Extinctions in Near Time pp 271-331

Part of the Advances in Vertebrate Paleobiology book series (AIVP, volume 2)

The Quiet Crisis

A Preliminary Listing of the Freshwater Fishes of the World that Are Extinct or “Missing in Action”
  • Ian J. Harrison
  • Melanie L. J. Stiassny
Chapter

Abstract

Throughout most of human history, freshwater resources have been more than adequate to serve human needs while maintaining the integrity and biological diversity of Earth’s ecosystems. However, an exponentially increasing human population is placing ever greater demands on Earth’s limited supply of fresh waters. Already more than half of all accessible surface fresh water is put to use by humanity with concomitant degradation or loss of habitat such that Earth’s freshwater ecosystems have been altered more profoundly than have terrestrial ecosystems (Allan and Flecker, 1993; Postel et al., 1996; Stiassny, 1996, in press; Pimentai et al., 1997; Vitousek et al., 1997). Some particular examples serve to illustrate the gravity of the situation. In the United States, 98% of an estimated 5.2 million km of streams are sufficiently degraded to be unworthy of federal designation as wild or scenic rivers (Benke, 1990); industrial agriculture around the Aral Sea in the last 30 years has resulted in an approximate halving of the lake’s surface area and depth, and a tripling of its salinity (Mainguet and Létolle, 1997; Pimentai et al., 1997); only 2 of Japan’s 30,000 rivers are neither dammed nor modified in some way (McAllister et al., 1997). Undoubtedly these types of habitat degradation, often coupled with the deleterious effects of the introduction of exotic species (Courtenay and Moyle, 1992), have profound impacts on the resident biota. Although the precise degree of freshwater impoverishment remains to be fully documented, there can be little doubt that the losses are already great.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allan, J. D., and Recker, A. S. 1993. Biodiversity conservation in running waters. Bio Science 43: 32–43.Google Scholar
  2. Almada-Villela, P. C. 1990. Status of threatened fishes. J. Fish Biol. 37 (Suppl. A): 197–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alvarez, J., and Cortés, M. T. 1964. Una especie de Algansea capturada en el Alto Lerma (Pisc. Cyprin.). Ciencia (Mexico City) 23 (3): 104–106.Google Scholar
  4. Alvarez del Villar, J., and Navarro, G. L. 1957. Los peces del Valle de Mexico. Secretaria de Marina, Direccion General de Pesca e Industrias Conexas 1957: 1–62.Google Scholar
  5. Araga, C., and Ida, H. 1984. Salmonidae, in: H. Masuda, K. Amoaka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno, and T. Yoshino (eds.), The Fishes of the Japanese Archipelago, pp. 34–40. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
  6. Arratia, G. 1990. The South American Trichomycterinae (Teleostei: Siluriformes), a problematic group, in: G. Pe- ters and R. Hutterer (eds.), Vertebrates in the Tropics, pp. 395–403. Museum Alexander Koenig, Bonn.Google Scholar
  7. Aypa, S. M., Galicia, Jr., A. M., and Penolio, L. L. 1995. The present status and ecology of sinarapan, (Mistichthys luzonensis) in Lake Buhi, Camarines Sur, in: R. B. Edra, E. V. Manalili, and R. D. Guerrero III (eds.), Lake Fisheries management in the Philippines (Proceedings of the National Symposium-Workshop on Lake Fisheries Management, 28–39 October 1993, PCARRD, Los Banos, Laguna), pp. 27–74. PCAMRD Book Ser. No. 19/1995.Google Scholar
  8. Bailey, J. R., and Oliver, J. A. 1939. The fishes of the Connecticut watershed, in: H. E. Warfel, Biological Survey of the Connecticut Watershed, pp. 150–189. New Hampshire Fish and Game Department.Google Scholar
  9. Bailey, R. M., and Bond, C. E. 1963. Four new species of freshwater sculpins, genus Cottus, from western North America. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. 634: 1–27.Google Scholar
  10. Balik, S. 1995. Freshwater fish in Anatolia, Turkey. Biol. Conserv. 72: 213–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Banarescu, P. 1994. The present-day conservation status of the fresh water fish fauna of Romania. Ocrotirea Nat. Med. Inconjurator 38: 5–20.Google Scholar
  12. Barbour, C. D. 1974. Redescription and taxonomic status of Chirostoma compressum, a Mexican atherinid fish. Copeia 1974: 277–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barel, C. D. N., Dorit, R., Greenwood, P. H., Fryer, G., Hughes, N., Jackson, P. B. N., Kanawabe, H., Lowe-McConnell, R. H., Witte, F., and Yamoaka, K. 1985. Destruction of fisheries in Africa’s lakes. Nature 315: 19–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Barnard, K. H. 1938. Description of a new species of fresh-water fish from Natal. Ann. Natal Mus. 8 (3): 525–528.Google Scholar
  15. Baxter, G. T., and Simon, J. R. 1970. Wyoming fishes. 145o. Game Fish Dep. Bull. 4: 1–168.Google Scholar
  16. Behnke, R. J. 1972. The systematics of salmonid fishes of recently glaciated lakes. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 29: 639–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Behnke, R. J. 1980a. A systematic review of the genus Salvelinus, in: E. K. Balon (ed.), Charrs, Salmonid Fishes of the Genus Salvelinus, pp. 441–480. Junk, The Hague.Google Scholar
  18. Behnke, R. J. 1980b. Salmo clarki Richardson, in:D. S. Lee, C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. (eds.), Atlas of North American Freshwater Fishes,p. 105. North Carolina Biological Survey.Google Scholar
  19. Benke, A. C. 1990. A perspective on America’s vanishing streams. J. North Am. Bentholog. Soc. 91: 77–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Beverton, R. J. H. 1992. Fish resources; threats and protection. Neth. J. Zool. 42 (2–3): 139–175.Google Scholar
  21. Bianco, P. G. 1995. Mediterranean endemic freshwater fishes of Italy. Biol. Conserv. 72: 159–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Böhlke, J. E., Weitzman, S. H., and Menezes, N. A. 1978. Estado atual da sistematica dos peixes de agua doce de América do Sul. Acta Amazonica 8 (4): 657–677.Google Scholar
  23. Bond, C. E., and Kan, T. T. 1973. Lampetra (Entosphenus) minima n. sp., a dwarfed parasitic lamprey from Oregon. Copeia 1973: 568–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bondhus, J. 1995. North American Native Fishes Association Endangered Species Conservation Program. Aquas. Survie 4 (1): 9–12.Google Scholar
  25. Brenner, T. 1980. The arctic chary, Salvelinus alpinus salvelinus, in the prealpine Attersee, Austria, in: E. K. Galon (ed.), Charrs, Salmonid Fishes of the Genus Salvelinus, pp. 765–772. Junk, The Hague.Google Scholar
  26. Bruton, M. N. 1995. Have fish had their chips? The dilemma of threatened fishes. Environ. Biol. Fish. 43: 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chen, Y., and Cui, Y. 1993. Some aspects of biological diversity in freshwater ecosystems. Chin. Biodivers. 1: 4649.Google Scholar
  28. Chernoff, B., and Miller, R. R. 1986. Fishes of the Notropis calientis complex with a key to the southern shiners of Mexico. Copeia 1986: 170–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chernoff, B., Miller, R. R., and Gilbert, C. R. 1982. Notropis orca and Notropis simus, cyprinid fishes from the American southwest, with description of a new subspecies. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. 698: 1–49.Google Scholar
  30. Collar, N. J. 1998. Extinction by assumption; or, the Romeo Error on Cebu. Oryx 32 (4): 239–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Compagno, L. J. V. 1984. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of sharks known to date [Charcharhiniformes]. FAO Species Catalogue 4(2):25 l-655.Google Scholar
  32. Compagno, L. JV. 1988. Sharks of the Order Charcharhiniformes. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.Google Scholar
  33. Contreras-Balderas, S., and de L. Lozano-Vilano, M. 1996. Extinction of most Sandia and Potosí valleys (Nuevo Léon, Mexico) endemic pupfishes, crayfishes and snails. /chthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 7: 33–40.Google Scholar
  34. Costa, W. J. E. M. 1995. Pearl killifishes. The Cynolebiatinae. Systematics and biogeography of a neotropical annual fish subfamily (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae). T. F. H. Publications Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. 128 pp.Google Scholar
  35. Courtenay, J., W. R., and Moyle, P. B. 1992. Crimes against biodiversity: the lasting legacy of fish introductions. Transactions of the 57th North American Wildlife and Nature Reserve Conference 1992: 365–372.Google Scholar
  36. Crivelli, A. J. 1995. Are fish introductions a threat to endemic freshwater fishes in the northern Mediterranean region ? Biot. Conserv. 72: 311–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Day, D. 1981. The Doomsday Book of Animals: A Natural History of Vanished Species. Viking Press, New York.Google Scholar
  38. De Buen, F. 1943. Los Lagos Michoacanos. I. Caracteres generales. El Lago de Zirahuen. Rev. Soc. Mex. Hist. Nat. 4 (3–4): 211–232.Google Scholar
  39. De Vos, L. 1995. A systematic revision of the African Schilbeidae (Teleostei, Siluriformes). Ann. Mus. R. Afri. Cent. Sci. Zool. 271: 1–449.Google Scholar
  40. De Vos, L., Snoeks, J., and Thys van den Audenaerde, D. 1990. The effects of Tilapia introductions in Lake Luhondo, Rwanda. Environ. Biol. Fish. 27: 303–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Diamond, J. M. 1987. Extant unless proven extinct? Or, extinct unless proven extant? Conserv. Biol. 1: 77–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dottrens, E. 1950. Le corégone actuel du Léman. Rev. Suisse Zool. 57: 789–813.Google Scholar
  43. Dottrens, E. 1959. Systématique des corégones de l’Europe occidentale, basée sur une étude biométrique. Rev. Suisse Zool. 66: 1–66.Google Scholar
  44. Dynesius, M., and Nilsson, C. 1994. Fragmentation and flow regulation of river systems in the northern third of the world. Science 266: 753–762.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Economidis, R S. 1995. Endangered freshwater fishes of Greece. Biol. Conserv. 72: 201–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Eldredge, N., and Cracraft, J. 1980. Phylogenetic Patterns and the Evolutionary Process. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  47. Eschmeyer, P. H., and Bailey, R. M. 1955. The pygmy whitefish, Coregonus coulteri, in Lake Superior. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 84: 161–199.Google Scholar
