Anatomy, Antinomies, and the Problem of Anthropoid Origins

  • Matt Cartmill
Part of the Advances in Primatology book series (AIPR)

Abstract

At the moment, nearly all students of primate evolution agree that modern anthropoids comprise a holophyletic clade with respect to other living primates, i.e., that there was once a single species from which all anthropoids, and no other extant animals, are descended. The 1992 conference at Duke University upon which this volume is based demonstrated that there is not much current agreement on other points concerning anthropoid origins, no matter whether cladistic questions (which primates are the phyletic sister group of the Anthropoidea?) or gradistic questions (which characteristic traits of modern anthropoids did the ancestral anthropoid species possess?) are at issue.

References

  1. Baba, M. L., Weiss, M. L., Goodman, M., and Gzelusniak, J. 1982. The case of tarsier hemoglobin. Syst. Zool. 31:156–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beard, J. M., and Goodman, M. 1976. The hemoglobins oïTarsius bancanus. In: M. Goodman and R. E. Tashian (eds), Molecular Anthropology, pp. 239–255. Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gartmill, M. 1972. Arboreal adaptations and the origin of the order Primates. In: R. H. Puttie (ed.), The Functional and Evolutionary Biology of Primates, pp. 97–122. Aldine-Atherton, GhiCagoGoogle Scholar
  4. Gartmill, M. 1975. Strepsirhine basicranial structures and the affinities of the Gheirogaleidae. In: W. P. Luckett and F. S. Szalay (eds.), Phytogeny of the Primates: A Mult id iscipli nary Approach, pp. 313–354. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Gartmill, M. 1980. Morphology, function, and evolution of the anthropoid postorbital septum. In: R. L. Giochon and A. B. Ghiarelli (eds.), Evolutionary Biology of the New World Monkeys and Continental Drift, pp. 243–274. Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gartmill, M. 1982. Assessing tarsier affinities: Is anatomical description phylogenetically neutral? Geobios Mem. Spec. 6:279–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gartmill, M. 1992. Homology as a morphological concept. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. [Suppl.] 14:57–58.Google Scholar
  8. Gartmill, M. 1994. A critique of homology as a morphological concept. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 94:115–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gartmill, M., and Kay, R. F. 1978. Granio-dental morphology, tarsier affinities, and primate sub-orders. In: D.J. Ghivers and K. A. Joysey (eds.), Recent Advances in Primatology, Vol. 3, pp. 205–214. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  10. Gartmill, M., MacPhee, R. D. E., and Simons, E. L. 1981. Anatomy of the temporal bone in early anthropoids, with remarks on the problem of anthropoid origins. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. 56:3–21.Google Scholar
  11. Gave, A.J. E. 1967. Observations on the platyrrhine nasal fossa. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. 26:277–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Govert, H. H., and Williams, B. A. 1991. The anterior lower dentition of Washakius insignis and adapid-anthropoidean affinities. J. Hum. Evol. 21:463–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gzelusniak, J., Koop, B., Tagle, D., Shoshani, H., Goodman, M., Braunitzer, G., Kleinschmidt, T. de Jong, W. W., and Matsuda, G. 1988. Perspectives from amino acid and nucleotide sequences on cladistic relationships among higher taxa of Eutheria. In: H. H. Genoways (ed.), Current Mammalogy, pp. 545–572. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Dagosto, M. 1985. The distal tibia of primates with special reference to the Omomyidae. Int. J. Primatol. 6:45–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dagosto, M. 1988. Implications of postcranial evidence for the origin of euprimates. J. Hum. Evol. 17:35–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. de Jong, W. W., and Goodman, M. 1988. Anthropoid affinities of Tarsius supported by lens alpha- A crystallin sequences. J. Hum. Evol. 17:575–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Elliot, O., Yess, N.J., and Hegsted, D. M. 1966. Biosynthesis of ascorbic acid in the tree shrew and slow loris. Nature 212:739–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gingerich, P. D. 1977. Radiation of Eocene Adapidae in Europe. Geobios, Mem. spec. 1:165–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gingerich, P. D. 1978. Phylogeny reconstruction and the phylogenetic position of Tars his. In: D. J. Ghivers and K. A. Joysey (eds), Recent Advances in Primatology, Vol 3. , pp. 249–256. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  20. Gingerich, P. D. 1981. Early Genozoic Omomyidae and the evolutionary history of the tarsiiform primates. J. Hum. Evol. 10:345–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gingerich, P. D. 1984. Primate evolution: Evidence from the fossil record, comparative morphology, and evolutionary biology. Yearb. Phys. Anthropol. 27:57–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Haines, R. W. 1950. The interorbital septum in mammals. J. Linn. Soc. Land. (Zool). 41:585–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Healy, K. C. 1992. Chromosome Bandingas a Source of Phylogenese Informat ion: A Critique Based on the Case of Tarsius. Ph.D. dissertation, Duke University.Google Scholar
  24. Hubrecht, A. A. W. 1897. The Descent of the Primates. Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  25. Kampen, P. N. van. 1905. Die Tympanalgegend des Säugetierschädels. Ceg. Morph. Jahrb. 34:321–722.Google Scholar
  26. Koop, B. F., Tagle, D. A., Goodman, M., and Slighton, J. L. 1989a. A molecular view of primate phylogeny and important systematic and evolutionary questions. Mol. Biol. Evol. 6:580–612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Koop, B. F., Siemieniak, D., Slighton, J. L., Goodman, M., Dunbar, J., Wright, P. C., and Simons, E. L. 1989b. Tarsius ß- and 8-globin genes: Conversions, evolution, and systematic implications. J. Biol. Chem. 264:68–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Euckett, W. P. 1975. Ontogeny of the fetal membranes and placenta: Their bearing on primate phylogeny. In: W. P. Luckett and F. S. Szalay (eds.), Phytogeny of the Primates: A Multidisciplin-ary Approach, pp. 157–182. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  29. Euckett, W. P. 1976. Gladistic relationships among primate higher categories: Evidence of the fetal membranes and placenta. Fol. Primatolol. 25:245–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. MacPhee, R. D. E., and Cartmill, M. 1986. Basicranial structures and primate systematics. In: D. R. Swindler and J. Erwin (eds.), Comparative Primate Biology, Vol. 1, pp. 219–276. Alan R. Eiss, New York.Google Scholar
  31. Martin, R. D. 1973. Comparative anatomy and primate systematics. Symp. Zool. Soc. Loud. 33:301–337.Google Scholar
  32. Martin, R. D. 1990. Primate Origins and Evolution: A Phylogenetic Reconstruction. Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  33. McGrath, P., and Mills, P. 1984. Atlas of Sectional Anatomy: Head, Neck, and Trunk. Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  34. Packer, D., and Sarmiento, E. E. 1984. External and middle ear characteristics of primates with reference to tarsier—anthropoid affinities. Am. Mus. Novit. 2787:1–23.Google Scholar
  35. Pettigrew, J. D., Jamieson, B. G. M., Robson, S. K., Hall, E. S., McNally, K. E, and Cooper, H. M. 1989. Phylogenetic relations between microbats, megabats and primates (Mammalia: Chirop-tera and Primates). Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Loud. [B] 325:489–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pocock, R. I. 1918. On the external characters of the Lemurs and of Tarsius. Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud. 1918:19–53.Google Scholar
  37. Pollock, J. E, and Mullin, R. J. 1987. Vitamin C biosynthesis in prosimians: Evidence for the anthropoid affinity of Tarsius. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. 73:65–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Poorman, P. A., Cartmill, M., MacPhee, R. D. E., and Moses, M. 1985. The banded karyotype of Tarsius bancanus and its implications for primate phylogeny. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. 66:215.Google Scholar
  39. Rasmussen, D. T. 1986. Anthropoid origins: A possible solution to the Adapidae-Omomyidae paradox. J. Hum. Evol. 15:1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rosenberger, A. E. 1985. In favor of the necrolemur-tarsier hypothesis. Fol. Primatol. 45:179–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rosenberger, A. L., and Strasser, E. 1985. Toothcomb origins: Support for the grooming hypothesis. Primates 26:73–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rosenberger, A. E., and Szalay, F. S. 1980. On the tarsiiform origins of Anthropoidea. In: R. L. Ciochon and A. B. Chiarelli (eds.), Evolutionary Biology of the New World Monkeys and Continental Drift, pp. 139–157. Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Schoch, R. M. 1986. Phylogeny Reconstruction in Paleontology. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  44. Schwartz, J. H. 1978. It’Tarsius is not a prosimian, is it a haplorhine? In: D.J. Chivers and K. A. Joysey (eds), Recent Advances in Primatology, Vol. 3, pp. 195–204. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  45. Schwartz, J. H., and Eattersall, I. 1987. Tarsiers, adapids and the integrity of Strepsirhini. J. Hum. Evol. 16:23–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Simons, E. L. 1989. Description of two genera and species of late Eocene Anthropoidea from Egypt. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:9956–9960.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Simons, E. L. 1990. Discovery of the oldest known anthropoidean skull from the Paleogene of Egypt. Science 247:1567–1569.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Simons, E. L. 1992. Diversity in the early Tertiary anthropoidean radiation in Africa. Fror. Natl. Acad. Sri, USA 89:10743–10747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Simons, E. L., and Rasmussen, D. T. 1989. Kranial morphology ol Aegyptopithecus and Tarsias and the question of the tarsier—anthropoid clade. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. 79:1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Simons, E. L., and Russell, D. E. 1960. Notes on the cranial anatomy of Necrolemur Mus. Clomp. Zool. Brev. 127:1–14.Google Scholar
  51. Simpson, G. G. 1945. Ehe principles of classification and a classification of mammals. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 85:1–350.Google Scholar
  52. Szalay, F. S. 1975. Phylogeny of primate higher taxa: The basicranial evidence. In: W. P. Luckett and F. S. Szalay (eds.), Phylogeny of the Primates: A Multidisciplinary Approach., pp. 91–125. Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Szalay, F. S., Rosenberger, A. E., and Dagosto, M. 1987. Diagnosis and differentiation of the order Primates. Yearb. Phys. Anthrop. 30:75–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tattersall, I., 1973, Cranial anatomy of the Archaeolemurinae (Eemuroidea, Primates). Authropol. Papers Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 52:1–110.Google Scholar
  55. Wible, J. R. 1984. The Ontogeny and Phylogeny of the Mammalian Cranial Arterial Pattern. Ph.D. dissertation, Duke University.Google Scholar
  56. Yoder, A. D. 1992. The Phylogenese affinities of the Cheirogaleidae: A Molecular and Morphological Analysis. Ph.D. dissertation, Duke University.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matt Cartmill
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological Anthropology and AnatomyDuke UniversityDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations