The Reoviridae pp 359-423 | Cite as


  • Ian H. Holmes
Part of the The Viruses book series (VIRS)


Electron microscopy played an important role in the recent recognition of a large group of viruses associated with diarrheal disease in the young of humans, of many kinds of animals, and of birds, so it is fitting that the name chosen for them should be based on their particle morphology. Flewett et al. (1974a) derived the name Rotavirus from the Latin “rota” (“wheel”) because in negatively stained preparations, the inner capsid subunits suggest the appearance of spokes supporting a smooth rim of outer capsid. In early publications, members of the group were referred to as “orbivirus-like” (Bishop et al., 1973; Middleton et al., 1974), “infantile gastroenteritis virus (orbivirus group)” (Petric et al., 1975), and “reovirus-like agents” (Fernelius et al., 1972; Kapikian et al., 1974), and the term “Duovirus” was also proposed (Davidson et al., 1975a), but Rotavirus came into more common use and was adopted officially for the genus (Matthews, 1979).


Acute Gastroenteritis African Green Monkey Kidney Cell Infantile Gastroenteritis Neonatal Calf Diarrhea Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Acres, S.D., and Babiuk, L.A., 1978, Studies on rotaviral antibody in bovine serum and lacteal secretions, using radioimmunoassay, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 173:555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Acres, S.D., and Radostits, O.M., 1976, The efficacy of a modified live reo-like virus vaccine and an E. coli bacterin for prevention of acute undifferentiated neonatal diarrhea of beef calves, Can. Vet. J. 17:197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adams, W.R., and Kraft, L.M., 1967, Electron microscopic study of the intestinal epithelium of mice infected with the agent of epizootic diarrhea of infant mice (EDIM virus), Am. J. Pathol. 51:39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Albrey, M.B., and Murphy, A.M., 1976, Rotavirus growth in bovine monolayers, Lancet 1:753.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Almeida, J.D., Hall, T., Banatvala, J.E., Totterdell, B.M., and Chrystie, I.L., 1978, The effect of trypsin on the growth of rotavirus, J. Gen. Virol. 40:213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Almeida, J.D., Bradburne, A.F., and Wreghitt, T.G., 1979, The effect of sodium thiocyanate on virus structure, J. Med. Virol. 4:269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Altenburg, B.C., Graham, D.Y., and Estes, M.K., 1980, Ultrastructural study of rotavirus replication in cultured cells, J. Gen. Virol. 46:75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Arias, C.F., Lopez, S., and Espejo, R.T., 1982, Gene protein products of SA 11 simian rotavirus genome. J. Virol. 41:42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ashley, C.R., Caul, E.O., Clarke, S.K.R., Corner, B.D., and Dunn, S., 1978, Rotavirus infections of apes, Lancet 2:477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Babiuk, L.A., Mohammed, K., Spence, L., Fauvel, M., and Petro, R., 1977, Rotavirus isolation and cultivation in the presence of trypsin, J. Clin. Microbiol. 6:610.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Banatvala, J.E., Totterdell, B., Chrystie, I.L., and Woode, G.N., 1975, In-vitro detection of human rotaviruses, Lancet 2:821.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Banfield, W.G., Kasnic, G., and Blackwell, J.H., 1968, Further observations on the virus of epizootic diarrhoea of infant mice: An electron microscopic study, Virology 36:411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Barnett, B.B., Spendlove, R.S., Peterson, M.W., Hsu, L.Y., Lasalle, V.A., and Egbert, L.N., 1975, Immunofluorescent cell assay of neonatal calf diarrhea virus, Can. J. Comp. Med. 39:462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Barnett, B.B., Egbert, L.N., and Spendlove, R.S., 1978, Characteristics of neonatal calf diarrhea virus ribonucleic acid, Can. J. Comp. Med. 42:46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Barnett, B.B., Spendlove, R.S., and Clark, M.L., 1979, Effect of enzymes on rotavirus infec-tivity, J. Clin. Microbiol. 10:111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bartz, C.R., Conklin, R.H., Tunstall, C.B., and Steele, J.H., 1980, Prevention of murine rotavirus infection with chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins, J. Infect. Dis. 142:439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bastardo, J.W., and Holmes, I.H., 1980, Attachment of SA 11 rotavirus to erythrocyte receptors, Infect. Immun. 29:1134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bastardo, J.W., McKimm-Breschkin, J.L., Sonza, S., Mercer, L.D., and Holmes, I.H., 1981, Preparation and characterization of antisera to electrophoretically purified SA 11 virus polypeptides, Infect. Immun. 34:641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Beards, G.M., Pilfold, J.N., Thouless, M.E., and Flewett, T.H., 1980, Rotavirus serotypes by serum neutralization, J. Med. Virol. 5:231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bernstein, J.M., and Hruska, J.F., 1981, Characterization of RNA polymerase products of Nebraska calf diarrhea virus and SA 11 rotavirus, J. Virol. 37:1071.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bishai, F.R., Blaskovic, P., and Goodwin, D., 1978, Physicochemical properties of Nebraska calf diarrhea virus hemagglutinin, Can. J. Microbiol. 24:1425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bishop, R.F., Davidson, G.P., Holmes, I.H. and Ruck, B.J., 1973, Virus particles in epithelial cells of duodenal mucosa from children with acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis, Lancet 2:1281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bishop, R.F., Davidson, G.P., Holmes, I.H. and Ruck, B.J., 1974, Detection of a new virus by electron microscopy of faecal extracts from children with acute gastroenteritis, Lancet 1:149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bishop, R.F., Cameron, D.J.S., Veenstra, A.A., and Barnes, G.L., 1979, Diarrhea and rotavirus infection associated with differing regimens for postnatal care of newborn babies, J. Clin. Microbiol. 9:525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Black, R.E., Dykes, A.C., Anderson, K.E., Wells, J.G., Sinclair, S.P., Gary, G.W., Jr., Hatch, M.H., and Gangarosa, E.J., 1981a, Handwashing to prevent diarrhea in day-care centers, Am. J.Epidemiol. 113:445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Black, R.E., Merson, M.H., Huq, I., Alim, A.R., and Yunus, M., 1981b, Incidence and severity of rotavirus and Escherichia coli diarrhoea in rural Bangladesh: Implications for vaccine development, Lancet 1:141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Bohl, E.H., 1979, Rotaviral diarrhoea in pigs: Brief review, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 174:613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Bohl, E.H., Saif, L.J., Theil, K.W., Agnes, A.G., and Cross, R.F., 1982, Porcine pararotavirus: Detection, differentiation from rotavirus, and pathogenesis in gnotobiotic pigs, J. Clin. Microbiol. 15:312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Bolivar, R., Conklin, R.H., Vollet, J.J., Pickering, L.K., DuPont, H.L., Walters, D.L., and Kohl, S., 1978, Rotavirus in traveller’s diarrhea: Study of an adult student population in Mexico, J. Infect. Dis. 137:324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Bradburne, A.F., Almeida, J.D., Gardner, P.S., Moosai, R.B., Nash, A.A., and Coombs, R.R.A., 1979, A solid-phase system (SPACE) for the detection and quantification of rotavirus in faeces, J. Gen. Virol. 44:615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Brandt, C.D., Kim, H.W., Yolken, R.H., Kapikian, A.Z., Arrobio, J.O., Rodriguez, W.J., Wyatt, R.G., Chanock, R.M., and Parrott, R.H., 1979, Comparative epidemiology of two rotavirus serotypes and other viral agents associated with pediatric gastroenteritis, Am. J. Epidemiol. 110; 243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Bridger, J.C., 1978, Location of type-specific antigens in calf rotaviruses, J. Clin. Microbiol. 8:625.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Bridger, J.C., and Brown, J.F., 1981, Development of immunity to porcine rotavirus in piglets protected from disease by bovine colostrum, Infect. Immun. 31:906.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Bridger, J.C., and Woode, G.N., 1975, Neonatal calf diarrhoea: Identification of a reoviruslike (rotavirus) agent in faeces by immunofluorescence and immune electron microscopy, Br. Vet. J. 131:528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Bridger, J.C., and Woode, G.N., 1976, Characterization of two particle types of calf rotavirus, J. Gen. Virol. 31:245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Bridger, J.C., Woode, G.N., Jones, J.M., Flewett, T.H., Bryden, A.S., and Davies, H., 1975, Transmission of human rotaviruses to gnotobiotic piglets, J. Med. Microbiol. 8:565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Bridger, J.C., Clarke, I.N., and McCrae, M.A., 1982, Characterization of an antigenically distinct porcine rotavirus, Infect. Immun. 35:1058.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Bryden, A.S., Davies, H.A., Hadley, R.E., Flewett, T.H., Morris, C.A., and Oliver, P., 1975, Rotavirus enteritis in the West Midlands during 1974, Lancet 2:241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Bryden, A.S., Thouless, M.E., and Flewett, T.H., 1976, Rotavirus in rabbits, Vet. Rec. 99:323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Bryden, A.S., Davies, H.A., Thouless, M.E., and Flewett, T.H., 1977, Diagnosis of rotavirus infection by cell culture, J. Med. Microbiol. 10:121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Cameron, D.J.S., Bishop, R.F., Davidson, G.P., Townley, R.R.W., Holmes, I.H., and Ruck, B.J., 1975, Rotavirus infections in obstetric hospitals, Lancet 2:124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Cameron, D.S., Bishop, R.F., Veenstra, A.A., and Barnes, G.L., 1978, Noncultivable viruses and neonatal diarrhea: Fifteen-month survey in newborn special care nursery, J. Clin. Microbiol. 8:93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Campbell, C., and Lang, W.R., 1979, An epidemic of gastroenteritis in Auckland 1978, N. Z. Med. J. 90:233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Carafoli, E., and Crompton, M., 1978, The regulation of intracellular calcium, in: Current Topics in Membranes and Transport, Vol. 10 (F. Bronner and A. Kleinzeller, eds.), pp. 151–216, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  45. Carlson, J.A.K., Middleton, P.J., Szymanski, M.T., Huber, J., and Petric, M., 1978, Fatal rotavirus gastroenteritis—analysis of 21 cases, Am. J. Dis. Child. 132:477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Carpio, M.M., Babiuk, L.A., Misra, V., and Blumenthal, R.M., 1981, Bovine rotavirus-cell interactions: Effect of virus infection on cellular integrity and macromolecular synthesis, Virology 114:86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Carr, M.E., McKendrick, D.W., and Spyridakis, T., 1976, The clinical features of infantile gastroenteritis due to rotavirus, Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 8:241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Caul, E.O., Ashley, C.R., and Egglestone, S., 1978, An improved method for the routine identification of faecel viruses using ammonium sulphate precipitation, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 4:1.Google Scholar
  49. Chanock, R.M., 1981, Strategy for development of respiratory and gastrointestinal tract viral vaccines in the 1980s, J. Infect. Dis. 143:364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Chasey, D., 1980, Investigation of immunoperoxidase-labelled rotavirus in tissue culture by light and electron microscopy, J. Gen. Virol. 50:195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Cheever, F.S., 1956, Epidemic diarrheal disease of suckling mice, Ann. N. Y., Acad. Sci. 66:196.Google Scholar
  52. Cheever, F.S., and Mueller, J.H., 1947, Epidemic diarrheal disease of suckling mice. I. Manifestations, epidemiology and attempts to transmit the disease, J. Exp. Med. 85:405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Chrystie, I.L., Totterdell, B., Baker, M.J., Scopes, J.W., and Banatvala, J.E., 1975, Rotavirus infections in a maternity unit, Lancet 2:79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Chrystie, I.L., Totterdell, B.M., and Banatvala, J.E., 1978, Asymptomatic endemic rotavirus infections in the newborn, Lancet 1:1176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Chrystie, I.L., Goldwater, P.N., and Banatvala, J.E., 1979, Rotavirus infection in a domestic cat, Vet. Rec. 105:404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Clark, S.M., Barnett, B.B., and Spendlove, R.S., 1979, Production of high-titre bovine rotavirus with trypsin, J. Clin. Microbiol. 9:413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Clark, S.M., Roth, J.R., Clark, M.L., Barnett, B.B., and Spendlove, R.S., 1981, Trypsin enhancement of rotavirus infectivity: Mechanism of enhancement, J. Virol. 39:816.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Clarke, I.N., and McCrae, M.A., 1981, A rapid and sensitive method for analysing the genome profiles of field isolates of rotavirus, J. Virol. Methods 2:203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Coelho, K.I.R., Bryden, A.S., Hall, C., and Flewett, T.H., 1981, Pathology of rotavirus infection in suckling mice: A study by conventional histology, immunofluorescence, ultrathin sections, and scanning electron microscopy, Ultrastruct. Pathol. 2:59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Cohen, J., 1977, Ribonucleic acid polymerase activity associated with purified calf rotavirus, J. Gen. Virol. 36:395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Cohen, J., and Dobos, P., 1979, Cell free transcription and translation of rotavirus RNA, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 88:791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Cohen, J., Laporte, J., Charpilienne, A., and Scherrer, R., 1979, Activation of rotavirus RNA polymerase by calcium chelation, Arch. Virol. 60:177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Conner, M.E., and Darlington, R.W., 1980, Rotavirus infection in foals, Am. J. Vet. Res. 41:1699.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Corthier, G., and Franz, J., 1981, Detection of antirota virus immunoglogulins A, G and M in swine colostrum, milk and feces by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Infec. Immun. 31:833.Google Scholar
  65. Crewe, E., and Murphy, A.M., 1980, Further studies on neonatal rotavirus infections, Med. J. Aust. 1:61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Crouch, C.F., and Woode, G.N., 1978, Serial studies of virus multiplication and intestinal damage in gnotobiotic piglets infected with rotavirus, J. Med. Microbiol. 11:325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Croxson, M.C., and Bellamy, A.R., 1979, Two strains of human rotavirus in Auckland, N. Z. Med. J. 90:235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Croxson, M.C., and Bellamy, A.R., 1981, Extraction of rotaviruses from faeces by treatment with lithium dodecyl sulfate, Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 41:255.Google Scholar
  69. Cubitt, W.D., and Holzel, H., 1980, An outbreak of rotavirus infection in a long-stay ward of a geriatric hospital, J. Clin. Pathol. 33:306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Cukor, G., Berry, M.K., and Blacklow, N.R., 1978, Simplified radioimmunoassay for detection of human rotavirus in stools, J. Infect. Dis. 138:906.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Cukor, G., Blacklow, N.R., Capossa, F.E., Panjvani, Z.F.K., and Bednarek, F., 1979, Persistence of antibodies to rotavirus in human milk, J. Clin. Microbiol. 9:93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Davidson, G.P., and Barnes, G.L., 1979, Structural and functional abnormalities of the small intestine in infants and young children with rotavirus enteritis, Acta Pediatr. Scand. 68:181.Google Scholar
  73. Davidson, G.P., Bishop, R.F., Townley, R.R.W., Holmes, I.H., and Ruck, B.J., 1975a, Importance of a new virus in acute sporadic enteritis in children, Lancet 1:242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Davidson, G.P., Goller, I., Bishop, R.F., Townley, R.R.W., Holmes, I.H., and Ruck, B.J., 1975b, Immunofluorescence in duodenal mucosa of children with acute enteritis due to a new virus, J. Clin. Pathol. 28:263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Davidson, G.P., Gall, D.G., Petric, M., Butler D.G. and Hamilton, J.R., 1977, Human rotavirus enteritis induced in conventional piglets: Intestinal structure and transport, J. Clin. Invest. 60:1402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Delage, G., McLaughlin, B., and Berthiaume, L., 1978, A clinical study of rotavirus gastroenteritis, J. Pediatr. 93:455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. De Leeuw, P.W., and Guinee, P.A.M., 1981, Laboratory diagnosis in neonatal calf and pig diarrhoea, in: Current Topics in Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Vol. 13, Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague.Google Scholar
  78. De Leeuw, P.W., Ellens, D.J., Talmon, F.P., Zimmer, G.N., and Kommerij, R., 1980, Rotavirus infections in calves: Efficacy of oral vaccination in endemically infected herds, Res. Vet. Sci. 29:142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Derbyshire, J.B., and Woode, G.N., 1978, Classification of rotaviruses: Report from the World Health Organization Food and Agriculture Organization comparative virology program, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 173:519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Drozdov, S.G., Shekoyan, L.A., Korolev, M.B., and Andzhaparidze, A.G., 1979, Human rotavirus in cell culture: Isolation and passaging, Vopr. Virusol. 4:389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Dyall-Smith, M.L., and Holmes, I.H., 1981a, Gene-coding assignments of rotavirus double-stranded RNA segments 10 and 11, J. Virol. 38:1099.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Dyall-Smith, M.L., and Holmes, I.H., 1981b, Comparisons of rotavirus polypeptides by limited proteolysis: Close similarity of certain polypeptides of different strains, J. Virol. 40:720.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Elias, M.M., 1977, Separation and infectivity of two particle types of human rotavirus, J. Gen. Virol. 37:191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Ellens, DJ., de Leeuw, P.W., Straver, P.J., and van Balken, J.A.M., 1978, Comparison of five diagnostic methods for the detection of rotavirus antigens in calf faeces, Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 166:157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Els, H.J., and Lecatsas, G., 1972, Morphological studies on simian virus SA 11 and the “related” O agent, J. Gen. Virol. 17:129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Ericson, B.L., Graham, D.Y., Mason, B.B., and Estes, M.K., 1982, Identification, synthesis, and modifications of simian rotavirus SA 11 polypeptides in infected cells, J. Virol. 42:825.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Esparza, J., and Gil, F., 1978, A study on the ultrastructure of human rotavirus, Virology 91:141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Espejo, R.T., Calderon, E., and Gonzalez, N., 1977, Distinct reovirus-like agents associated with acute infantile gastroenteritis, J. Clin. Microbiol. 6:502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Espejo, R.T., Calderon, E., Gonzalez, N., Salomon, A., Martuscelli, A., and Romero, P., 1979, Presence of two distinct types of rotavirus in infants and young children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Mexico City, 1977, J. Infect. Dis. 139:474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Espejo, R.T., Avendano, L.F., Munoz, O., Romero, P., Eternod, J.G., Lopez, S., and Moncaya, J., 1980a, Comparison of human rotaviruses isolated in Mexico City and in Santiago, Chile, by electrophoretic migration of their double-stranded ribonucleic acid genome segments, Infect. Immun. 30:342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Espejo, R., Martinez, E., Lopez, S., and Munoz, O., 1980b, Different polypeptide composition of two human rotavirus types, Infect. Immun. 28:230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Espejo, R.T., Munoz, O., Serafin, F., and Romero, P., 1980c, Shift in the prevalent human rotavirus detected by ribonucleic acid segment differences, Infect. Immun. 27:351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Espejo, R.T., Lopez, S., and Arias, C., 1981, Structural polypeptides of simian rotavirus SA 11 and the effect of trypsin, J. Virol. 37:156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Estes, M.K., Graham, D.Y., Gerba, C.P., and Smith, E.M., 1979a, Simian rotavirus SA 11 replication in cell cultures, J. Virol. 31:810.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Estes, M.K., Graham, D.Y., Smith, E.M., and Gerba, C.P., 1979b, Rotavirus stability and inactivation, J. Gen. Virol. 43:403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Estes, M.K., Graham, D.Y., and Mason, B.B., 1981, Proteolytic enhancement of rotavirus infectivity: Molecular mechanisms, J. Virol. 39:879.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Eugster, A.K., and Sidwa, T., 1979, Rotaviruses in diarrheic feces of a dog, Vet. Med. Small Anim. Clinician 74:817.Google Scholar
  98. Evans, D.G., Olarte, J., Du Pont, H.L., Evans, D.J., Jr., Galindo, E., Portnoy, B.L., and Conklin, R.H., 1977, Enteropathogens associated with pediatric diarrhea in Mexico City, J. Pediatr. 91:65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Faulkner-Valle, G.P., Clayton, A.V., and McCrae, M.A., 1982, Molecular biology of rotaviruses, III. Isolation and characterization of temperature-sensitive mutants of bovine rotavirus, J. Virol. 42:669.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Fauvel, M., Spence, L., Babiuk, L.A., Petro, R., and Bloch, S., 1978, Hemagglutination and hemagglutination-inhibition studies with a strain of Nebraska calf diarrhea virus (bovine rotavirus), Intervirology 9:95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Fernelius, A.L., Ritchie, A.E., Classick, L.G, Norman, J.O., and Mebus, C.A., 1972, Cell culture adaptation and propagation of a reovirus-like agent of calf diarrhea from a field outbreak in Nebraska, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 37:114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Flewett, T.H., 1977, Acute non-bacterial infectious gastroenteritis—an essay in comparative virology, in: Recent Advances in Clinical Virology, No. 1 (A.P. Waterson, ed.), pp. 151–169, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  103. Flewett, T.H., and Boxall, E., 1976, The hunt for viruses in infections of the alimentary system: An immuno-electron-microscopical approach, Clin. Gastroenterol. 5:359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Flewett, T.H., and Woode, G.N., 1978, The rotaviruses, Arch. Virol. 57:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Flewett, T.H., Bryden, A.S., and Davies, H., 1973, Virus particles in gastroenteritis, Lancet 2:1497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Flewett, T.H., Bryden, A.S., Davies, H., Woode, G.N., Bridger, J.C., and Derrick, J.M., 1974a, Relation between viruses from acute gastroenteritis of children and newborn calves, Lancet 2:61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Flewett, T.H., Bryden, A.S., and Davies, H., 1974b, Diagnostic electron microscopy of faeces. I. The viral flora of the faeces as seen by electron microscopy, J. Clin. Pathol. 27:603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Flewett, T.H., Davies, H., Bryden, A.S., and Robertson, M.J., 1974c, Diagnostic electron microscopy of faeces. II. Acute gastroenteritis associated with reovirus-like particles, J. Clin. Pathol. 27:608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Flewett, T.H., Bryden, A.S., and Davies, H., 1975, Virus diarrhoea in foals and other animals, Vet. Rec. 96:477.Google Scholar
  110. Flewett, T.H., Thouless, M.E., Pilfold, J.N., Bryden, A.S., and Candeias, J.A.N., 1978, Lancet 2:632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Fonteyne, J., Zissis, G., and Lambert, J.P., 1978, Recurrent rotavirus gastroenteritis, Lancet 1:983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Foster, L.G., Peterson, M.W., and Spendlove, R.S., 1975, Fluorescent virus precipitin test, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 150:155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Foster, S.O., Palmer, EX., Gary, G.W., Jr., Martin, MX., Herrmann, K.L., Beasley, P., and Sampson, J., 1980, Gastroenteritis due to rotavirus in an isolated Pacific Island group: An epidemic of 3439 cases, J. Infect. Dis. 141:32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Fulton, R.W., Johnson, C.A., Pearson, N.J., and Woode, G.N., 1981, Isolation of a rotavirus from a newborn dog with diarrhea, Am. J. Vet. Res. 42:841.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Goldberg, D.M., Campbell, R., and Roy, A.D., 1968, Binding of trypsin and chymotrypsin by small intestine, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 167:613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Gordon, J.E., Chitkara, I.D., and Wyon, J.B., 1963, Weanling diarrhea. Am. J. Med. Sci. 245:345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Gorziglia, M., and Esparza, J., 1981, Poly (A) polymerase activity in human rotavirus, J. Gen. Virol. 53:357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Graham, D.Y., and Estes, M.K., 1980, Proteolytic enhancement of rotavirus infectivity: Biologic mechanisms, Virology 101:432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Grauballe, P.C., and Vestergaard, B.F., 1980, ELISA for rotavirus: Optimation of the reaction for the measurement of IgG and IgA antibodies against human rotavirus in human sera and secretions, Dev. Clin. Biochem. 1:143.Google Scholar
  120. Grauballe, P.C., Genner, J., Meyling, A., and Hornsleth, A., 1977, Rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infections: Comparison of electron microscopy and immuno-electro-osmophoresis for the detection of rotavirus in human infantile gastroenteritis, J. Gen. Virol. 35:203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Grauballe, P.C., Hjelt, K., Krasilnikoff, P.A., and Schiøtz, P.O., 1981a, ELISA for rotavirusspecific secretory IgA in human sera, Lancet 2:588.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Grauballe, P.G., Vestergaard, B.F., Meyling, A., and Genner, J., 1981b, Optimized enzymelinked immunosorbent assay for determination of human and bovine rotavirus in stools: Comparison with electron microscopy, immunoelectro-osmophoresis and fluorescent antibody techniques, J. Med. Virol. 7:29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Greenberg, H.B., Kalica, A.R., Wyatt, R.G., Jones, R.W., Kapikian, A.Z., and Chanock, R.M., 1981, Rescue of noncultivatable human rotavirus by gene reassortment during mixed infection with ts mutants of a cultivable bovine rotavirus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78:420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Greenberg, H.B., Wyatt, R.G., Kapikian, A.Z., Kalica, A.R., Flores, J., and Jones, R., 1982, Rescue and serotypic characterization of noncultivable human rotavirus by gene reassortment, Infect. Immun. 37:104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Gurwith, M., Wenman, W. Hinde, D., Feltham, S., and Greenberg, H., 1981, A prospective study of rotavirus infection in infants and young children, J. Infect. Dis. 144:218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Hall, G.A., Bridger, J.C., Chandler, R.L., and Woode, G.N., 1976, Gnotobiotic piglets experimentally inoculated with neonatal calf diarrhoea reovirus-like agent (rotavirus), Vet. Pathol. 13:197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Halvorsrud, F., and Orstavik, I., 1980, An epidemic of rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis in a nursing home for the elderly, Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 12:161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Hamilton, J.R., Gall, D.G., Butler, D.G., and Middleton, P.J., 1976, Viral gastroenteritis: Recent progress, remaining problems, in: Acute Diarrhoea in Childhood, Ciba Foundation Symposium, No. 42, (K. Elliott and J. Knight, eds.), pp. 209–219, Elsevier/Excerpta Medica/North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  129. Hara, M., Mukoyama, J., Tsuruhara, T., Ashiwara, Y., Saito, Y., and Tagaya, I., 1978, Acute gastroenteritis among schoolchildren associated with reovirus-like agent, Am. J. Epidemiol. 107:161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Hebert, J.P., Caillet, R., Hacquard, B., and Fortier, B., 1981, Use of Staphylococcus aureus protein “A” to detect rotavirus in stools, Pathol. Biol (Paris) 29:101.Google Scholar
  131. Herring, A.J., Inglis, N.F., Ojeh, C.K., Snodgrass, D.R., and Menzies, J.D., 1982, Rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infection by direct detection of viral nucleic acid in silver-stained polyacrylamide gels, J. Clin. Microbiol. 16:473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Hess, R.G., and Bachmann, P.A., 1981, Distribution of antibodies to rotavirus in serum and lacteal secretions of naturally infected swine and their suckling pigs, Am. J. Vet. Res. 42:1149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Hieber, J.P., Shelton, S., Nelson, J.D., Leon, J., and Mohs, E., 1978, Comparison of human rotavirus disease in tropical and temperate settings, Am. J. Dis. Child. 132:853.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Hinshaw, V.S., Bean, W.J., Jr., Webster, R.G., and Easterday, B.C., 1978, The prevalence of influenza viruses in swine and the antigenic and genetic relatedness of influenza viruses from man and swine, Virology 84:51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Holmes, I.H., 1979, Viral gastroenteritis, Prog. Med. Virol. 25:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Holmes, I.H., 1982, Basic virology of rotaviruses, in: Viral Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract (D.A.J. Tyrrell and A.Z. Kapikian, eds.), pp. 111–124, Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  137. Holmes, I.H., Ruck, B.J., Bishop, R.F., and Davidson, G.P., 1975, Infantile enteritis viruses: Morphogenesis and morphology, J. Virol. 16:937.Google Scholar
  138. Holmes, I.H., Rodger, S.M., Schnagl, R.D., Ruck, B.J., Gust, I.D., Bishop, R.F., and Barnes, G.L., 1976, Is lactase the receptor and uncoating enzyme for infantile enteritis (rota) viruses?. Lancet 1:1387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Hoshino, Y., Baldwin, C.A., and Scott, F.W., 1981, Isolation and characterization of feline rotavirus, J. Gen. Virol. 54:313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Hruska, J.F., Notter, M.F.D., Menegus, M.A., and Steinhoff, M.C., 1978, RNA polymerase associated with human rotaviruses in diarrhea stools, J. Virol. 26:544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Huismans, H., and Els, H.J., 1979, Characterization of the tubules associated with the replication of three different orbiviruses, Virology 92:397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Hurst, C.J., and Gerba, C.P., 1980, Stability of simian rotavirus in fresh and estuarine water, Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 39:1.Google Scholar
  143. Husband, A.J., and Watson, D.L., 1978, Immunity in the intestine, Vet. Bull. 48:911.Google Scholar
  144. Inaba, Y., Sato, K., Takahashi, E., Kurogi, H., Satoda, K., Omori, T., and Matumoto, M., 1977, Hemagglutination with Nebraska calf diarrhea virus, Microbiol. Immunol. 21:531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Jesudoss, E.S., John, T.J., Maiya, P.P., Jadhav, M., and Spence, L., 1979, Prevalence of rotavirus infection in neonates, Indian J. Med. Res. 70:863.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Joklik, W.K., 1974, Reproduction of Reoviridae, in: Comprehensive Virology, Vol. 2 (H. Fraenkel-Conrat and R.R. Wagner, eds.), pp. 231–334, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  147. Jones, R.C., Hughes, C.S., and Henry, R.R., 1979, Rotavirus infection in commercial laying hens, Vet. Rec. 104:22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Kalica, A.R., Garon, C.F., Wyatt, R.G., Mebus, C.A., van Kirk, D.H., Chanock, R.M., and Kapikian, A.Z., 1976, Differentiation of human and calf reoviruslike agents associated with diarrhea using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of RNA, Virology 74:86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Kalica, A.R., Purcell, R.H., Sereno, M.M., Wyatt, R.G., Kim, H.W., Chanock, R.M., and Kapikian, A.Z., 1977, A microtitre solid-phase radioimmunoassay for detection of the human reovirus-like agent in stools, J. Immunol. 118:1275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Kalica, A.R., James, H.D., Jr., and Kapikian, A.Z., 1978a, Hemagglutination by simian rotavirus, J. Clin. Microbiol. 7:314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Kalica, A.R., Sereno, M.M., Wyatt, R.G., Mebus, C.A., Chanock, R.M., and Kapikian, A.Z., 1978b, Comparison of human and animal rotavirus strains of gel electrophoresis of viral RNA, Virology 87:247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Kalica, A.R., Greenberg, H.B., Espejo, R.T., Flores, J., Wyatt, R.G., Kapikian, A.Z., and Chanock, R.M., 1981a, Distinctive ribonucleic acid patterns of human rotavirus subgroups 1 and 2, Infect. Immun. 33:958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Kalica A.R., Greenberg, H.B., Wyatt, R.G., Flores, J., Sereno, M.M., Kapikian, A.Z., and Chanock, R.M., 1981b, Genes of human (strain Wa) and bovine (strain UK) rotaviruses that code for neutralization and subgroup antigens, Virology 112:385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Kapikian, A.Z., Kim, H.W., Wyatt, R.G., Rodriguez, W.J., Ross, S., Cline, W.L., Parrott, R.H., and Chanock, R.M., 1974, Reoviruslike agent in stools: Association with infantile diarrhea and development of serologic tests, Science 185:1049.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Kapikian, A.Z., Cline, W.L., Kim, H.W., Kalica, A.R., Wyatt, R.G., van Kirk, D.H., Chanock, R.M., James, H.D., Jr., and Vaughn, A.L., 1976a, Antigenic relations among five reoviruslike (RVL) agents by complement fixation (CF) and development of new substitute CF antigens for the human RVL agent of infantile gastroenteritis, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 152:535.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Kapikian, A.Z., Kim, H.W., Wyatt, R.G., Cline, W.L., Arrobio, J.L., Brandt, C.D., Rodriguez, W.J., Sack, D.A., Chanock, R.M., and Parrott, R.H., 1976b, Human reovirus-like agent associated with “winter” gastroenteritis, N. Engl J. Med. 294:965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Kapikian, A.Z., Yolken, R.H., Greenberg, H.B., Wyatt, R.G., Kalica, A.R., Chanock, R.M., and Kim, H.W., 1979, Gastroenteritis viruses, in: Diagnostic Procedures for Viral, Rick-ettsial and Chlamydial Infections, 5th ed. (E.H. Lennette and N.J. Schmidt, eds.), pp. 927–995, American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  158. Kapikian, A.Z., Wyatt, R.G., Greenberg, H.B., Kalica, A.R., Kim, H.W., Brandt, C.D., Rodriguez, W.J., Parrott, R.H., and Chanock, R.M., 1980, Approaches to immunization of infants and young children against gastroenteritis due to rotavirus, Rev. Infect. Dis. 2:459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Kapikian, A.Z., Cline, W.L., Greenberg, H.B., Wyatt, R.G., Kalica, A.R., Banks, CE., James, H.D., Jr., Flores, J., and Chanock, R.M., 1981, Antigenic characterization of human and animal rotaviruses by immune adherence hemagglutination assay (IAHA): Evidence for distinctness of IAHA and neutralization antigens, Infect. Immun. 33:415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Keller, R., Dwyer, J.E., Oh, W., and D’Amodio, M., 1969, Intestinal IgA neutralizing antibodies in newborn infants following poliovirus immunization, Pediatrics 43:330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Keswick, B.H., and Gerba, C.P., 1980, Viruses in groundwater, Environ. Sci. Technol. 14:1290.Google Scholar
  162. Kim, H.W., Brandt, C.D., Kapikian, A.Z., Wyatt, R.G., Arrobio, J.O., Rodriguez, W.J., Chanock, R.M., and Parrott, R.H., 1977, Human reovirus-like agent infection; Occurrence in adult contacts of pediatric patients with gastroenteritis, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 238:404.Google Scholar
  163. Kimura, T., 1981, Immuno-electron microscopic study on the antigenicity of tubular structures associated with human rotavirus, Infect Immun. 33:611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Kogasaka, R., Akihara, M., Horino, K., Chiba, S., and Nakao, T., 1979, A morphological study of human rotavirus, Arch. Virol. 61:41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Konno, T., Imai, A., Suzuki, H., and Ishida, N., 1975, Mercaptoethanol-sensitive antibody to reovirus-like agents in acute epidemic gastroenteritis, Lancet 2:1312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Konno, T., Suzuki, H., Imai, A., Kutsuzawa, T., Ishida, N., Katsushima, N., Sakamoto, M., Kitaoka, S., Tsuboi, R., and Adachi, M., 1978a, A long-term survey of rotavirus infection in Japanese children with acute gastroenteritis, J. Infect. Dis. 138:569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Konno, T., Suzuki, H., Kutsuzawa, T., Imai, A., Katsushima, N., Sakamoto, M., Kitaoka, S., Tsuboi, R., and Adachi, M., 1978b, Human rotavirus infection in infants and young children with intussusception, J. Med. Virol. 2:265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Koopman, J.S., 1978, Diarrhea and school toilet hygiene in Cali, Colombia, Am. J. Epidemiol. 107:412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Korolev, M.B., Khaustov, V.I., and Shekoian, L.A., 1981, Morphogenesis of human rotavirus in a cell culture, Vopr. Virusol. 3:309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Kraft, L.M., 1957, Studies on the etiology and transmission of epidemic diarrhea of infant mice, J. Exp. Med. 106:743.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Kraft, L.M., 1958, Observations on the control and natural history of epidemic diarrhea of infant mice (EDIM), Yale J. Biol. Med. 31:121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Kurogi, H., Inaba, Y., Takahashi, E., Sato, K., Goto, Y., and Omori, T., 1976, Cytopathic effect of Nebraska calf diarrhea virus (Lincoln strain) on secondary bovine kidney cell monolayer, Natl. Inst. Anim. Health Q. 16:133.Google Scholar
  173. La Bonnardiere, C., de Vaureix, C., l’Haridon, R., and Scherrer, R., 1980, Weak susceptibility of rotavirus to bovine interferon, Arch. Virol. 64:167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Laemmli, U.K., 1970, Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4, Nature (London) 227:680.Google Scholar
  175. Lecatsas, G., 1972, Electron microscopic and serological studies on simian virus SA 11 and the “related” O agent, Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 39:133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Lecce, J.G., and King, M.W., 1978, Role of rotavirus (reo-like) in weanling diarrhea of pigs, J. Clin. Microbiol. 8:454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Lecce, J.G., and King, M.W., 1979, The calf reo-like virus (rotavirus) vaccine: An ineffective immunization agent for rotaviral diarrhea of piglets, Can. J. Comp. Med. 43:90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Lecce, J.G., King, M.W., and Mock, R., 1976, Reovirus-like agent associated with fatal diarrhea in neonatal pigs, Infect. Immun. 14:816.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Lecce, J.G., King, M.W., and Dorsey, W.E., 1978, Rearing regimen producing piglet diarrhea (rotavirus) and its relevance to acute infantile diarrhea, Science 199:776.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Lewis, H.M., Parry, J.V., Davies, H.A., Parry, R.P., Mott, A., Dourmashkin, R.R., Sanderson, P.J., Tyrrell, D.A.J., and Valman, H.B., 1979, A year’s experience of the rotavirus syndrome and its association with respiratory illness, Arch. Dis. Child. 54:339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. L’Haridon, R., and Scherrer, R., 1977, Culture in vitro in rotavirus associé aux diarrhées néonatales du veau, Ann. Rech. Vet. 7:373.Google Scholar
  182. Liebermann, H., Dietz, G., Holl, U., Heinrich, H.W., Solisch, P., and Liebermann, H., 1979, Structure of calf rotavirus. 1. Hydrodynamic and electron microscopic parameters of the virus, Arch. Exp. Veterinaermed, 33:367.Google Scholar
  183. Light, J.S., and Hodes, H.L., 1949, Isolation from cases of infantile diarrhea of a filtrable agent causing diarrhea in calves, J. Exp. Med. 90:113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Linhares, A.C., Pinheiro, F.P., Freitas, R.B., Gabbay, Y.B., Shirley, J.A., and Beard, G.M., 1981, An outbreak of rotavirus diarrhea among a nonimmune, isolated South American Indian community, Am. J. Epidemiol. 113:703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Lourenco, M.H., Nicolas, J.C., Cohen, J., Scherrer, R., and Bricout, F., 1981, Study of human rotavirus genome by electrophoresis: Attempt of classification among strains isolated in France, Ann. Virol. (Inst. Pasteur) 132E:161.Google Scholar
  186. Lycke, E., Blomberg, J., Berg, G., Eriksoon, A., and Madsen, L., 1978, Epidemic acute diarrhoea in adults associated with infantile gastroenteritis virus, Lancet 2:1056.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Madeley, C.R., and Cosgrove, B.P., 1975, Viruses in infantile gastroenteritis, Lancet 2: 124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Mahalanabis, D., Merson, M.H., and Barua, D., 1981, Oral rehydration therapy—recent advances, World Health Forum 2:245.Google Scholar
  189. Maiya, P.P., Pereira, S.M., Mathan, M., Bhat, P., Albert, M.J., and Baker, S.J., 1977, Aetiology of acute gastroenteritis in infancy and early childhood in Southern India, Arch. Dis. Child. 52:482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Mäki, M., 1981, A prospective clinical study of rotavirus diarrhoea in young children, Acta Paediatr. Scand. 70:107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Malherbe, H.H., and Strickland-Cholmley, M., 1967, Simian virus SA 11 and the related O agent, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 22:235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Martin, M.L., Palmer, EX., and Middleton, P.J., 1975, Ultrastructure of infantile gastroenteritis virus, Virology 68:146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Mason, B.B., Graham, D.Y., and Estes, M.K., 1980, In vitro transcription and translation of simian rotavirus SA 11 gene products, J. Virol. 33:1111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Mathan, M., Almeida, J.D., and Cole, J., 1977, An antigenic subunit present in rotavirus infected faeces, J. Gen. Virol. 34:325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Matsuno, S., and Mukoyama, A., 1979, Polypeptides of bovine rotavirus, J. Gen. Virol. 43:309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Matsuno, S., and Nakajima, K., 1982, RNA of rotavirus: Comparison of RNAs of human and animal rotaviruses, J. Virol. 41:710.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Matsuno, S., Inouye, S., and Kono, R., 1977a, Plaque assay of neonatal calf diarrhea virus and the neutralizing antibody in human sera, J. Clin. Microbiol. 5:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Matsuno, S., Inouye, S. and Kono, R., 1977b, Antigenic relationship between human and bovine rotaviruses as determined by neutralization, immune adherence hemagglutination and complement fixation tests, Infect. Immun. 17:661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Matsuno, S., Hasegawa, A., Kalica, A.R., and Kono, R., 1980, Isolation of a recombinant between simian and bovine rotaviruses, J. Gen. Virol. 48:253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Matthews, R.E.F., 1979, The classification and nomenclature of viruses, Intervirology 11:133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. McCrae, M.A., and Faulkner-Valle, G.P., 1981, Molecular biology of rotaviruses. I. Characterization of basic growth parameters and pattern of macromolecular synthesis, J. Virol. 39:490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. McCrae, M.A., and Joklik, W.K., 1978, The nature of the polypeptide encoded by each of the 10 double-stranded RNA segments of reovirus type 3, Virology 89:578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. McCrae, M.A., and McCorquodale, J.G., 1982, The molecular biology of rotaviruses. II. Identification of the protein-coding assignments of calf rotavirus genome RNA species, Virology 117:435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. McKimm-Breschkin, J.L., and Holmes, I.H., 1982, Conditions required for induction of in-terferon by rotaviruses and for their sensitivity to its action. Infect. Immun. 36:857.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. McLean, B., and Holmes, I.H., 1980, Transfer of antirotaviral antibodies from mothers to their infants, J. Clin. Microbiol. 12:320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. McLean, B.S., and Holmes, I.H., 1981, Effects of antibodies, trypsin and trypsin inhibitors on susceptibility of neonates to rotavirus infection, J. Clin. Microbiol. 13:22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. McLean, B., Sonza, S., and Holmes, I.H., 1980, Measurement of immunoglobulins A, G and M class rotavirus antibodies in serum and mucosal secretions, J. Clin. Microbiol. 12:314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. McNulty, M.S., 1978, Rotaviruses, J. Gen. Virol. 40:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. McNulty, M.S., 1979, Morphology and chemical composition of rotaviruses, in: Viral Enteritis in Humans and Animals (F. Bricout and R. Scherrer, eds.), pp. 111–140, Editions INSERM, Paris.Google Scholar
  210. McNulty, M.S., Allan, G.M., and McFerran, J.B., 1976a, Isolation of a cytopathic calf ro-tavirus, Res. Vet. Sci. 21:114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. McNulty, M.S., Allan, G.M., Pearson, G.R., McFerran, J.B., Curran, W.L., and McCracken, R.M., 1976b, Reovirus-like agent (rotavirus) from lambs, Infect. Immun. 14:1332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. McNulty, M.S., Curran, W.L., and McFerran, J.B., 1976c, The morphogenesis of a cytopathic bovine rotavirus in Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells, J. Gen. Virol. 33:503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. McNulty, M.S., Pearson, G.R., McFerran, J.B., Collins, D.S., and Allan, G.M., 1976d, A reovirus-like agent (rotavirus) associated with diarrhoea in neonatal pigs, Vet. Microbiol. 1:55.Google Scholar
  214. McNulty, M.S., Allan, G.M., and McFerran, J.B., 1977, Cell culture with a cytopathic bovine rotavirus, Arch. Virol. 54:201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. McNulty, M.S., Curran, W.L., Allan, G.M., and McFerran, J.B., 1978, Synthesis of coreless, probably defective virus particles in cell cultures infected with rotaviruses, Arch. Virol. 58:193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. McNulty, M.S., Allan, G.M., Todd, D., and McFerran, J.B., 1979, Isolation and cell culture propagation of rotaviruses from turkeys and chickens, Arch. Virol. 61:13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. McNulty, M.S., Allan, G.M., Todd, D., McFerran, J.B., McKillop, E.R., Collins, D.S., and McCracken, R.M., 1980, Isolation of rotaviruses from turkeys and chickens: Demonstration of distinct serotypes and RNA electropherotypes, Avian Pathol. 9:363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. McNulty, M.S., Allan, G.M., Todd, D., McFerran, J.B., and McCracken, R.M., 1981, Isolation from chickens of a rotavirus lacking the rotavirus group antigen, J. Gen. Virol. 55:405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Mebus, C.A., 1976, Reovirus-like calf enteritis, Dig. Dis. 21:592.Google Scholar
  220. Mebus, C.A., and Newman, L.E., 1977, Scanning electron, light, and immunofluorescent microscopy of intestine of gnotobiotic calf infected with reovirus-like agent, Am. J. Vet. Res. 38:553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Mebus, C.A., Underdahl, N.R., Rhodes, M.B., and Twiehaus, M.J., 1969, Calf diarrhea (scours): Reproduced with a virus from a field outbreak, Univ. Nebraska Agric. Exp. Station Res. Bull. 233:1.Google Scholar
  222. Mebus, C.A., Kono, M., Underdahl, N.R., and Twiehaus, M.J., 1971a, Cell culture propagation of neonatal calf diarrhea (scours) virus, Can. Vet. J. 12:69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Mebus, C.A., Stair, E.L., Underdahl, N.R., and Twiehaus, M.J., 1971b, Pathology of neonatal calf diarrhea induced by a reo-like virus, Vet. Pathol. 8:490.Google Scholar
  224. Mebus, C.A., White, R.G., Bass, E.P., and Twiehaus, M.J., 1973, Immunity to neonatal calf diarrhea virus, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 163:880.Google Scholar
  225. Mebus, C.A., Wyatt, R.G., Sharpee, R.L., Sereno, M.M., Kalica, A.R., Kapikian, A.Z., and Twiehaus, M.J., 1976, Diarrhea in gnotobiotic calves caused by the reovirus-like agent of human infantile gastroenteritis, Infect. Immun. 14:471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Mebus, C.A., Wyatt, R.G., and Kapikian, A.Z., 1977, Intestinal lesions induced in gnotobiotic calves by the virus of human infantile gastroenteritis, Vet. Pathol. 14:273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Middleton, P.J., Szymanski, M.T., Abbott, G.D., Bortolussi, R., and Hamilton, J.R., 1974, Orbivirus acute gastroenteritis of infancy, Lancet 1:1241.Google Scholar
  228. Middleton, P.J., Petric, M., and Szymanski, M.T., 1975, Propagation of infantile gastroenteritis virus (orbi-group) in conventional and germfree piglets, Infect Immun. 12:1276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Middleton, P.J., Petric, M., Hewitt, C.M., Szymanski, M.T., and Tarn, J.S., 1976, Counterimmunoelectro-osmophoresis for the detection of infantile gastroenteritis virus (orbigroup) antigen and antibody, J. Clin. Pathol. 29:191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Middleton, P.J., Holdaway, M.D., Petric, M., Szymanski, M.T., and Tarn, J.S., 1977a, Solidphase radioimmunoassay for the detection of rotaviruses, Infect. Immun. 16:439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Middleton, P.J., Szymanski, M.T., and Petric, M., 1977b, Viruses associated with acute gastroenteritis in young children, Am. J. Dis. Child. 131:733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Moosai, R.B., Gardner, P.S., Almeida, J.D., and Greenaway, M.A., 1979, A simple immunofluorescent technique for the detection of human rotavirus, J. Med. Virol. 3:189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Much, D.H., and Zajac, I., 1972, Purification and characterization of epizootic diarrhea of infant mice virus, Infect. Immun. 6:1019.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Murphy, F.A., Coleman, P.H., Harrison, A.K., and Gary, G.W., Jr., 1968, Colorado tick fever virus: An electron microscopic study, Virology 35:28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Murphy, F.A., Borden, E.C., Shope, R.E., and Harrison, A., 1971, Physicochemical and morphological relationships of some arthropod-borne viruses to bluetongue virus—a new taxonomic group: Electron microscopic studies, J. Gen. Virol. 13:273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Murphy, A.M., Albrey, M.B., and Crewe, E.B., 1977, Rotavirus infections of neonates, Lancet 2:1149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Murphy, A.M., Grohmann, G.S., and Sexton, M., 1983, Infectious gastroenteritis in Norfolk Island and recovery of viruses from drinking water, Med. J. Aust. Google Scholar
  238. Newman, J.F.F., Brown, F., Bridger, J.C., and Woode, G.N., 1975, Characterization of a rotavirus, Nature (London) 258:631.Google Scholar
  239. Nicolaieff, A., Obert, G., and van Regenmortel, M.H.V., 1980, Detection of rotavirus by serological trapping on antibody-coated electron microscope grids, J. Clin. Microbiol. 12:101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Novo, E., and Esparza, J., 1981, Composition and topography of structural polypeptides of bovine rotavirus, J. Gen. Virol. 56:325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Obert, G., Gloeckler, R., Burckard, J., and van Regenmortel, M.H., 1981, Comparison of immunoabsorbent electron microscopy, enzyme immunoassay and counter-immunoe-lectrophoresis for detection of human rotavirus in stools, J. Virol. Methods 3:99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Ogra, P.L., and Karzon, D.T., 1969, Poliovirus antibody response in serum and nasal secretions following intranasal inoculation with inactivated poliovaccine, J. Immunol. 105:15.Google Scholar
  243. Ørstavik, I., and Haug, K.W., 1976, Virus-specific IgM antibodies in acute gastroenteritis due to a reovirus-like agent (rotavirus), Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 8:237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Ørstavik, I., Haug, K.W., and Søvde, 1976, Rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis in two adults probably caused by virus reinfection, Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 8:277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Palmer, E.L., Martin, MX., and Murphy, F.A., 1977, Morphology and stability of infantile gastroenteritis virus: Comparison with reovirus and bluetongue virus, J. Gen. Virol. 35:403.Google Scholar
  246. Payne, C.M., Ray, C.G., and Yolken, R.H., 1981, The 30-to 54-nm rotavirus-like particles in gastroenteritis: Incidence and antigenic relationship to rotavirus, J. Med. Virol. 7:299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Pearson, G.R., and McNulty, M.S., 1977, Pathological changes in the small intestine of neonatal pigs infected with a pig reovirus-like agent (rotavirus), J. Comp. Pathol. 87:363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Pearson, G.R., and McNulty, M.S., 1979, Ultrastructural changes in small intestinal epithelium of neonatal pigs infected with pig rotavirus, Arch. Virol. 59:127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Petric, M., Szymanski, M.T., and Middleton, P.J., 1975, Purification and preliminary characterization of infantile gastroenteritis virus (orbivirus group), Intervirology 5:233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Petric, M., Middleton, P.J., Grant, C., Tarn, J.S., and Hewitt C.M., 1978, Lapine rotavirus— preliminary studies on epizootology and transmission, Can. J. Comp. Med. 42:143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Petric, B.L., Graham, D.Y., and Estes, M.K., 1981, Identification of rotavirus particle types, Intervirology 16:20.Google Scholar
  252. Ramia, S., and Sattar, S.A., 1979, Simian rotavirus SA 11 plaque formation in the presence of trypsin, J. Clin. Microbiol. 10:609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Ramia, S., and Sattar, S.A., 1980, Proteolytic enzymes and rotavirus SA 11 plaque formation, Can. J. Comp. Med. 44:232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Ramig, R.F., 1982, Isolation and genetic characterization of temperature-sensitive mutants of simian rotavirus SA 11, Virology 120:93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Reed, D.E., Daley, C.A., and Shave, H.J., 1976, Reovirus-like agent associated with neonatal diarrhoea in pronghorn antelope, J. Wildl. Dis. 12:488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Robbins, P.W., Hubbard, S.C, Turco, S.J., and Wirth, D.F, 1977, Proposal for a common oligosaccharide intermediate in the synthesis of membrane glycoproteins, Cell 12:893.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Rodger, S.M., and Holmes, I.H., 1979, Comparison of the genomes of simian, bovine, and human rotaviruses by gel electrophoresis and detection of genomic variation among bovine isolates, J. Virol. 30:839.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Rodger, S.M., Craven, J.A., and Williams, I., 1975a, Demonstration of reovirus-like particles in intestinal contents of piglets with diarrhoea, Aust. Vet. J. 51:536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Rodger, S.M., Schnagl, R.D., and Holmes, I.H., 1975b, Biochemical and biophysical characteristics of diarrhea viruses of human and calf origin, J. Virol. 16:1229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Rodger, S.M., Schnagl, R.D., and Holmes, I.H., 1977, Further biochemical characterization, including the detection of surface glycoproteins, of human, calf, and simian rotaviruses, J. Virol. 24:91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Rodger, S.M., Holmes, I.H., and Studdert, M.J., 1980, Characteristics of the genomes of equine rotaviruses, Vet. Microbiol. 5:243.Google Scholar
  262. Rodger, S.M., Bishop, R.F., Birch, C., McLean, B., and Holmes, I.H., 1981, Molecular epidemiology of human rotaviruses in Melbourne, Australia, from 1973–1979, as determined by electrophoresis of genome ribonucleic acid, J. Clin. Microbiol. 13:272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Rodriguez, W.J., Kim, H.W., Arrobio, J.O., Brandt, C.D., Chanock, R.M., Kapikian, A.Z., Wyatt, R.G., and Parrott, R.H., 1977, Clinical features of acute gastroenteritis associated with human reovirus-like agent in infants and young children, J. Pediatr. 91:188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Rodriguez, W.J., Kim, H.W., Brandt, C.D., Yolken, R.H., Arrobio, J.O., Kapikian, A.Z., Chanock, R.M., and Parrott, R.H., 1978, Sequential enteric illnesses associated with different rotavirus serotypes, Lancet 2:37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Rodriguez, W.J., Kim, H.W., Brandt, C.D., Yolken, R.H., Richard, M., Arrobio, J.O., Schwartz, R.H., Kapikian, A.Z., Chanock, R.M., and Parrott, R.M., 1979, Common exposure outbreak of gastroenteritis due to Type 2 rotavirus with high secondary attack rate within families, J. Infect. Dis. 140:353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Rodriguez, W.J., Kim, H.W., Brandt, C.D., Bise, B., Kapikian, A.Z., Chanock, R.M., Curlin, G., and Parrott, R.H., 1980, Rotavirus gastroenteritis in the Washington, D.C., area: Incidence of cases resulting in admission to the hospital, Am. J. Dis. Child. 134:777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Rogers, F.G., Chapman, S., and Whitby, H., 1981, A comparison of lyphogel, ammonium sulphate and ultracentrifugation in the concentration of stool viruses for electron microscopy, J. Clin. Pathol. 34:227.Google Scholar
  268. Roseto, A., Escaig, J., Delain, E., Cohen, J., and Scherrer, R., 1979, Structure of rotaviruses as studied by the freeze-drying technique, Virology 98:471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Roseto, A., Lema, F., Cavalieri, F., Dianoux, L., Sitbon, M., Ferchal, F., Lasneret, J., and Peries, J., 1980, Electron microscopy detection and characterization of viral particles in dog stools, Arch. Virol. 66:89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Rubenstein, D., Milne, R.G., Buckland, R., and Tyrrell, D.A.J., 1971, The growth of the virus of epidemic diarrhoea of infant mice (EDIM) in organ cultures in intestinal epithelium, Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 52:442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Ryder, R.W., McGowan, J.E., Jr., Hatch, M.H., and Palmer, EX., 1977, Reovirus-like agent as cause of nosocomial diarrhea, J. Pediatr. 90:698.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Ryder, R.W., Oquist, C.A., Greenberg, H., Taylor, D.N., Orskov, F., Orskov, L., Kapikian, A.Z., and Sack, R.B., 1981, Travelers diarrhea in Panamanan tourists in Mexico, J. Infect. Dis. 144:442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Saif, L.J., Theil, K.W., and Bohl, E.H., 1978, Morphogenesis of porcine rotavirus in porcine kidney cell cultures and intestinal epithelial cells, J. Gen. Virol. 39:205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Sanekata, T., Yoshida, Y., and Oda, K., 1979, Detection of rotavirus from faeces by reversed passive haemagglutination method, J. Clin. Pathol. 32:963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Sarkkinen, H.K., Meurman, O.H., and Halonen, P.E., 1979, Solid phase radioimmunoassay of IgA, IgG and IgM antibodies to human rotavirus, J. Med. Virol. 3:281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Sarkkinen, H.K., Tuokko, H., and Halonen, P.E., 1980, Comparison of enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay for detection of human rotaviruses and adenoviruses in stool specimens, J. Virol. Methods 1:331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Sato, K., Inaba, Y., Shinozaki, T., Fujii, R., and Matsumoto, M., 1981, Isolation of human rotavirus in cell cultures, Arch. Virol. 69:155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Saulsbury, F.T., Winkelstein, J.A., and Yolken, R.H., 1980, Chronic rotavirus infection in immunodeficiency, J. Pediatr. 97:61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Scherrer, R., and Bernard, S., 1977, Application of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to the detection of calf rotavirus and rotavirus antibodies, Ann. Microbiol. (Inst. Pasteur) 128A:499.Google Scholar
  280. Schnagl, R.D., and Holmes, I.H., 1976, Characteristics of the genome of human infantile enteritis virus (rotavirus), J. Virol. 19:267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Schnagl, R.D., Rodger, S.M., and Holmes, I.H., 1981, Variation in human rotavirus electropherotypes occurring between rotavirus gastroenteritis epidemics in Central Australia, Infect. Immun. 33:17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Schroeder, B.A., Street, J.E., Kalmakoff, J., and Bellamy, A.R., 1982, Sequence relationships between the genome segments of human and animal rotavirus strains, J. Virol. 43:379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Scott, A.C., Luddington, J., Lucas, M., and Gilbert, F.R., 1978, Rotavirus in goats, Vet. Rec. 103:145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Shearman, D.J., Parkin, D.M., and McClelland, D.B., 1972, The demonstration and function of antibodies in the gastrointestinal tract, Gut 13:483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Shepherd, R.W., Truslow, S., Walker-Smith, J.A., Bird, R., Cutting, W., Darnell, R., and Barker, C.M., 1975, Infantile gastroenteritis: A clinical study of reovirus-like agent infection, Lancet 2:1082.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Sheridan, J.F., Aurelian, L., Barbour, G., Santosham, M., Sack, R.B., and Ryder, R.W., 1981, Traveller’s diarrhea associated with rotavirus infection: Analysis of virus-specific immunoglobulin classes, Infect. Immun. 31:419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Shinozaki, T., 1978, Hemagglutinin from human reovirus-like agent, Lancet 1:877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Shirley, J.A., Beards, G.M., Thouless, M.E., and Flewett, T.H., 1981, The influence of divalent cations on the stability of human rotaviruses, Arch. Virol. 67:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Smith, E.M., Estes, M.K., Graham, D.Y., and Gerba, C.P., 1979, A plaque assay for the simian rotavirus SA 11, J. Gen. Virol. 43:513.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Smith, M., and Tzipori, S., 1979, Gel electrophoresis of rotavirus RNA derived from six different animal species, Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 57:583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Smith, M.L., Lazdins, I., and Holmes, I.H., 1980, Coding assignments of ds RNA segments of SA 11 rotavirus established by in vitro translation, J. Virol. 33:976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Snodgrass, D.R., and Herring, J.A., 1977, The action of disinfectants on lamb rotavirus, Vet. Rec. 101:81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. Snodgrass, D.R., and Wells, P.W., 1976, Rotavirus infection in lambs: Studies on passive protection, Arch. Virol. 52:201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. Snodgrass, D.R., and Wells, P.W., 1978, Passive immunity in rotaviral infections, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 173:565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. Snodgrass, D.R., Smith, W., Gray, E.W., and Herring, J.A., 1976, A rotavirus in lambs with diarrhoea, Res. Vet. Sci. 20:113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. Snodgrass, D.R., Angus, K.W., and Gray, E.W., 1977a, Rotavirus infection in lambs: Pathogenesis and pathology, Arch. Virol. 55:263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. Snodgrass, D.R., Madeley, C.R., Wells, P.W., and Angus, K.W., 1977b, Human rotavirus in lambs: Infection and passive protection, Infect. Immunol. 16:268.Google Scholar
  298. Snodgrass, D.R., Angus, K.W., and Gray, E.W., 1979, A rotavirus from kittens, Vet Rec. 104:222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. Snodgrass, D.R., Fahey, K.J., Wells, P.W., Campbell, I., and Whitelaw, A., 1980, Passive immunity in calf rotavirus infections: Maternal vaccination increases and prolongs immunoglobulin G1 antibody secretion in milk, Infect. Immun. 28:344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Soenarto, Y., Sebodo, T., Ridho, R., Alrasjid, H., Rohde, J.E., Bugg, H.C., Barnes, G.L., and Bishop, R.F., 1981, Acute diarrhoea and rotavirus infection in newborn babies and children in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, from June 1978 to June 1979, J. Clin. Miciobiol. 14:123.Google Scholar
  301. Soike, K.F., Gary, G.W., and Gibson, S., 1980, Susceptibility of nonhuman primate species to infection by simian rotavirus SA 11, Am. J. Vet. Res. 41:1098.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. Sonza, S., and Holmes, I.H., 1980, Coproantibody response to rotavirus infection, Med. J. Aust. 2:496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Spence, L., Fauvel, M., Petro, R., and Bloch, S., 1976, Haemmagglutinin from rotavirus, Lancet 2:1023.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. Spence, L., Fauvel, M., Petro, R., and Bloch, S., 1977, Comparison of counterimmunoelectrophoresis and electron microscopy for laboratory diagnosis of human reovirus-like agent-associated infantile gastroenteritis, J. Clin. Microbiol. 5:248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Spence, L., Fauvel, M., Petro, R., and Babiuk, L.A., 1978, Comparison of rotavirus strains by hemagglutination inhibition, Can. J. Microbiol. 24:353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. Stair, EX., Mebus, C.A., Twiehaus, M.J., and Underdahl, N.R., 1973, Neonatal calf diarrhea: Electron microscopy of intestines infected with a reovirus-like agent, Vet. Pathol. 10:155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Stannard, L.M., and Schoub, B.D., 1977, Observations on the morphology of two rotaviruses, J. Gen. Virol. 37:435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. Stoltzfus, C.M., Morgan, M., Banerjee, A.K., and Shatkin, A.J., 1974, Poly (a) polymerase activity in reovirus, J. Virol. 13:1338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. Street, J.E., Croxson, M.C., Chadderton, W.F., and Bellamy, AR., 1982, Sequence diversity of human rotavirus strains investigated by Northern blot hybridization analysis, J. Virol. 43:369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. Stuker, G., Oshiro, L.S., and Schmidt, N.J., 1980, Antigenic comparisons of two new rotaviruses from rhesus monkeys, J. Clin. Microbiol. 11:202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. Sutmoller, F., Azeredo, R.S., Lacerda, M.D., Barth, O.M., Pereira, H.G., Hoffer, E., and Schatzmayr, H.G., 1982, An outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by both rotavirus and Shigella sonnei in a private school in Rio de Janiero, J. Hyg. (Cambridge) 88:285.Google Scholar
  312. Suzuki, H., and Konno, T., 1975, Reovirus-like particles in jejunal mucosa of a Japanese infant with acute infectious non-bacterial gastroenteritis, Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 115:199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. Svennerholm, A.-M., Holmgren, J., Hanson, L.A., Lindblad, B.S., Quereshi, F., and Rahmintoola, J., 1977, Boosting of secretory IgA antibody responses in man by parenteral cholera vaccination, Scand. J. Immunol. 6:1345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. Tarn, J.S., Szymanski, M.T., Middleton, P.J., and Petric, M., 1976, Studies on the particles of infantile gastroenteritis virus (orbivirus group), Intervirology 7:181.Google Scholar
  315. Tan, J.A., and Schnagl, R.D., 1981, Inactivation of a rotavirus by disinfectants, Med. J. Aust. 1:19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. Theil, K.W., Bohl, E.H., and Agnes, A.G., 1977, Cell culture propagation of porcine rotavirus (reovirus-like agent), Am. J. Vet. Res. 38:1765.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. Theil, K.W., Bohl, E.H., Cross, R.F., Kohler, E.M., and Agnes, A.G., 1978, Pathogenesis of porcine rotaviral infection in experimentally inoculated gnotobiotic pigs, Am. J. Vet. Res. 39:213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. Theil, K.W., McCloskey, C.M., Saif, L.J., Redman, D.R., Bohl, E.H., Hancock, D.D., Kohler, E.M., and Moorhead, P.D., 1981, A rapid, simple method for preparing rotaviral doublestranded ribonucleic acid for analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, J. Clin. Microbiol. 14:273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. Thouless, M.E., 1979, Rotavirus polypeptides, J. Gen. Virol. 44:187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. Thouless, M.E., Bryden, A.S., and Flewett, T.H., 1977a, Rotavirus neutralization by human milk, Br. Med. J. 2:1390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. Thouless, M.E., Bryden, A.S., Flewett, T.H., Woode, G.N., Bridger, J.C., Snodgrass, D.R., and Herring, J.A., 1977b, Serological relationships between rotaviruses from different species as studied by complement fixation and neutralization, Arch. Virol. 53:287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. Thouless, M.E., Bryden, A.S., and Flewett, T.H., 1978, Serotypes of human rotavirus, Lancet 1:39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. Todd, D., and McNulty, M.S., 1976, Characterization of pig rotavirus RNA, J. Gen. Virol. 33:147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. Todd, D., and McNulty, M.S., 1977, Biochemical studies on a reovirus-like agent (rotavirus) from lambs, Virology 21:1215.Google Scholar
  325. Todd, D., McNulty, M.S., and Allan, G.M., 1980, Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of avian rotavirus RNA, Arch. Virol. 63:87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. Torres-Medina, A., Wyatt, R.G., Mebus, C.A., Underdahl, N.R., and Kapikian, A.Z., 1976, Diarrhea caused in gnotobiotic piglets by the reovirus-like agent of human infantile gastroenteritis, J. Infect. Dis. 133:22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. Tufvesson, B., and Johnsson, T., 1976, Immunoelectroosmophoresis for detection of reolike virus: Methodology and comparison with electron microscopy, Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. Sect. B 84:225.Google Scholar
  328. Tzipori, S., 1976, Human rotavirus in young dogs, Med. J. Aust. 2:922.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. Tzipori, S., and Caple, I.W., 1976, Isolation of a rotavirus from deer, Vet. Rec. 99:398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. Tzipori, S., and Walker, M., 1978, Isolation of rotavirus from foals with diarrhoea, Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 56:453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. Tzipori, S., and Williams, I.H., 1978, Diarrhoea in piglets inoculated with rotavirus, Aust. Vet. J. 54:188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. Tzipori, S.R., Makin, T.J., Smith, M.L., and Krautil, F.L., 1981, Clinical manifestations of diarrhea in calves infected with rotavirus and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, J. Clin. Microbiol. 13:1011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. Urasawa, T., Urasawa, S., and Taniguchi, K., 1981, Sequential passages of human rotavirus in MA-104 cells, Microbiol. Immunol. 25:1025.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. Verly, E., and Cohen, J., 1977, Demonstration of size variation of RNA segments between different isolates of calf rotavirus, J. Gen. Virol. 35:583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. Vollet, J.J., Ericsson, C.D., Gibson, G., Pickering, L.K., DuPont, H.L., Kohl, S., and Conklin, R.H., 1979, Human rotavirus in an adult population with traveler’s diarrhoea and its relationship to the location of food consumption, J. Med. Virol. 4:81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. Von Bonsdorff, C.-H., Hovi, T., Makela, P., Hovi, L., and Tevalvoto-Aarn, M., 1976, Rotavirus associated with acute gastroenteritis in adults, Lancet 2:423.Google Scholar
  337. Ward, R.L., and Ashley, C.S., 1980, Effects of wastewater sludge and its detergents on the stability of rotavirus, Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 39:1154.Google Scholar
  338. Welch, A.B., 1971, Purification, morphology and partial characterization of a reovirus-like agent associated with neonatal calf diarrhea, Can. J. Comp. Med. 35:195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. Welch, A.B., and Thompson, T.L., 1973, Physicochemical characterization of a neonatal calf diarrhea virus, Can. J. Comp. Med. 37:295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. Welch, A.B., and Twiehaus, M.J., 1973, Cell culture studies of a neonatal calf diarrhea virus, Can. J. Comp. Med. 37:287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. Wenman, W.M., Hinde, D., Feltham, S., and Gurwith, M., 1979, Rotavirus infections in adults: Results of a prospective family study, N. Engl. J. Med. 301:303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. W.H.O., 1976, Treatment and prevention in diarrheal diseases—a guide for use at the primary level, W.H.O., Geneva.Google Scholar
  343. W.H.O., 1979, The W.H.O. Diarrhoeal Diseases Control Programme, WHO Weekly Epidemiol. Rec. 16:121.Google Scholar
  344. W.H.O. Scientific Working Group, 1980, Rotavirus and other viral diarrhoeas, Bull, W.H.O. 58:183.Google Scholar
  345. Wilsnack, R.E., Blackwell, J.H., and Parker, J.C., 1969, Identification of an agent of epizootic diarrhea of infant mice by immunofluorescent and complement fixation tests, Am. J. Vet Res. 30:1195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. Wolf, J.L., Cukor, G., Blacklow, J.R., Dambrauskas, R., and Trier, J.S., 1981, Susceptibility of mice to rotavirus infection: Effects of age and administration of corticosteroids, Infect. Immun. 33:565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. Woode, G.N., and Bridger, J.C., 1975, Viral enteritis of calves, Vet. Rec. 96:85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. Woode, G.N., Jones, J., and Bridger, J., 1975, Levels of colostral antibodies against neonatal calf diarrhoea virus, Vet. Rec. 97:148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. Woode, G.N., Bridger, J., Hall, G.A., Jones, J.M., and Jackson, G., 1976a, The isolation of reovirus-like agents (rotaviruses) from acute gastroenteritis of piglets, J. Med. Microbiol. 9:203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. Woode, G.N., Bridger, J.C., Jones, J.M., Flewett, T.H., Bryden, A.S., Davies, H.A., and White, G.B.B., 1976b, Morphological and antigenic relationships between viruses (rotaviruses) from acute gastroenteritis of children, calves, piglets, mice and foals, Infect. Immunol. 14:804.Google Scholar
  351. Woode, G.N., Bew, M.E., and Dennis, M.J., 1978, Studies on cross protection induced in calves by rotaviruses of calves, children and foals, Vet. Rec. 103:32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. Wyatt, R.G., Kapikian, A.Z., Thornhill, T.S., Sereno, M.M., Kim, H.W., and Chanock, R.M., 1974, In vitro cultivation in human fetal intestinal organ culture of a reovirus-like agent associated with nonbacterial gastroenteritis in infants and children, J. Infect. Dis. 130:523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  353. Wyatt, R.G., Gill, V.W., Sereno, M.M., Kalica, A.R., Van Kirk, D.H., Chanock, R.M., and Kapikian, A.Z., 1976a, Probable in vitro cultivation of human reovirus-like agent of infantile diarrhoea, Lancet 1:98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. Wyatt, R.G., Sly, D.L., London, W.T., Palmer, A.E., Kalica, A.R., Van Kirk, D.H., Chanock, R.M., and Kapikian, A.Z., 1976b, Induction of diarrhea in colostrum-deprived newborn rhesus monkeys with the human reovirus-like agent of infantile gastroenteritis, Arch. Virol. 50:17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  355. Wyatt, R.G., Mebus, C.A., Yolken, R.H., Kalica, A.R., James, H.D., Jr., Kapikian, A.Z., and Chanock, R.M., 1979a, Rotaviral immunity in gnotobiotic calves: Heterologous resistance to human virus induced by bovine virus, Science 203:548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. Wyatt, R.G., Yolken, R.H., Urrutia, J.J., Mata, L., Greenberg, H.B., Chanock, R.M., and Kapikian, A.Z., 1979b, Diarrhea associated with rotavirus in rural Guatemala: A longitudinal study of 24 infants and young children, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 28:325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. Wyatt, R.G., James, W.D., Bohl, E.H., Theil, K.W., Saif, L.J., Kalica, A.R., Greenberg, H.B., Kapikian, A.Z., and Chanock, R.M., 1980, Human rotavirus type 2: Cultivation in vitro, Science 207:189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. Wyatt, R.G., Greenberg, H.B., James, W.D., Pittman, A.L., Kalica, A.R., Flores, J., Chanock, R.M., and Kapikian, A.Z., 1982, Definition of human rotavirus serotypes by plaque reduction assayGoogle Scholar
  359. Yolken, R.H., Kim, H.W., Clem, T., Wyatt, R.G., Kalica, A.R., Chanock, R.M., and Kapikian, A.Z., 1977, Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of human reovirus-like agent of infantile gastroenteritis, Lancet 2:263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. Yolken, R.H., Mata, L., Garcia, B., Urrutia, J.J., Wyatt, R.G., Chanock, R.M., and Kapikian, A.Z;., 1978a, Secretory antibody directed against rotavirus in human milk— measurement by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), J. Pediatr. 93:916.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  361. Yolken, R.H., Wyatt, R.G., Zissis, G., Brandt, C.D., Rodriguez, W.J., Kim, H.W., Parrott, R.H., Urrutia, J.J., Mata, L., Greenberg, H.B., Kapikian, A.Z., and Chanock, R.M., 1978b, Epidemiology of human rotavirus types 1 and 2 as studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, N. Engl. J. Med. 299:1156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. Zamotin, B.A., Libüäinen, L.T., Bortnik, F.L., Chernetskaia, E.P., and Enina, Z.I., 1981, Waterborne outbreaks of rotavirus infections, Zh. Mikrobiol. Epidemiol. Immunobiol. 11:100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. Zissis, G., and Lambert, J.P., 1978, Different serotypes of human rotavirus, Lancet 1:38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. Zissis, G., and Lambert, J.P., 1980, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays adapted for serotyping of human rotavirus strains, J. Clin. Microbiol. 11:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. Zissis, G., Lambert, J.P., Kapsenberg, J.G., Enders, G., and Mutanda, L.N., 1981, Human rotavirus serotypes, Lancet 1:944.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian H. Holmes
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyUniversity of MelbourneParkvilleAustralia

Personalised recommendations