The Significance of the River Input of Chemical Elements to the Ocean

  • Jean-Marie Martin
  • Michael Whitfield
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 9)


The objectives of this paper are to review the role of rivers as a pathway of chemical elements from the land to the ocean and to assess the significance of river input of pollutants to oceanic chemistry.

The major importance of river suspended matter (R.S.M.) on the transport of chemical elements to the ocean is underlined. The relationship between river water/river suspended sediment partition coefficient and the electronegativity function QYO has been reassessed. A comparison between theoretical erosion and actual fluxes of material carried by rivers shows that for most chemical elements these two figures are similar. Additional fluxes are observed in rivers for some elements like Sb, Zn and Pb. This discrepancy is discussed in terms of steady state and non-steady state erosional processes.

During estuarine mixing the discharge of riverine elements to the ocean is drastically modified. More than 90% of the R.S.M. settles with its associated colloidal material produced when river water mixes with sea water. Consequently, due to the strong association of chemical elements with R.S.M., only a small percentage of the continental material will reach the sea. However, the comparison of R.S.M. with deep-sea clay composition emphasizes the prime influence of river input on oceanic sediment composition over a long term period for most elements with the exception of Mn, Co and Cu.

With regards to the dissolved phase, for the elements which exhibit a conservative behaviour during estuarine mixing (“accumulated” elements), corresponding to large mean oceanic residence time (MORT), the influence of anthropogenic discharge on the global ocean will not be readily noticeable although significant changes may be observed in the coastal zone.

For those elements which show “unchanged” or “depleted” concentrations in the ocean, the influence of industrial contamination cannot be significantly observed in the open ocean, because of their rapid removal in the estuarine and coastal zone.

Finally river input of chemical elements to the ocean is compared to atmospheric and volcanic sources of material.


River Water Chemical Element Coastal Zone River Input Ocean System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean-Marie Martin
    • 1
  • Michael Whitfield
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratoire de GeologieE.N.S.Paris Cedex, 05France
  2. 2.The LaboratoryMarine Biological Association of the U.K.Citadel Hill PlymouthGreat Britain

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