (1955). The problem of ego identity. Journal of Psychoanalytic Association, 4, 56–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fairburn, C. G. (1981). A cognitive behavioral approach to the management of bulimia. Psychological Medicine, 11, 707–711.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fairburn, C. G. (1982). Binge eating and its management. British Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 631–633.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fairbum, C. G., Kirk, J., O’Connor, M., and Cooper, P. J. (1986). A comparison of two psychological treatments for bulimia nervosa. Behavior Research and Therapy, 24, 629–643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Faust, M. S. (1983). Alternative constructions of adolescent growth. In: J. Brooks-Gunn and A. C. Petersen (Eds.), Girls at puberty (pp. 105–125 ). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Feighner, J. P., Robins, E., Guze, S. B., Woodruff, R. A., Winokur, G., and Munoz, R. (1972). Diagnostic criteria for use in psychiatric research. Archives of General Psychiatry, 26, 57–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fontaine, R. (1982). Fluoxetine in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder. Paper presented at the 141st Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, Montreal, Canada.Google Scholar
  33. Freeman, C., Sinclair, F., Turnbull, J., and Annadale, A. (1985). Psychotherapy for bulimia: A controlled study. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 19, 473–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Furnham, A., and Alibhai, N. (1983). Cross-cultural differences in the perception of female body shapes. Psychological Medicine, 13, 829–837.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Garfinkle, P. E., and Garner, D. M. (1982). Anorexia nervosa: A multidimentional perspective. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  36. Garn, S. M., and Clark, D. C. (1975). Nutrition growth, development, and maturation findings from the ten-state nutrition survey of 1968–1970. Pediatrics, 56, 306–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Garner, D. M., and Bemis, K. M. (1982). A cognitive behavioral approach to anorexia nervosa. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 6, 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gamer, D. M., and Garfinkle, P. E. (1980). Social cultural factors in the development of anorexia nervosa. Psychological Medicine, 10, 647–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gamer, D. M., Garfinkle, P. E., Schwartz, D., and Thompson, M. (1980). Cultural expectations of thinness in women. Psychological Report, 47, 483–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gamer, D. M., Olmsted, M. P., Polivy, J., and Garfinkle, P. E. (1984). Comparison between weight-preoccupied women and anorexia nervosa. Psychosomatic Medicine, 46, 255–266.Google Scholar
  41. Garner, D. M., Rockert, W., Olmsted, M. P., Johnson, D. L., and Coscina, D. V. (1985). Psychoeducational principles in the treatment of bulimia and anorexia nervosa. In: D. M. Gamer and P. E. Garfinkle (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy for anorexia nervosa and bulimia (pp. 513–572 ). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  42. Garner, D. M., Fairbum, C. G., and Davis, R. (1987). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of bulimia nervosa. Behavior Modification, 11 (4), 398–431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Garrow, J. S., Crisp, H. A., Jordan, H. A., Meyer, J. E., Russell, G. F. M., Silverstone, T., Stunkard, A. J., and VanItallie, T. B. (1975). Pathology of eating, group report. In: T. Silverstone (Ed.), Life Sciences Research Report. Berlin: Dahlem Konferezen.Google Scholar
  44. Goodsitt, A. (1985). Self-psychology and the treatment of anorexia nervosa. In: D. M. Garner and P. E. Garfinkle (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy for anorexia nervosa and bulimia (pp. 55–82 ). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  45. Gull, W. W. (1874). Anorexia nervosa (apepsia hysterica, anorexia hysterica). Transections of Clinical Society London, 7, 22.Google Scholar
  46. Hall, A. (1985). Group psychotherapy for anorexia nervosa. In: D. M. Garner and P. E. Garfinkle (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy for anorexia nervosa and bulimia (pp. 213–238 ). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  47. Hall, A., and Crisp, A. H. (1987). Brief psychotherapy in the treatment of anorexia nervosa outcome at one year. British Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 185–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Halmi, K. A. (1980). Anorexia nervosa. In: H. I. Kaplan, A. M. Freedman, and B. J. Sadock (Eds.), Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry (Vol. 2, 3rd ed., pp. 18–87 ). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  49. Halmi, K. A., Falk, J. R., and Schwartz, E. (1981). Binge-eating and vomiting: A survey of a college population. Psychological Medicine, 11, 697–706.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hogan, C. C. (1983). Psychodynamics. In C. P. Wilson (Ed.), Fear of being fat (pp. 115–128 ). New York: Jason Aronson.Google Scholar
  51. Hsu, L. K. G. (1980). Outcome in anorexia nervosa: A review of the literature (1954–1978). Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 1041–1046.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hsu, L. K. G. (1986). The treatment of anorexia nervosa. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143 (5), 573–581.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Hsu, L. K. G. (1987). Are the eating disorders becoming more common in blacks? International Journal of Eating Disorders, 6, 113–123.Google Scholar
  54. Hsu, L. K. G., and Holder, D. (1986). Bulimia nervosa: Treatment and short-term outcome. Psychological Medicine, 16, 65–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hsu, L. K. G., and Lieberman, S. (1982). Paradoxical intention in the treatment of chronic anorexia nervosa. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 650–653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Hsu, L. K. G., Crisp, A. H., and Harding, B. (1979). Outcome of anorexia nervosa. Lancet, 1, 61–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hudson, J. I., Pope, H. G., Jonas, J. M. and Yurgelun-Todd, D. (1983). Family history study of anorexia nervosa and bulimia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 133–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Huenemann, R. L., Shapiro, L. R., Hampton, M. C., and Mitchell, B. W. (1966). A longitudinal study of gross body composition and body conformation and then association with food and activity in a teenage population. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 18, 325–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Hughes, P. L., Wells, L. A., Cunningham, C. J., and Ilstrup, D. M. (1986). Treating bulimia with desipramine: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 182–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Janet, P. (1909). Les neuroses. Paris: Ernest Flammarion.Google Scholar
  61. Johnson, C., and Connors, M. E. (Eds.). (1987). Demographic and clinical characteristics. The etiology and treatment of bulimia nervosa: A biopsychosocial perspective (pp. 31–60 ). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  62. Johnson, C. L., Lewis, C., Love, S., Lewis, L., and Stuckey, M. (1983). A descriptive survey of dieting and bulimic behavior in a female high school population. Report of the Fourth Ross Conference on Medical Research (pp. 14–18 ). Ohio: Ross Laboratories.Google Scholar
  63. Jones, D. J., Fox, M. M., Babigan, H. M., and Hutton, H. E. (1980). Epidemiology of anorexia nervosa in Monroe County, New York: 1960–1976. Psychosomatic Medicine, 42, 551–558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Jourard, S. E., and Secord, P. F. (1955). Body-cathexis and the ideal female figure. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 50, 243–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kay, D. W. K., and Leigh, D. (1954). The natural history, treatment and prognosis of anorexia nervosa based on a study of 38 patients. Journal of Mental Science, 100, 411–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Kendell, R. E., Hall, D. J., Hailey, A., and Babigan, H. M. (1973). The epidemiology of anorexia nervosa. Psychological Medicine, 3, 200–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Keys, A., Brozek, J., Henschel, A., Michaelson, O., and Taylor, H. L. (1950). The biology of human starvation: Volume I. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  68. King, A. (1963). Primary and secondary anorexia nervosa. British Journal of Psychiatry, 109, 470–479.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kirkley, B. G., Schneider, J. A., Agras, W. S., and Bachman, J. A. (1985). Comparison of two group treatments for bulimia. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 43–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lacey, J. H. (1983) Bulimia nervosa, binge eating, and psychogenic vomiting: A controlled treatment study and long-term outcome. British Medical Journal, 1, 1609–1613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Laseque, C. (1873). On hysterical anorexia. Medical Times and Gazette, 2, 265–367.Google Scholar
  72. LaTourette, Gilles de (1895). G.A.E.B.: Traite clinique et therapeutic de l’hysteric. Paris: Plou, Nourit.Google Scholar
  73. Lee, N. F., and Rush, P. A. J. (1986). Cognitive-behavioral group therapy for bulimia. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 5, 599–615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lerner, R. M., and Karabenick, S. A. (1974). Physical attractiveness, body attitudes and self-concept in late adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescents, 3 (4), 307–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Marsha, J. E., and Friedman, M. L. (1970). Ego identity status in college women. Journal of Personality, 38, 249–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Minuchin, S., Rosman, B. L., and Baker, L. (1978). Psychosomatic families. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  77. Mitchell, J. E., and Groat, R. (1984). A placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of amitriptyline in bulimia. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 4, 186–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mitchell, J. E., Hatsukami, D., Eckert, E. D., and Pyle, R. L. (1985). Characteristics of 275 patients with bulimia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142 (4), 482–485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Miyai, K., Yamamoto, T., Azukizawa, M., Ishibashi, K., and Kumahara, Y. (1975). Serum thyroid hormones and thyrotropin in anorexia nervosa. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 40, 334–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Moley, V. A. (1983). Interactional treatment of eating disorders. Journal of Strategic and Systemic Therapies, 2, 10–28.Google Scholar
  81. Morgan, H. G., and Russell, G. F. M. (1975). Value of family background and clinical features as predictors of long-term outcome in anorexia nervosa: Four year follow-up study of 41 patients. Psychological Medicine, 5, 355–371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Morton, R. (1694). Phthisologia or a treatise of consumption. London: Smith and Walford.Google Scholar
  83. Nemiah, J. C. (1950). Anorexia nervosa. Medicine, 29, 225–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Nogami, Y., and Yabana, F. (1977). On kibarashi-gui. Folia Psychiatry Neurology Japan, 31, 159–166.Google Scholar
  85. Nylander, I. (1971). The feeling of being fat and dieting in a school population: Epidemiologic interview investigation. Acta Sociomedica Scandinavica, 3, 17–26.Google Scholar
  86. Orbach, S. (1985). Accepting the symptom: A feminist psychoanalytic treatment of anorexia nervosa. In: D. M. Garner and P. E. Garfinkle (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy for anorexia nervosa and bulimia (pp. 83–106 ). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  87. Ordman, A. M., and Kirshenbaum, D. S. (1985). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia: An initial outcome study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 305–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Orlofsky, J. L. (1978). Identity formation, achievement, and fear of success in college men and women. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 7, 49–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Palazzoli, M. S. (Ed.). (1985). Self-starvation. New York: Jason Aronson.Google Scholar
  90. Palmer, R. L. (1979). The dietary chaos syndrome: A useful new term? British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52, 187–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Patton, G. C. (1988). The spectrum of eating disorder in adolescence. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 32 (6), 579–584.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Polivy, H. G., Herman, C. P., Olmsted, M. P., and Jazwinski, C. (1984). Restraint and binge eating. In: R. C. Hawkins, W. J. Fremouw, and P. F. Clement (Eds.), The binge-purge syndrome: Diagnosis, treatment and research (pp. 104–122 ). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  93. Pope, H. G., Hudson, J. I., Jonas, J. M. and Yurgelun-Todd, D. (1983). Bulimia treated with imipramine: A placebo-controlled, double-blind study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 554–558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Rivinus, T. M., Biederman, J., Herzog, D. G., Kemper, K., Harper, G. P., Hatmatz, J. S., and Houseworth, S. (1984). Anorexia nervosa and affective disorders: A controlled family history study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1414–1418.Google Scholar
  95. Rosen, J. C., and Leitenberg, H. (1982). Bulimia nervosa: Treatment with exposure and response prevention. Behavior Therapy, 13, 117–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rothenberg, A. (1988). Obsessive compulsive symptoms in anorexia nervosa. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 29, 427–432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Russell, G. F. M. (1970). Anorexia nervosa: Its identity as an illness and its treatment. In: J. H. Price (Ed.), Modern trends in psychological medicine, (Vol. 2, pp. 131–164 ). London: Butterworths.Google Scholar
  98. Russell, G. F. M. (1977). The present status of anorexia nervosa. Psychological Medicine, 7, 353–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Russell, G. F. M. (1979). Bulimia nervosa: A ominous variant of anorexia nervosa. Psychological Medicine, 9, 429–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Russell, G. F. M., Szmukler, G. I., Dare, C., and Eisler, I. (1987). An evaluation of family therapy in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 1047–1056.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Ryle, J. A. (1936). Anorexia nervosa. Lancet, 2, 893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sabine, E. J., Yonace, A., Farrington, A. J., Barratt, K. H., and Wakeling, A. (1983). Bulimia nervosa: A placebo-controlled double-blind therapeutic trial of mianserin. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 15, Supplement, 195S - 202S.Google Scholar
  103. Sheehan, H. L., and Summers, V. K. (1949). The syndrome of hypopituitarism. Quarterly Journal of Medicine, 18, 319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Simmonds, M. (1914). Ueber embolische prozesse in des hypophysis. Archives of Pathology and Anatomy, 217, 226–239.Google Scholar
  105. Strober, M., and Yager, J. (1985). A developmental perspective on the treatment of anorexia nervosa in adolescents. In: D. M. Garner and P. E. Garfinkle (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy for anorexia nervosa and bulimia (pp. 363–390 ). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  106. Suematsu, H., Ishikawa, H., Kubocki, T., and Ito, T. (1985). Statistical studies on anorexia nervosa in Japan: Detailed clinical data on 1011 patients. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 43, 96–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Swift, W. J., Andrews, D., and Barklage, N. E. (1986). The relationship between affective disorders and eating disorders. A review of the literature. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 290–299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Szmukler, G. I. (1985). The epidemiology of anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 19 (23), 143–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Szmukler, G. I., Eisler, I., Gillis, C., and Hayward, M. E. (1985). The implications of anorexia nervosa in a ballet school. Journal of Psychiatry, 19, 177–181.Google Scholar
  110. Szmukler, G. I., McCance, C., McCrone, L., and Hunter, D. (1986). Anorexia nervosa: A psychiatric case register study from Aberdeen Psychological Medicine, 16, 49–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Theander, S. (1970). Anorexia nervosa: A psychiatric investigation of 94 female patients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Supplement, 214.Google Scholar
  112. Theander, S. (1985). Outcome and prognosis in anorexia nervosa and bulimia: Some results of previous investigations compared with those of a Swedish long-term study. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 19, 493–508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Thoma, H. (1967). Anorexia nervosa. (G. Brydone, Trans.). New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  114. Tobin-Richards, M. H., Boxer, A. M., and Petersen, A. C. (1983). The psychological significance of pubertal change: Sex differences in perceptions of self during early adolescents. In: J. Brooks-Gunn and A. C. Petersen (Eds.), Girls at puberty (pp. 127–154 ). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Waller, J., Kaufman, M. R., and Deutsch, F. (1940). Anorexia nervosa: A psychosomatic study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 2, 3–16.Google Scholar
  116. Walsh, B. T., Steward, J. W., Roose, S. P., Gladis, M., and Glassman, A. H. (1984). Treatment of bulimia with phenelzine: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 1105–1109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Willi, J., and Grossman, S. (1983). Epidemiology of anorexia nervosa in a defined region of Switzerland. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 564–567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Wilson, G. T., Rossiter, E., Kleifeld, E. I., and Lindholm, L. (1986). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of bulimia nervosa: A controlled evaluation. Behavior Research and Therapy, 24, 277–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wolchik, S. A., Weiss, L., and Katzman, M. A. (1986). An empirically validated, short-term psychoeducational group treatment program for bulimia. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 5, 21–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Wooley, S. C., and Wooley, O. W. (1985). Intensive outpatient and residential treatment for bulimia. In: D. M. Garner and P. E. Garfinkle (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy for anorexia nervosa and bulimia (pp. 391–430 ). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. K. George Hsu
    • 1
  1. 1.Western Psychiatric Institute and ClinicUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations