Analyzing performance data is not an easy task. There are dozens of performance counters, and if you do not know how to analyze the information correctly, that can mislead you in so many ways and eventually it will cause you get the wrong conclusion. Additionally, hardware and features are rapidly evolving, and your performance testing and analysis methodologies may need to evolve as well. However, as performance counters are always based on samples over time, you can apply the concepts detailed in this chapter to make your life easier when trying to find an issue or a bottleneck. In this chapter, you will learn general analysis techniques that you can use to troubleshoot performance issues. Although the examples used focus on BizTalk Server, you could extrapolate them to any other software that exposes their performance counters.