  48. Faragher, R. A., and Harris, J. H. 1994. The historical and current status of freshwater fish in New South Wales. Aust. Zool. 29 (3–4): 166–176.Google Scholar
  49. Gilbert, C. R., and Shute, J. R. 1980. Rhinichthys cataractae (Valenciennes), in: D. S. Lee, C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. (eds.), Atlas of North American Freshwater Fishes,p. 353. North Carolina Biological Survey.Google Scholar
  50. Goren, M., Fishelson, L., and Trewavas, E. 1973. The cyprinid fishes of Acanthobrama Heckel and related genera. Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. Zool. 24 (6): 293–315.Google Scholar
  51. Greenwood, R. H. 1956a. The monotypic genera of cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria. Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. Zool. 3 (7): 295–333.Google Scholar
  52. Greenwood, P. H. 1956b. A revision of the Lake Victoria Haplochromis species (Pisces, Cichlidae), Part I. Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. Zool. 4 (5): 223–244.Google Scholar
  53. Greenwood, P. H. 1957. A revision of the Lake Victoria Haplochromis species (Pisces Cichlidae), Part II. Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. Zool. 5 (4): 73–97.Google Scholar
  54. Greenwood, P. H. 1959. A revision of the Lake Victoria Haplochromis species (Pisces, Cichlidae), Part III. Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. Zool. 5 (7): 179–218.Google Scholar
  55. Greenwood, P. H. 1960. A revision of the Lake Victoria Haplochromis species (Pisces, Cichlidae), Part IV. Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. Zool. 6 (4): 227–281.Google Scholar
  56. Greenwood, P. H. 1962. A revision of the Lake Victoria Haplochromis species (Pisces, Cichlidae), Part V. Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. Zool. 9 (4): 139–214.Google Scholar
  57. Greenwood, P. H. 1967. A revision of the Lake Victoria Haplochromis species (Pisces, Cichlidae), Part VI. Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hirt. Zool. 15 (2): 29–119.Google Scholar
  58. Greenwood, P. H. 1992. Are the major fish faunas well-known? Neth. J. Zool. 42 (2–3): 131–138.Google Scholar
  59. Greenwood, P. H., and Barel, C. D. N. 1978. A revision of the Lake Victoria Haplochromis species (Pisces, Cich-lidae), Part VIII. Bull Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. Zool. 33 (2): 141–192.Google Scholar
  60. Greenwood, P. H., and Gee, J. M. 1969. A revision of the Lake Victoria Haplochromis species (Pisces, Cichlidae), Part VII. Bull. BE Mus. Nat. Hisl. Zool. 18 (1): 1–65.Google Scholar
  61. Greenwood, P. H., and Jubb, R. A. 1967. The generic identity of Labeo quathlambae Barnard (Pisces, Cyprinidae). Ann. Cape Prov. Mus. Nat. Hist. 6 (2): 17–37.Google Scholar
  62. Groombridge, B. 1993. 1994 Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  63. Harrison, I. J. 1993. The west African sicydiine fishes, with notes on the genus Lentipes (Teleostei: Gobiidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 4: 201–232.Google Scholar
  64. Harrison, K., Crimmen, O., Travers, R., Maikweki, J., and Mutoro, D. 1989. Balancing the scales in Lake Victoria. Biologist 36: 189–191.Google Scholar
  65. Holcfk, J., and Renaud, C. B. 1986. Eudontomyzon mariae (Berg, 1931), in: J. Holcfk (ed.), The Freshwater Fishes of Europe. Part 1. Petromyzontiformes, pp. 165–185. AULA-Verlag, Wiesbaden.Google Scholar
  66. Howes, G. J. 1982. Review of the genus Brycon (Teleostei: Characoidei). Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. Zool. 43 (1): 1–47.Google Scholar
  67. Howes, G. J. 1991. Note on the holotype and unique specimen of Barilius longirostris Boulenger, 1902 (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). J. Afr. Zool. 105: 163–169.Google Scholar
  68. Hughes, N. F. 1983. A study of the Nile perch, an introduced predator in the Kavirondo Gulf Lake Victoria. Oxford University Nile perch Project, Oxford. 75 pp.Google Scholar
  69. Ida, H. 1984. Family Gasterosteidae, in: H. Masuda, K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno, and T. Yoshino (eds.), The Fishes of the Japanese Archipelago, pp. 83–84. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
  70. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. 1985. W. D. L. Ride, C. W. Sabrowsky, G. Bernardi, and R. V. Melville (editorial committee). International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London.Google Scholar
  71. IUCN. 1994. IUCN Red List Categories. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  72. IUCN. 1996. 1996 Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  73. IUCN. 1997. Review of IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Species 29: 9.Google Scholar
  74. Kaufman, L. 1992. Catastrophic change in species-rich freshwater ecosystems. BioScience 42 (11): 846–858.Google Scholar
  75. Kaufman, L., and Ochumba, P. 1993. Evolutionary and conservation biology of cichlid fishes as revealed by faunal remnants in northern Lake Victoria. Conserv. Biol. 7: 719–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kaufman, L. S., Chapman, L. J., and Chapman, C. A. 1997. Evolution in fast forward: haplochromine fishes of the Lake Victoria region. Endeavour 21 (1): 23–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kawanabe, H., and Watanabe, K. 1993. Kyoto ninespine stickleback, Pungitius kaibarae, in: S. Ueno (ed.), Japanese Animals Going Extinct, pp. 133–135. Tsukiji Shokan, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  78. Keith, P., and Allardi, J. 1996. Endangered freshwater fish: the situation in France, in: A. Kirchhofer and D. Hefti (eds.), Conservation of Endangered Freshwater Fish in Europe, pp. 35–54. Birkhäuser Verlag, Berlin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kirchhofer, A. 1996. Fish conservation in Switzerland-three case-studies, in: A. Kirchhofer and D. Hefti (eds.), Conservation of Endangered Freshwater Fish in Europe, pp. 135–145. Birkhäuser Verlag, Berlin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Komfield, I. 1982. Report from Mindanao. Copeia 1982: 493–495.Google Scholar
  81. Kornfield, I. 1985. The cyprinids of Lake Lanao. Trop. Fish Hobbyist 33 (1): 40–57.Google Scholar
  82. Kornfield, I., and Carpenter, K. E. 1984. Cyprinids of Lake Lanao, Philippines: taxonomic validity, evolutionary rates and speciation scenarios, in: A. A. Echelle and I. Komfield (eds.), Evolution of Species Flocks, pp. 6984. University of Maine at Orono Press.Google Scholar
  83. Kottelat, M. 1990. Synopsis of the endangered Buntingi (Osteichthyes: Adrianichthyidae and Oryziidae) of Lake Poso, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, with a new reproductive guild and descriptions of three new species. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 1: 49–67.Google Scholar
  84. Kottelat, M. 1994. Scriptor pretentiosus ist keine bedrohte Art. Datz Aquarien Terr. 47 (3): 172–173.Google Scholar
  85. Kottelat, M. 1995. Systematic studies and biodiversity: the need for a pragmatic approach. J. Nat. Hist. 29: 565–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kottelat, M. 1997. European freshwater fishes: an heuristic checklist of the freshwater fishes of Europe (exclusive of former USSR), with an introduction for non-systematists and comments on nomenclature and conservation. Biologia (Bratislava) 52 (Suppl. 5): 1–271.Google Scholar
  87. Kottelat, M., and Chu, X.-L, 1988. Revision of Yunnanilus with descriptions of a miniature species flock and six new species from China (Cypriniformes: Homalopteridae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 23: 65–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kottelat, M., and Whitten, T. 1996. Freshwater biodiversity in Asia with special reference to fish. World Bank Technical Paper 343. World Bank, Washington, D.C. ix+59 pp.Google Scholar
  89. Krupp, F., and Schneider, W. 1989. The fishes of the Jordan River Drainage basin and Azraq Oasis. Fauna Saudi Arabia 10: 347–416.Google Scholar
  90. Lambert, D. 1992. How to save the blue-tailed goodeid. Pratt. Fishkeeping June: 52–53.Google Scholar
  91. Laurent, P. J. 1972. Lac Léman: effects of exploitation, eutrophication, and introductions on the salmonid community. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 29: 867–875.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Lauzanne, L. 1992. VI.5. Fish fauna. VI.Sa. Native species. The Orestias, in: C. Dejoux and A. Ilns (eds.), Lake Titicaca: A Synthesis of Limnological Knowledge, pp. 405–419. Monographiae Biologicae, Volume 68. Kluwer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  93. Lazara, K. J. 1995. History of the genera Lebia Oken 1817 and Lebias Goldfuss 1820 (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes: Cyprinodontidae) with designation of a type species for Lebias. Copeia 1995 (2): 501–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Loubens, G. 1992. VI.S. Fish fauna. VI.5b. Introduced species. 1. Salmo gairdneri (rainbow trout), in: C. Dejoux and A. Iltis (eds.), Lake Titicaca: A Synthesis of Limnological Knowledge, pp. 420–426. Monographiae Biologicae, Volume 68. Kluwer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  95. Lozano-Vilano, Ma de L., and Contreras-Balderas, S. 1993. Four new species of Cyprinodon from southern Nuevo Léon, Mexico, with a key to the C. eximus complex (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 4: 295–308.Google Scholar
  96. Lyons, J., Gonzílez-Hemândez, G., Soto-Galera, E., and Guzman-Arroyo, M. 1998. Decline of freshwater fishes and fisheries in selected drainages of west-central Mexico. Fisheries 23 (4): 10–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Mace, G. M. 1994. Classifying threatened species: means and ends. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 344: 91–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Magin, C. D., Johnson, T. H., Groombridge, B., Jenkins, M., and Smith, H. 1994. Species extinctions, endangerment and captive breeding, in: P. J. S. Olney, G. M. Mace, and A. T. C. Feistner (eds.), Creative Conservation: Interactive Management of Wild and Captive Animals, pp. 3–31. Chapman & Hall, London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Mahanta, P. C., Kapoor, D., Dayal, R., and Ponniah, A. G. 1994. Prioritization of the Indian fish species for conservation, in: P. V. Dehadrai, P. Das, and S. R. Verma (eds.), Threatened Fishes of India. Natcon Publication 4, pp. 379–385. Nature Conservators, Muzaffamagar, India.Google Scholar
  100. Mainguet, M., and Létolle, R. 1997. The ecological crisis of the Aral Sea basin in the frame of a new time scale: the “anthropo-geological scale.” Naturwissenschaften 84: 331–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Mann, C. C. 1991. Extinction: are ecologists crying wolf? Science 253: 736–738.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Maric, D. 1995. Endemic fish species of Montenegro. BioL. Conserv. 72: 187–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Martin, N. V., and Giver, C. H. 1980. The lake chary, Salvelinus namaycush, in: E. K. Balon (ed.), Charrs, Salmonid Fishes of the Genus Salvelinus, pp. 205–277. Junk, The Hague.Google Scholar
  104. Matthews, W. J. 1980. Notropis lutrensis (Baird and Girard), in: D. S. Lee, C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and]. R. Stauffer, Jr. (eds.), Atlas of North American Freshwater Fishes,p. 285. North Carolina Biological Survey.Google Scholar
  105. Mayden, R. L., Burr, B. M., Page, L. M., and Miller, R. R. 1992. The native freshwater fishes of North America, in: R. L. Mayden (ed.), Systematics, Historical Ecology, and North American Freshwater Fishes, pp. 827–863. Stanford University Press, Stanford.Google Scholar
  106. McAllister, D. E. 1995. Status of the World Ocean and its biodiversity. Sea Wind 9 (4): 1–72.Google Scholar
  107. McAllister, D. E., Parker, B. J., and McKee, R M. 1985. Rare, endangered and extinct fishes in Canada. Syllogeus 54. National Museums of Canada. 192 pp.Google Scholar
  108. McAllister, D. E., Hamilton, A. L., and Harvey, B. 1997. Global freshwater biodiversity: striving for the integrity of freshwater ecosystems. Sea Wind 11 (2): 1–106.Google Scholar
  109. McDowall, R. M. 1989. Filling in the gaps-the introduction of exotic species into New Zealand, in: D. A. Pollard (ed.), Introduced and translocated fishes and their ecological effects, pp. 69–82. Bureau of Rural Resources Proceedings No. 8. Bureau of Rural Resources, Canberra.Google Scholar
  110. McDowall, R. M. 1996. Volcanism and freshwater fish biogeography in the northeastern North Island of New Zealand. J. Biogeogr. 23: 139–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Menon, A. G. K. 1994. Criteria for determining the status of threatened categories of Indian freshwater fishes, in: P. V. Dehadrai, R Das, and S. R. Verma (eds.), Threatened Fishes of India. Natcon Publication 4, pp. 1–5. Nature Conservators, Muzaffarnagar, India.Google Scholar
  112. Meyer, M. K., and Pérez, H. E. 1990. Priapella olmecae sp. n., a new species from Veracruz (México) (Teleostei: Poecilidae). Zool. Abh. Staatliches Mus. Tierkd. (Dresden) 45 (12): 121–126.Google Scholar
  113. Miles, C. 1942. Descripcion sistematica del “pez grasso” del Lago de Tota (Boyaca). Caldasia 5: 55–58.Google Scholar
  114. Miles, C. 1943. On three recently described species and a new genus of pygidiid fishes from Colombia. Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. Exactas Fis. Nat. 5 (19): 367–369.Google Scholar
  115. Miller, P. J. 1988. Studies on Sihouettea Smith 1959 and an account of Ebomegobius Herre 1946 (Pisces: Gobiidae). Senckenbergiana Biol. 68 (416): 241–273.Google Scholar
  116. Miller, R. R. 1964. Redescription and illustration of Cyprinodon latifasciatus, an extinct cyprinodontid fish from Coahuila, Mexico. Southwest. Nat. 9 (2): 62–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Miller, R. R. 1968. Pisces. Freshwater fishes, in: IUCN Red Data Book. Switzerland.Google Scholar
  118. Miller, R. R. 1971. Pisces. Freshwater fishes, in: IUCN Red Data Book. Switzerland.Google Scholar
  119. Miller, R. R., and Smith, G. R. 1981. Distribution and evolution of Chasmistes (Pisces: Catostomidae) in western North America. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. 696: 1–46.Google Scholar
  120. Miller, R. R., Williams, J. D., and Williams, J. E. 1989. Extinctions of North American fishes during the past century. Fisheries 14 (6): 22–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Minckley, W. L., Meffe, G. K., and Soltz, D. L. 1991. Conservation and management of short-lived fishes: the cyprinodontoids, in: W. L. Minckley and J. E. Deacon (eds.), Battle Against Extinction: Native Fish Management in the America West, pp. 247–282. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.Google Scholar
  122. Moyle, P. B. 1997. The importance of an historical perspective: fish introductions. Fisheries 22 (10): 14.Google Scholar
  123. Mrakovcic, M., Misetíc, S., and Povz, M. 1995. Status of freshwater fish in Croatian Adriatic river systems. Biol. Conserv. 72: 179–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Myers, N. 1996. Two key challenges for biodiversity: discontinuities and synergisms. Biodivers. Conserv. 5: 1025–1034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Nelson, J. S. 1994. Fishes of the World,3rd ed. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  126. Ng, P. K. L., and Kottelat, M. 1994. Revision of the Berta waseri species group (Teleostei: Belontiidae). Raffles Bull. Zool. 42 (3): 593–611.Google Scholar
  127. Nümann, W. 1972. The Bodensee: effects of exploitation and eutrophication on the salmonid community. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 29: 833–847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Ogutu-Ohwayo, R. 1990. The decline of the native fishes of lakes Victoria and Kyoga (East Africa) and the impact of introduced species, especially the Nile perch, Lates niloticus, and the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Environ. Biol. Fish. 27: 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Ogutu-Ohwayo, R. 1993. The effects of predation by Nile perch, Lates niloticus L., on the fish of Lake Nabugabo, with suggestions for conservation of endangered endemic cichlids. Conserv. Biol. 7: 701–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Oijen, M. J. P. van. 1991. A systematic revision of the piscivorous haplochromine Cichlidae (Pisces: Teleostei) of Lake Victoria (East Africa). Part I. ZooL Verh. Leiden 272: 1–95.Google Scholar
  131. Oijen, M. J. P. van, and Witte, F. 1996. Taxonomical and ecological description of a species complex of zooplanktivorous and insectivorous cichlids from Lake Victoria. Zool. Verh. Leiden 302: 1–56.Google Scholar
  132. Oijen, M. J. P. van, Witte, F., and Witte-Maas, E. L. M. 1981. An introduction to ecological and taxonomic investigations on the haplochromine cichlids from the Mwanza Gulf of Lake Victoria. Neth. J. Zool. 31: 149–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Oijen, M. J. P. van, Snoeks, J., Skelton, P. H., Maréchal, C., and Teugels, G. G. 1991. Haplochromis, in: J. Daget, J.-P Gosse, G. G. Teugels, and D. E E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.), Check-List of the Freshwater Fishes of Africa 4, pp. 100–184. ISNB Brussels, MRAC Tervuren, and ORSTOM Paris.Google Scholar
  134. Paepke, H.-J. 1988. Im Museum “wiederentdeckt”: der Gangeshai. Aquarien-und Terrarienfachgruppe 35 (4): 129–130.Google Scholar
  135. Parenti, L. R. 1984. A taxonomic revision of the Andean killifish genus Orestias (Cyprinodontiformes, Cyprinodontidae). Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 178 (2): 107–214.Google Scholar
  136. Pavlov, D. S., Reshetnikov, Y. S.,Shatunovskiy, M. I., and Shilin, N. I. 1985. Rare and disappearing fishes in the USSR and the principles of their inclusion in the “Red Book.” J. Ichthyol. 25(1):88–99.Google Scholar
  137. Pike, T., and Tedder, A. J. 1973. Rediscovery of Oreodaimon quathlambae (Barnard). Lammergeyer 19: 9–15.Google Scholar
  138. Pimentai, D., Houser, J., Preiss, E., White, O., Fang, H., Mesnick, L., Barsky, T., Tanche, S., Schreck, J., and Alpert, A. 1997. Water resources: agriculture, the environment, and society. BioScience 47 (2): 97–121.Google Scholar
  139. Ponniah, A. G. 1994. Categorisation of India’s threatened fishes, in: P. V. Dehadrai, P. Das, and S. R. Verma (eds.), Threatened Fishes of India. Natcon Publications 4, pp. 365–377. Nature Conservators, Muzaffarnagar, India.Google Scholar
  140. Postel, S. L., Daily, G. C., and Ehrlich, P. R. 1996. Human appropriation of renewable fresh water. Science 271: 785–788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Povz, M. 1995. Status of freshwater fishes in the Adriatic catchment of Slovenia. Biot Conserv. 72: 171–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Quigley, D. T. G., and Flannery, K. 1996. Endangered freshwater fish in Ireland, in: A. Kirchhofer and D. Hefti (eds.), Conservation of Endangered Freshwater Fish in Europe, pp. 27–34. Birkhäuser Verlag, Berlin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Rakaj, N. and Flloko, A. 1995. Conservation status of freshwater fish of Albania. Biol. Conserv. 72: 195–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Regan, C. T. 1909. The char (Salvelinus) of Great Britain. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. Set: 83: 111–122.Google Scholar
  145. Regan, C. T. 1911. The Freshwater Fishes of the British Isles. Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  146. Reid, G. M. 1980. `Explosive speciation’ of carps in Lake Lanao (Philippines)-fact or fancy? Syst. ZooL 29(3):314–316.Google Scholar
  147. Reid, G. M. 1990. Captive breeding for the conservation of cichlid fishes. J. Fish Biol. 37 (Suppl. A): 157–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Reid, G. M. 1991. Threatened rainforest cichlids of Lower Guinea, West Africa-a case for conservation, in M. J. H. Nelissen (ed.), Proceedings of the Fifth European Congress “Biology of Cichlids,” State University of Antwerp, January, 1990, Ann. Mus. Roy. l’Afrique Centrale, Tervuren 263: 109–119.Google Scholar
  149. Ribbink, A. J. 1991. Distribution and ecology of the cichlids of the African Great Lakes, in: M. H. A. Keenleyside (ed.), Cichlid Fishes: Behaviour, Ecology and Evolution, pp. 36–59. Chapman & Hall, London.Google Scholar
  150. Richter, B. D., Braun, D. P., Mendelson, M. A., and Master, L. L. 1997. Threats to imperiled freshwater fauna. Conserv. Biol. 11: 1081–1093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Roberts, T. R. 1993. Just another dammed river? Negative impacts of Pak Mun Dam on fishes of the Mekong basin. Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam Soc. 41: 105–133.Google Scholar
  152. Rohde, F. L. 1980. Noturus trautmani Taylor, in: D. S. Lee, C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. (eds.), Atlas of North American Freshwater Fishes,p. 471. North Carolina Biological Survey.Google Scholar
  153. Rosa, R. S., and Menezes, N. A. 1996. Relaçâo preliminar das espécies de peixas (Pisces, Elasmobranchii, Actinopterygii) ameaçadas no Brasil. Rev. Bras. Zool. 13 (3): 647–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Ruhlé, C., and Kindle, T. 1992. Morphological comparison of river-spawning whitefish of the alpine Rhine with the whitefish of Lake Constance. Pol. Arch. Hydrobiol. 39: 403–408.Google Scholar
  155. Schillinger, A. 1901. Der Teefseesaibling. Allge. Fisch. Ztg. N. F. 16: 149–151.Google Scholar
  156. Seehausen, O. 1996. Lake Victoria Rock Cichlids-Taxonomy, Ecology, and Distribution. Verduyn Cichlids, Germany.Google Scholar
  157. Seehausen, O., and Bouton, N. 1998. The community of rock-dwelling cichlids in Lake Victoria. Bonn. Zool. Beirr. 47 (3–4): 301–31l.Google Scholar
  158. Seehausen, O., and Witte, F. 1994. Eine zweite Aussterbewelle im Victoriasee und die Notwendigkeit der Verknupfung von Forschung und Naturschutz. Datz Aquarien Terrarien 47 (9): 586–591.Google Scholar
  159. Seehausen, O., and Witte, F 1995. Extinction of many, survival of some. Trop. Fish Hobbyist 43 (7): 96–105.Google Scholar
  160. Seehausen, O., van Alphen, J. J. M., and Witte, F. 1997a. Cichlid fish diversity threatened by eutrophication that curbs sexual selection. Science 277: 1808–1811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Seehausen, O., Witte, F., Katunzi, E. F., Smits, J., and Bouton, N. 1997b. Patterns of the remnant cichlid fauna in southern Lake Victoria. Conserv. Biol. 11: 890–904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Sehgal, K. L. 1994. State-of-art of endangered, vulnerable and rare coldwater fishes of India, in: P. V. Dehadrai, P. Das and S. R. Verma (eds.), Threatened Fishes of India, Natcon Publication, 4: 127–135. Nature Conservators, Muzaffarnagar, India.Google Scholar
  163. Smith, F. D. M., May, R. M., Pellew, R., Johnston, T. H., and Walter, K. R. 1993. How much do we know about the current extinction rate? Trends Ecol. Evol. 8 (10): 375–378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Smith, M. L., and Miller, R. R., 1986. Mexican goodeid fishes of the genus Characodon, with description of a new species. Am. Mus. Novit. 2851: 1–14.Google Scholar
  165. Smith, R. E. 1980. Gila bicolor (Girard), in: D. S. Lee, C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. (eds.), Atlas of North American Freshwater Fishes,p. 161. North Caroline Biological Survey.Google Scholar
  166. Smith, S. H. 1972. Factors of ecologic succession in oligotrophic fish communities of the Laurentian Great Lakes. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 29: 717–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Snoeks, J. 1994. The haplochromines (Teleostei, Cichlidae) of Lake Kivu (East Africa). A taxonomic revision with notes on their ecology. Ann. Mus. R. Afr. Cent. Sci. Zool. 270: 1–221.Google Scholar
  168. Soliman, V. S. 1993. Status of Lake Manapao, Buhi, Camarines Sur: sanctuary of the only viable stock of sinarapan, the world’s smallest commercial fish. Outreach 6 (1): 3 p.Google Scholar
  169. Spillman, J. 1958. Sur deux poissons des collections du Muséum, témoins de l’existence au XIX’ siècle, dans le lac Léman, de corégones du type “dispersus.” Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris Ser. 230: 144–145.Google Scholar
  170. Stiassny, M. L. J. 1990. Notes on the anatomy and relationships of the bedotiid fishes of Madagascar, with a taxonomic revision of the genus Rheocles (Atherinomorpha: Bedotiidae). Am. Mus. Novit. 2979: 1–33.Google Scholar
  171. Stiassny, M. L. J. 1994. Systematics and conservation, in: G. K. Meffe and C. R. Carroll (eds.), Principles of Conservation Biology, 1st edition, pp. 64–66. Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass.Google Scholar
  172. Stiassny, M. L. J. 1996. An overview of freshwater biodiversity: with some lessons from African fishes. Fisheries 21 (9): 7–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Stiassny, M. L. J. In press. The medium is the message: freshwater biodiversity in peril, in: J. Cracraft and F. Griffo (eds.), The Living Planet in Crisis: Biodiversity Science and Policy,Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  174. Swerdlow, J. L. 1998. Making sense of the millenium. Nat. Geogr. 193 (1): 8.Google Scholar
  175. Tanner, V. M. 1936. A study of the fishes of Utah. Utah Acad. Sci. Arts Lett. 13: 155–184.Google Scholar
  176. Todd, T. N. 1980. Coregonus johannae (Wagner), in: D. S. Lee, C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. (eds.), Atlas of North American Freshwater Fishes,p. 82. North Carolina Biological Survey.Google Scholar
  177. Todd, T. N., Smith, G. R., and Cable, L. E. 1981. Environmental and genetic contributions to morphological differentiation in ciscoes (Coregoninae) of the Great Lakes. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 38: 59–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Tzeng, C.-S. 1986. Distribution of the freshwater fishes of Taiwan. J. Taiwan Mus. 39 (2): 127–146.Google Scholar
  179. Viederman, S., Meffe, G. K., and Carroll, C. R. 1994. The role of institutions and policymaking in conservation, in: G. K. Meffe and C. R. Carroll (eds.), Principles of Conservation Biology, First Edition, pp. 466–490. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland.Google Scholar
  180. Vitousek, P. M., Mooney, H. A., Lubchenco, J., and Melillo, J. M. 1997. Human domination of the Earth’s ecosystems. Science 277: 494–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Wallace, R. L. 1980. Rhinichthys osculus (Girard), in: D. S. Lee, C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. (eds.), Atlas of North American Freshwater Fishes,p. 356. North Carolina Biological Survey.Google Scholar
  182. Watson, R. E. 1997. Extinction of Sicyopterus nigrescens and threats to sicydiine gobies, in: 5th Indo-Pacific Fish Conference, Abstracts, p. 111. ORSTOM and SFI.Google Scholar
  183. Wells, L., and McLain, A. L. 1972. Lake Michigan: effects of exploitation, introductions, and eutrophication on the salmonid community. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 29: 889–898.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Wetzel, R. G. 1992. Clean water: a fading resource. Hydrobiologia 243/244:21–30.Google Scholar
  185. Wheeler, T. 1991. Maryland darter may have vanished. Am. Curr. Summer: 27–28.Google Scholar
  186. Whitfield, A. 1997. Red Data Book: estuarine pipefish. Endangered Wild. 27: 30–31.Google Scholar
  187. Whitfield, A. K., and Bruton, M. N. 1996. Extinction of the river pipefish Syngnathus watermeyeri in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Sci. 92: 59–60.Google Scholar
  188. Whitten, A. J., Nash, S. V., Bishop, K. D., and Clayton, L. 1987. One or more extinctions from Sulawesi, Indonesia? Conserv. Biol. 1: 42–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Wiley, E. 0.1981. Phylogenetics: The Theory and Practice of Phylogenetic Systematics. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  190. Williams, J. D., and Nowak, R. M. 1993. Vanishing species in our own backyard: extinct fish and wildlife of the United States and Canada, in: L. Kaufman and K. Mallory (eds.), The Last Extinction, 2nd ed., pp. 115–148. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  191. Williams, J. E., Johnson, J. E., Hendrickson, D. A., Contreras-Balderas, S., Williams, J. D., Navarro-Mendoza, M., McAllister, D. E., and Deacon, J. E. 1989. Fishes of North America endangered, threatened, or of special concern: 1989. Fisheries 14 (6): 2–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Witte, E 1984. Ecological differentiation in Lake Victoria haplochromines: comparison of cichlid species flocks in African lakes, in: A. A. Echelle and I. Kornfield (eds.), Evolution of Species Flocks, pp. 155–167. University of Maine at Orono Press.Google Scholar
  193. Witte, E, Goldschmidt, T., Goudswaard, P. C., Ligtvoet, W., van Oijen, M. J. P., and Wanink, J. H. 1992a. Species extinction and concomitant ecological changes in Lake Victoria. Neth. J. Zool. 42 (2–3): 214–232.Google Scholar
  194. Witte, F., Goldschmidt, T., Wanink, J., van Oijen, M., Goudswaard, K., Witte-Maas, E., and Bouton, N. 1992b. The destruction of an endemic species flock: quantitative data on the decline of the haplochromine cichlids of Lake Victoria. Environ. Biol. Fish. 34: 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. World Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1992. Species extinction, in: WCMC, Global Biodiversity: Status of the Earth’s Living Resources, pp. 192–233. Chapman & Hall, London.Google Scholar
  196. Yang, J.-X. 1991. The fishes of Fuxian Lake, Yunnan, China, with full description of two new species. lchthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 2: 193–202.Google Scholar
  197. Yuma, M., Hososya, K., and Nagata, Y. 1998. Distribution of the freshwater fishes of Japan: an historical overview. Environ. Biol. Fish. 52: 97–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Zheng, C.-Y. 1989. [Fishes of the Zhujiang River]. Science Press, Beijing, 438 pp. [Chinese].Google Scholar
  199. Zorzi, G. D. 1995. The biology of freshwater elasmobranchs: an historical perspective, in: M. I. Oetinger and G. D. Zorzi (eds.), The biology of freshwater elasmobranches. A symposium to honor Thomas B. Thorson, pp. 10–90. J. Aquaricult. Aquat. Sci. 7: 10–90.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian J. Harrison
    • 1
  • Melanie L. J. Stiassny
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of IchthyologyAmerican Museum of Natural HistoryNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations