Viral Infections

  • Washington C. WinnJr.
  • David H. Walker


Viral infections are among the most common afflictions of man. It has been estimated that children experience two to seven respiratory infections each year; adults are afflicted with one to three such episodes.1


Herpes Simplex Respiratory Syncytial Virus Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection Cytoplasmic Inclusion Cytomegalovirus Infection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Anderson LJ, Patriarca PA, Hierholzer JC, Noble GR. Viral respiratory illnesses. Med Clin North Am 1983; 67: 1009–1030.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brown RS, Nogrady MB, Spence L, Wiglesworth FW. An outbreak of adenovirus type 7 infection in children in Montreal. Can Med Assoc J 1973; 108: 434–439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Becroft DMO. Histopathology of fatal adenovirus infection of the respiratory tract in young children. J Clin Pathol 1967; 20: 561–569.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ferris JAJ, Aherne WA, Locke WS, McQuillan J, Gardner PS. Sudden and unexpected deaths in infants: Histology and virology. Br Med J 1973; 2: 439–442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hall WJ, Hall CB, Speers DM. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in adults. Clinical, virologic, and serial pulmonary function studies. Ann Intern Med 1978; 88: 203–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Spelman DW, Stanley PA. Respiratory syncytial virus pneumonitis in adults. Med J Aust 1983; 1: 430–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fry J. Influenza, 1959: The story of an epidemic. Br Med J 1959; 2: 135–138.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 6–1979. N Engl J Med 1979; 300: 301–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Clinicopathologic Conference on adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Med 1971; 50: 521–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Martin CM, Kunin CM, Gottlieb LS, Barnes MW, Liu C, Finland M. Asian influenza A in Boston, 1957–1958. Arch Intern Med 1959; 103: 515–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Williams DM, Krick JA, Remington JS. State of the art: Pulmonary infection in the compromised host. Part II. Am Rev Respir Dis 1976; 114: 593–627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Graham BS, Snell JD, Jr. Herpes simplex virus infection of the adult lower respiratory tract. Medicine (Baltimore) 1983; 62: 384–393.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Beckford AP, Kaschula ROC, Stephen C. Factors associated with fatal cases of measles. A retrospective autopsy study. S Afr Med J 1985; 68: 858–863.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nash G. Necrotizing tracheobronchitis and bronchopneumonia consistent with herpetic infection. Hum Pathol 1972; 3: 283–291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Winn WC Jr, Myerowitz RL. The pathology of the Legionella pneumonias. A review of 74 cases and the literature. Hum Pathol 1981; 12: 401–422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Katzenstein AL, Askin FB. Surgical pathology of nonneoplastic lung disease. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1982.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Beschorner WE, Hutchins GM, Burns WH, Saral R, Tutschka PJ, Santos GW. Cytomegalovirus pneumonia in bone marrow transplant recipients: Miliary and diffuse patterns. Am Rev Respir Dis 1980; 122: 107–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Conte P, Heitzman ER, Markarian B. Viral pneumonia. Roentgen pathological correlations. Radiology 1970; 95: 267–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Balows A, Hausler WJ Jr, Herrmann KL, Isenberg HD, Shadomy HJ, eds. Manual of clinical microbiology, 5th Ed. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology, 1991.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lennette EH, Schmidt NJ, eds. Diagnostic procedures for viral, rickettsial and chlamydial infections. 5th ed. Washington, DC. American Public Health Association, 1979.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hsiung GD. Diagnostic virology illustrated by light and electron microscopy. 3d New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fields BN, Knipe DM, Chanock RM, Hirsch MS, Mel-nick JL, Monath TP, Roizman B, eds. Virology. 2nd Ed. New York: Raven, 1990.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Smith TF. Diagnostic virology in the community hospital. Extent and options. Postgrad Med 1984; 75: 215223.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hall CB, Douglas RG, Jr. Clinically useful method for the isolation of respiratory syncytial virus. J Infect Dis 1975; 131: 1–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bromberg K, Daidone B, Clarke L, Sierra MF. Comparison of immediate and delayed inoculation of HEp-2 cells for isolation of respiratory syncytial virus. J Clin Microbiol 1984; 20: 123–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Treuhaft MW, Soukup JM, Sullivan BJ. Practical recommendations for the detection of pediatric respiratory syncytial virus infections. J Clin Microbiol 1985; 22: 270273.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ray CG, Minnich LL. Regional diagnostic virology services. Are satellite laboratories necessary? JAMA 1982; 247: 1309–1310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    McIntosh K. Diagnostic virology. In: Fields BN, Knipe DM, Chenock RM, Hirsch MS, Melnick JL, Monath TP, Roizman B, eds. Virology. 2nd Ed. New York: Raven, 1990: 414.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gleaves CA, Smith TF, Shuster EA, Pearson GR. Comparison of standard tube and shell vial cell culture techniques for the detection of cytomegalovirus in clinical specimens. J Clin Microbiol 1985; 21: 217–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gleaves CA, Wilson DJ, Wold AD, Smith TF. Detection and serotyping of herpes simplex virus in MRC-5 cells by use of centrifugation and monoclonal antibodies 16 h postinoculation. J Clin Microbiol 1985; 21: 29–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Smith MC, Creutz C, Huang YT. Detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal secretions by shell vial technique. J Clin Microbiol 1991; 29: 463–465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pothier P, Nicolas JC, de Saint Maur GP, Ghim S, Kazmierczak A, Bricout F. Monoclonal antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus and their use for rapid detection of virus in nasopharyngeal secretions. J Clin Microbiol 1985; 21: 286–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lauer BA, Masters HA, Wren CG, Levin MJ. Rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal secretions by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Clin Microbiol 1985; 22: 782–785.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Grandien M, Pettersson CA, Gardner PS, Linde A, Stanton A. Rapid viral diagnosis of acute respiratory infections: comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the immunofluorescence technique for detection of viral antigens in nasopharyngeal secretions. J Clin Microbiol 1985; 22: 757–760.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ahluwalia GS, Hammond GW. Comparison of cell culture and three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the rapid diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus from nasopharyngeal aspirate and tracheal secretion specimens. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 1988; 9: 187–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Smith DW, Frankel LR, Mathers LH, Tang ATS, Ariagno RL, Prober CG. A controlled trial of aerosolized ribavirin in infants receiving mechanical ventilation for severe respiratory syncytial virus infection. N Engl J Med 1991; 325: 24–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Blanding JG, Hoshiko MG, Stutman HR. Routine viral culture for pediatric respiratory specimens submitted for direct immunofluorescence testing. J Clin Microbiol 1989; 27: 1438–1440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tristram DA, Miller RW, McMillan JA, Weiner LB. Simultaneous infection with respiratory syncytial virus and other respiratory pathogens. Am J Dis Child 1988; 142: 834–836.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Strano AJ. Light microscopy of selected viral diseases (morphology of viral inclusion bodies). Pathol Annu 1976; 11: 53–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Naib ZM, Stewart JA, Dowdle WR, Casey HL, Marine WM, Nahmias AJ. Cytological features of viral respiratory tract infections. Acta Cytol (Baltimore) 1968; 12: 162–171.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Johnston WW, Frable WJ. The cytopathology of the respiratory tract. A review. Am J Pathol 1976; 84: 37 2424.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Carson JL, Collier AM, Hu SS. Acquired ciliary defects in nasal epithelium of children with acute viral upper respiratory infections. N Engl J Med 1985; 312: 463–468.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pierce CH, Knox AW. Ciliocytophthoria in sputum from patients with adenovirus infections. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1960; 104: 492–495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Almeida JD. Uses and abuses of diagnostic electron microscopy. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 1983; 104: 147–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wang NS. Applications of electron microscopy to diagnostic pulmonary pathology. Hum Pathol 1983; 14: 888900.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gleaves CA, Smith TF, Wold AD, Wilson WR. Detection of viral and chlamydial antigens in open-lung biopsy specimens. Am J Clin Pathol 1985; 83: 371–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pinkerton H, Carroll S. Fatal adenovirus pneumonia in infants. Correlation of histologic and electron microscopic observations. Am J Pathol 1971; 65: 543–548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Yolken RH. Use of monoclonal antibodies for viral diagnosis. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 1983; 104: 177195.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kao CL, McIntosh K, Fernie B, Talis A, Pierik L, Anderson L. Monoclonal antibodies for the rapid diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infection by immunofluorescence. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 1984; 2: 199206.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Stout C, Murphy MD, Lawrence S, Julian S. Evaluation of a monoclonal antibody pool for rapid diagnosis of respiratory viral infections. J Clin Microbiol 1989; 27: 448–452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kim HW, Wyatt RG, Fernie BF, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus detection by immunofluorescence in nasal secretions with monoclonal antibodies against selected surface and internal proteins. J Clin Microbiol 1983; 18: 1399–1404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Anestad G, Breivik N, Thoresen T. Rapid diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus and influenza A virus infections by immunofluorescence: Experience with a simplified procedure for the preparation of cell smears from nasopharyngeal secretions. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand [B] 1983; 91: 267–271.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Taber LH, Knight V, Gilbert BE, et al. Ribavirin aerosol treatment of bronchiolitis associated with respiratory syncytial virus in infants. Pediatrics 1983; 72: 613–618.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hall CB, McBride JT, Walsh EE, et al. Aerosolized ribavirin treatment of infants with respiratory syncytial viral infection. A randomized double-blind study. N Engl J Med 1983; 308: 1443–1447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hirsch MS, Schooley RT. Treatment of herpesvirus infections. N Engl J Med 1983;309:963–970,10341039.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Edberg SC. Principles of nucleic acid hybridization and comparison with monoclonal antibody technology for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. Yale J Biol Med 1985; 58: 425–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Spector SA, Rua JA, Spector DH, McMillan R. Detection of human cytomegalovirus in clinical specimens by DNA-DNA hybridization. J Infect Dis 1984; 150: 12 1126.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Virtanen M, Palva A, Laaksonen M, Halonen P, Soderlund H, Ranki M. Novel test for rapid viral diagnosis: detection of adenovirus in nasopharyngeal mucus aspirates by means of nucleic-acid sandwich hybridization. Lancet 1983;i:381–383.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Redfield DC, Richman DD, Albanil S, Oxman MN, Wahl GM. Detection of herpes simplex virus in clinical specimens by DNA hybridization. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 1983; 1: 117–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Chou S, Merigan TC. Rapid detection and quantitation of human cytomegalovirus in urine through DNA hybridization. N Engl J Med 1983; 308: 921–925.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Palva A, Ranki M. Microbial diagnosis by nucleic acid sandwich hybridization. Clin Lab Med 1985; 5: 475–490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Jansen RW, Newbold JE, Lemon SM. Combined immunoaffinity cDNA-RNA hybridization assay for detection of hepatitis A virus in clinical specimens. J Clin Microbiol 1985; 22: 984–989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Myerson D, Hackman RC, Meyers JD. Diagnosis of cytomegaloviral pneumonia by in situ hybridization. J Infect Dis 1984; 150: 272–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Unger ER, Budgeon LR, Myerson D, Brigati DJ. Viral diagnosis by in situ hybridization. Description of a rapid simplified colorimetric method. Am J Surg Pathol 1986; 10: 1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hondo R, Kurata T, Sato S, Oda A, Aoyama Y. Enzymatic treatment of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded specimens for detection of antigens of herpes simplex, varicella-zoster and human cytomegaloviruses. Jpn J Exp Med 1982; 52: 17–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Chandler FW, Gorelkin L. Immunofluorescence staining of adenovirus in fixed tissues pretreated with trypsin. J Clin Microbiol 1983; 17: 371–373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Murphy FA, Kingsbury DW. Virus taxonomy. In: Fields BN, Knipe DM, Chanock RM, Hirsch MS, Melnick JL, Monath TP, Roizman B, Eds. Virology. 2nd Ed. New York: Raven, 1990: 9–35.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Murphy BR, Webster RG. Orthomyxoviruses. In: Fields BN, Knipe DM, Chanock RM, Hirsch MS, Melnick JL, Monath TP, Roizman B, Eds. Virology. 2nd Ed. New York: Raven, 1990: 1091–1152.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Dowdle WR, Coleman MT, Gregg MB. Natural history of influenza type A in the United States, 1957–1972. Prog Med Virol 1974; 17: 91–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Shope RE. The infection of ferrets with swine influenza virus. J Exp Med 1934; 60: 49–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Raut S, Hurd J, Cureton RJ, Blandford G, Heath RB. The pathogenesis of infections of the mouse caused by virulent and avirulent variants of an influenza virus. J Med Microbiol 1975; 8: 127–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Rodgers B, Mims CA. Interaction of influenza virus with mouse macrophages. Infect Immun 1981; 31: 751–757.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Louria DB, Blumenfeld HL, Ellis JT, Kilbourne ED, Rogers DE. Studies on influenza in the pandemic of 1957–1958. II. Pulmonary complications of influenza. J Clin Invest 1959; 38: 213–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hers JF, Masurel N, Mulder J. Bacteriology and histopathology of the respiratory tract and lungs in fatal Asian influenza. Lancet 1958;ii:1141–1143.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hall CB, Douglas RG, Jr. Nosocomial influenza infection as a cause of intercurrent fevers in infants. Pediatrics 1975; 55: 673–677.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Camner P, Jarstrand C, Philipson K. Tracheobronchial clearance in patients with influenza. Am Rev Respir Dis 1973; 108: 131–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Abramson JS, Giebink GS, Quie PG. Influenza A virus-induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte dysfunction in the pathogenesis of experimental pneumococcal otitis media. Infect Immun 1982; 36: 289–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Jakab GJ. Immune impairment of alveolar macrophage phagocytosis during influenza virus pneumonia. Am Rev Respir Dis 1982; 126: 778–782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Larson HE, Blades R. Impairment of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte function by influenza virus. Lancet 1976;i:283.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Soto PJ, Jr, Broun GO, Wyatt JP. Asian influenzal pneumonitis. A structural and virologic analysis. Am J Med 1959; 27: 18–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Oseasohn R, Adelson L, Kaji M. Clinicopathologic study of thirty-three fatal cases of Asian influenza. N Engl J Med 1959; 260: 509–518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Feldman PS, Cohan MA, Hierholzer WJ, Jr. Fatal Hong Kong influenza: A clinical, microbiological and pathological analysis of nine cases. Yale J Biol Med 1972; 45: 49–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hers JFP, Mulder J. Changes in the respiratory mucosa resulting from infection with influenza virus B. J Pathol Bacteriol 1957; 73: 565–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Winternitz MC, Watson IM, McNamara FP. The pathology of influenza. New Haven: Yale University Press 1920.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Walsh JJ, Dietlein LF, Low FN, Burch GE, Mogabgab WJ. Bronchotracheal response in human influenza: Type A, Asian strain, as studied by light and electron microscopic examination of bronchoscopic biopsies. Arch Intern Med 1961; 108: 376–388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Noble RL, Lillington GA, Kempson RL. Fatal diffuse influenzal pneumonia: Premortem diagnosis by lung biopsy. Chest 1973; 63: 644–646.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Pinsker KL, Schneyer B, Becker N, Kamholz SL. Usual interstitial pneumonia following Texas A2 influenza infection. Chest 1981; 80: 123–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Joshi VV, Escobar MR, Stewart L, Bates RD. Fatal influenza A2 viral pneumonia in a newborn infant. Am J Dis Child 1973; 126: 839–840.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Finckh ES, Bader L. Pulmonary damage from Hong Kong influenza. Aust NZ J Med 1974; 4: 16–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Engblom E, Ekfors TO, Meurman OH, Toivanen A, Nikoskelainen J. Fatal influenza A myocarditis with isolation of virus from the myocardium. Acta Med Scand 1983; 213: 75–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Tamura H, Aronson BE. Intranuclear fibrillary inclusions in influenza pneumonia. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1978; 102: 252–257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Johanson WG, Jr, Pierce AK, Sanford JP. Pulmonary function in uncomplicated influenza. Am Rev Respir Dis 1969; 100: 141–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Picken JJ, Niewoehner DE, Chester EH. Prolonged effects of viral infections of the upper respiratory tract upon small airways. Am J Med 1972; 52: 738–746.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Laraya-Cuasay LR, Deforest A, Huff D, Lischner H, Huang NN. Chronic pulmonary complications of early influenza virus infection in children. Am Rev Respir Dis 1977; 116: 617–625.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Shalit I, McKee PA, Beauchamp H, Waner JL. Comparison of polyclonal antiserum versus monoclonal antibodies for the rapid diagnosis of influenza A virus infections by immunofluorescence in clinical specimens. J Clin Microbiol 1985; 22: 877–879.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    McQuillin J, Madeley CR, Kendal AP. Monoclonal antibodies for the rapid diganosis of influenza A and B virus infections by immunofluorescence. Lancet 1985;ii:911914.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Horwitz MS. Adenoviral diseases. In: Fields BN, Knipe DM, Chanock RM, Hisch MS, Melnick JL, Monath TP, Roizman B, eds. Virology. 2nd Ed. New York: Raven, 1990: 1723–1740.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Ruuskanen O, Meurman O, Sarkkinen H. Adenoviral diseases in children: A study of 105 hospital cases. Pediatrics 1985; 76: 79–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Dudding BA, Wagner SC, Zeller JA, Gmelich JT, French GR, Top FH, Jr. Fatal pneumonia associated with adenovirus type 7 in three military trainees. N Engl J Med 1972; 286: 1289–1292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Levin S, Dietrich J, Guillory J. Fatal nonbacterial pneumonia associated with adenovirus type 4. Occurrence in an adult. JAMA 1967; 201: 975–977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Loker EF, Jr, Hodges GR, Kelly DJ. Fatal adenovirus pneumonia in a young adult associated with ADV-7 vaccine administered 15 days earlier. Chest 1974; 66: 197–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Schonland M, Strong ML, Wesley A. Fatal adenovirus pneumonia: Clinical and pathological features. S Afr Med J 1976; 50: 1748–1751.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Chany C, Lepine P, Lelong M, Le-Tan-Vinh, Satge P, Virat J. Severe and fatal pneumonia in infants and young children associated with adenovirus infections. Am J Hyg 1958; 67: 367–378.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Zahradnik JM, Spencer MJ, Porter DD. Adenovirus infection in the immunocompromised patient. Am J Med 1980; 68: 725–732.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Wasserman R, August CS, Plotkin SA. Viral infections in pediatric bone marrow transplant patients. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1988; 7: 109–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Field PR, Patwardhan J, McKenzie JA, Murphy AM. Fatal adenovirus type 7 pneumonia in an adult. Med J Aust 1978; 2: 445–447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Shields AF, Hackman RC, Fife KH, Corey L, Meyers JD. Adenovirus infections in patients undergoing bone-marrow transplantation. N Engl J Med 1985; 312: 529533.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Myerowitz RL, Stalder H, Oxman MN, et al. Fatal disseminated adenovirus infection in a renal transplant recipient. Am J Med 1975; 59: 591–598.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Craighead JE. Cytopathology of adenoviruses types 7 and 12 in human respiratory epithelium. Lab Invest 1970; 22: 553–557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wohl MEB, Chernick V. State of the art: Bronchiolitis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1978; 118: 759–781.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Becroft DM. Bronchiolitis obliterans, bronchiectasis, and other sequelae of adenovirus type 21 infection in young children. J Clin Pathol 1971; 24: 72–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Lang WR, Howden CW, Laws J, Burton JF. Bronchopneumonia with serious sequelae in children with evidence of adenovirus type 21 infection. Br Med J 1969; 1: 73–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Whitley RJ. Herpes simplex viruses. In: Fields BN, Knipe DM, Chanock RM, Hirsch MS, Melnick JL, Monath TP, Roizman B, eds. Virology. 2nd Ed. New York: Raven, 1990: 1843–1887.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Lindgren KM, Douglas RG, Jr, Couch RB. Significance of Herpesvirus hominis in respiratory secretions of man. N Engl J Med 1968; 278: 517–523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Herout V, Vortel V, Vondrackova A. Herpes simplex involvement of the lower respiratory tract. Am J Clin Pathol 1966; 46: 411–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Francis DP, Herrmann KL, MacMahon JR, Chivigny KH, Sanderlin KC. Nosocomial and maternally acquired herpesvirus hominis infections. A report of four fatal cases in neonates. Am J Dis Child 1975; 129: 889–893.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Foley FD, Greenawald KA, Nash G, Pruitt BA, Jr. Herpesvirus infection in burned patients. N Engl J Med 1970; 282: 652–656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Nash G, Foley FD. Herpetic infection of the middle and lower respiratory tract. Am J Clin Pathol 1970; 54: 857863.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Ramsey PG, Fife KH, Hackman RC, Meyers JD, Corey L. Herpes simplex virus pneumonia: Clinical, virologic, and pathologic features in 20 patients. Ann Intern Med 1982; 97: 813–820.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Douglas RG, Jr, Anderson S, Weg JG, et al. Herpes simplex virus pneumonia. Occurrence in an allotransplanted lung. JAMA 1969; 210: 902–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Tuxen DV, Cade JF, McDonald MI, Buchanan MRC, Clark RJ, Pain MCF. Herpes simplex virus from the lower respiratory tract in adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 1982; 126: 416–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Jordan SW, McLaren LC, Crosby JH. Herpetic tracheobronchitis. Cytologic and virologic detection. Arch Intern Med 1975; 135: 784–788.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Cooney W, Dzuira B, Harper R, Nash G. The cytology of sputum from thermally injured patients. Acta Cytol (Baltimore) 1972; 16: 433–437.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Markowitz LE, Preblud SR, Orenstein WA, et al. Patterns of transmission in measles outbreaks in the United States, 1985–1986. N Engl J Med 1989;320, 2: 75–81.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Fulginiti VA, Eller JJ, Downie AW, Kempe CH. Altered reactivity to measles virus. JAMA 1967; 202: 1075–1080.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Norrby E, Oxman MN: Measles virus. In: Fields BN, Knipe DM, Chanock RM, Hirsch MS, Melnick JL, Monath TP, Roizman B, eds. Virology. 2nd Ed. New York: Raven, 1990: 1013–1044.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Mitus A, Enders JF, Craig JM, Holloway A. Persistence of measles virus and depression of antibody formation in patients with giant-cell pneumonia after measles. N Engl J Med 1959; 261: 882–889.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Haram K, Jacobsen K. Measles and its relationship to giant cell pneumonia (Hecht pneumonia). Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand [A] 1973; 81: 761–769.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Kipps A, Kaschula ROC. Virus pneumonia following measles: A virological and histological study of autopsy material. S Afr Med J 1976; 50: 1083–1088.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Denton J. The pathology of fatal measles. Am J Med Sci 1925; 169: 531–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Goodpasture EW, Auerbach SH, Swanson HS, Cotter EF. Virus pneumonia of infants secondary to epidemic infections. Am J Dis Child 1939; 57: 997–1011.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Sobonya RE, Hiller FC, Pingleton W, Watanabe I. Fatal measles (rubeola) pneumonia in adults. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1978; 102: 366–371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Archibald RWR, Weller RO, Meadow SR. Measles pneumonia and the nature of the inclusion-bearing giant cells: A light-and electron-microscope study. J Pathol 1971; 103: 27–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Hecht V. Die Riesenzellen-Pneumonie im Kindesalter. Beitr Pathol Anat 1910; 48: 263–310.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Pinkerton H, Smiley WL, Anderson WAD. Giant cell pneumonia with inclusions. A lesion common to Hecht’s disease, distemper, and measles. Am J Pathol 1945; 21: 1–15.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Enders JF, McCarthy K, Mitus A, Cheatham WJ. Isolation of measles virus at autopsy in cases of giant-cell pneumonia without rash. N Engl J Med 1959; 261: 875881.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Annunziato D, Kaplan MH, Hall WW, et al. Atypical measles syndrome: Pathologic and serologic findings. Pediatrics 1982; 70: 203–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Laptook A, Wind E, Nussbaum M, Shenker IR. Pulmonary lesions in atypical measles. Pediatrics 1978; 62: 4246.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Henderson JAM, Hammond DI. Delayed diagnosis in atypical measles syndrome. Can Med Assoc J 1985; 133: 211–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Hall CB, Geiman JM, Biggar R, Kotok DI, Hogan PM, Douglas RG, Jr. Respiratory syncytial virus infections within families. N Engl J Med 1976; 294: 414–419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Hall CB, Douglas G, Jr., Geiman JM, Messner MK. Nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus infections. N Engl J Med 1975; 293: 1343–1346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Englund JA, Sullivan CJ, Jordan MC, Dehner LP, Vercellotti GM, Balfour HH, Jr. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in immunocompromised adults. Ann Intern Med 1988; 109: 203–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Guidry GG, Black-Payne CA, Payne DK, Jamison RM, George RB, Bocchini JA, Jr. Respiratory syncytial virus infection among intubated adults in a university medical intensive care unit. Chest 1991; 100: 1377–1384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Adams JM, Green RG, Evans CA, Beach N. Primary virus pneumonitis. A comparative study of two epidemics. J Pediatr 1942; 20: 405–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Hubble D, Osborn GR. Acute bronchiolitis in children. Br Med J 1941; 1: 107–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Adams JM, Imagawa DT, Zike K. Epidemic bronchiolitis and pneumonitis related to respiratory syncytial virus. JAMA 1961; 176: 1037–1039.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Morales F, Calder MA, Inglis JM, Murdoch PS, Williamson J. A study of respiratory infections in the elderly to assess the role of respiratory syncytial virus. J Infect 1983; 7: 236–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Berman S. Epidemiology of acute respiratory infections in children of developing countries. Rev Infect Dis 1991; 13 (Suppl. 6): 5454 - S462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Neilson KA, Yunis EJ. Demonstration of respiratory syncytial virus in an autopsy series. Pediatr Pathol 1990; 10: 491–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Domurat F, Roberts NJ, Jr, Walsh EE, Dagan R. Respiratory syncytial virus infection of human mononuclear leukocytes in vitro and in vivo. J Infect Dis 1985; 152: 895–902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Aherne W, Bird T, Court SDM, Gardner PS, McQuillin J. Pathological changes in virus infections of the lower respiratory tract in children. J Clin Pathol 1970; 23: 7–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Holzel A, Parker L, Patterson WH, et al. Virus isolations from throats of children admitted to hospital with respiratory and other diseases, Manchester 1962–4. Br Med J 1965; 1: 614–619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Zinserling A. Peculiarities of lesions in viral and mycoplasma infections of the respiratory tract. Virchows Arch [A] 1972; 356: 259–273.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Gardner PS, McQuillin J, Court SDM. Speculation on pathogenesis in death from respiratory syncytial virus infection. Br Med J 1970; 1: 327–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Hall CB, Douglas RG, Jr, Geiman JM. Respiratory syncytial virus infections in infants: quantitation and duration of shedding. J Pediatr 1976; 89: 11–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    McLean KH. The pathology of acute bronchiolitis-a study of its evolution. Aust Ann Med 1956; 5: 254–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Welliver RC, Ogra PL. Use of immunofluorescence in the study of the pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus infection. Ann NY Acad Sci 1983; 420: 369–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Welliver RC, Kaul TN, Ogra PL. The appearance of cell-bound IgE in respiratory-tract epithelium after respiratory-syncytial-virus infection. N Engl J Med 1980; 303: 1198–1201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Welliver RC, Kaul TN, Sun M, Ogra PL. Defective regulation of immune responses in respiratory syncytial virus infection. J Immunol 1984; 133: 1925–1930.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Bui RHD, Molinaro GA, Kettering JD, Heiner DC, Imagawa DT, St. Geme, JW, Jr. Virus-specific IgE and IgG4 antibodies in serum of children infected with respiratory syncytial virus. J Pediatr 1987; 110: 87–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Ananaba GA, Anderson LJ. Antibody enhancement of respiratory syncytial virus stimulation of leukotriene production by a macrophagelike cell line. J Virol 1991; 65: 5052–5060.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Rodriguez WJ, Kim HW, Brandt CD, et al. Aerosolized ribavirin in the treatment of patients with respiratory syncytial virus disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1987;6:159Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Hemming VG, Rodriguez W, Kim HW, et al. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment of respiratory syncytial virus infections in infants and young children. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1987; 31: 1882–1886.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 163.
    Chanock RM, McIntosh K. Parainfluenza viruses. In: Fields BN, Knipe DM, Chanock RM, Hirsch MS, Mel-nick JL, Monath TP, Roizman B, eds. Virology. 2nd Ed. New York: Raven, 1990: 963–988.Google Scholar
  165. 164.
    Gardner PS, McQuillin J, McGuckin R, Ditchburn RK. Observations on clinical and immunofluorescent diagnosis of parainfluenza virus infections. Br Med J 1971; 2: 7–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 165.
    Chanock RM, Parrott RH, Johnson KM, Kapikian AZ. Bell JA. Myxoviruses: parainfluenza. Am Rev Respir Dis 1963; 88: 152–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 166.
    Parrott RH, Vargosko A, Luckey A, Kim HW, Cumming C, Chanock R. Clinical features of infection with hemadsorption viruses. N Engl J Med 1959; 260: 731–738.Google Scholar
  168. 167.
    Welliver RC, Wong DT, Sun M, McCarthy N. Parainfluenza virus bronchiolitis: Epidemiology and pathogenesis. Am J Dis Child 1986; 140: 34–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 168.
    Waner JL, Whitehurst NJ, Downs T, Graves DG. Production of monoclonal antibodies against parainfluenza 3 virus and their use in diagnosis by immunofluorescence. J Clin Microbiol 1985; 22: 535–538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 169.
    Delage G, Brochu P, Pelletier M, Jasmin G, Lapointe N. Giant-cell pneumonia caused by parainfluenza virus. J Pediatr 1979;94:426 429.Google Scholar
  171. 170.
    Minnich L, Ray CG. Comparison of direct immunofluorescent staining of clinical specimens for respiratory virus antigens with conventional isolation techniques. J Clin Microbiol 1980; 12: 391–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 171.
    Little BW, Tihen WS, Dickerman JD, Craighead JE. Giant cell pneumonia associated with parainfluenza virus type 3 infection. Hum Pathol 1981; 12: 478 481.Google Scholar
  173. 172.
    Jarvis WR, Middleton PJ, Gelfand EW. Parainfluenza pneumonia in severe combined immunodeficiency disease. J Pediatr 1979; 94: 423–425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 173.
    Frank JA, Warren RW, Tucker JA, Zeller J, Wilfert CM. Disseminated parainfluenza infection in a child with severe combined immunodeficiency. Am J Dis Child 1983; 137: 1172–1174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 174.
    Cowley JA, Barry RD. Characterization of human parainfluenza viruses. The structural proteins of parainfluenza virus 2 and their synthesis in infected cells. J Gen Virol 1983; 64: 2117–2125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 175.
    Welliver RC, Wong DT, Middleton E, Sun M, McCarthy N, Ogra PL. Role of parainfluenza virus-specific IgE in pathogenesis of croup and wheezing subsequent to infection. J Pediatr 1982; 101: 889–896.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 176.
    Weber DM, Pellecchia JA. Varicella pneumonia: Study of prevalence in adult men. JAMA 1965; 192: 572–573.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 177.
    Gelb LD. Varicella-zoster virus. In: Fields BN, Knipe DM, Chanock RM, Hirsch MS, Melnick JL, Monath TP, Roizman B, eds. Virology. 2nd Ed. New York: Raven, 1990: 2011–2054.Google Scholar
  179. 178.
    Triebwasser JH, Harris RE, Bryant RE, Rhoades ER. Varicella pneumonia in adults. Medicine (Baltimore) 1967; 46: 409–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 179.
    Nisenbaum C, Wallis K, Herczeg E. Varicella pneumonia in children. Helv Paediatr Acta 1969; 24: 212–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 180.
    LaRussa P. Perinatal herpesvirus infections. Pediatr Ann 1984; 13: 659–670.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 181.
    Paryani SG, Arvin AM. Intra-uterine infection with varicella-zoster virus after maternal varicella. N Engl J Med 1986; 314: 1542–1546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 182.
    Motyl MR, Bottone EJ, Janda JM. Diagnosis of herpes-virus infections: correlation of Tzanck preparation with viral isolation. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 1984; 2: 157160.Google Scholar
  184. 183.
    Solomon AR, Rasmussen JE, Weiss JS. A comparison of the Tzanch smear and viral isolation in varicella and herpes zoster. Arch Dermatol 1986; 122: 282–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 184.
    Drew WL, Mintz L. Rapid diagnosis of varicella-zoster virus infection by direct immunofluorescence. Am J Clin Pathol 1980; 73: 699–701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 185.
    Herrmann KL. Viral serology. In: Lennette EH, Balows A, Hausler WJ, Jr., Shadomy HJ, eds. Manual of clinical microbiology. 4th ed. Washington, DC!“ American Society for Microbiology, 1985; 921–923.Google Scholar
  187. 186.
    Saito F, Yutani C, Imakita M, Ishibashi-Ueda H, Kanzaki T, Chiba Y. Giant cell pneumonia caused by varicella zoster virus in a neonate. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1989; 113: 201–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 187.
    Jones EL, Cameron AH. Pulmonary calcification in viral pneumonia. J Clin Pathol 1969; 22: 361–366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Jura E, Chadwick EG, Josephs SH, et al. Varicella-zoster virus infections in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1989; 8: 586–590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Craighead JE. Cytomegalovirus pulmonary disease. Pathobiol Annu 1975; 5: 197–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Chou S. Acquisition of donor strains of cytomegalovirus by renal-transplant recipients. N Engl J Med 1986; 314: 1418–1423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Reynolds DW, Stagno S, Alford CA. Laboratory diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infections. In: Lennette EH, Schmidt NJ, eds. Diagnostic procedures for viral rickettsia! and chlamydia) infections. 5th Ed. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association 1979: 399–439.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Stagno S, Pass RF, Dworsky ME, Britt WJ, Alford CA. Congenital and perinatal cytomegalovirus infections: clinical characteristics and pathogenic factors. Birth Defects 1984; 20: 65–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Stern H. Isolation of cytomegalovirus and clinical manifestations of infection at different ages. Br Med J 1968; 1: 665–669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Ballard RA, Drew L, Hufnagle KG, Riedel PA. Acquired cytomegalovirus infection in preterm infants. Am J Dis Child 1979; 133: 482–485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Stagno S, Brasfield DM, Brown MB, et al. Infant pneumonitis associated with cytomegalovirus, Chlamydia, Pneumocystis, and Ureaplasma: A prospective study. Pediatrics 1981; 68: 322–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Medearis DN. Observations concerning human cytomegalovirus infection and disease. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 1964; 114: 181–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Yeager AS, Grumet FC, Hafleigh EB, Arvin AM, Bradley JS, Prober CG. Prevention of transfusion-acquired cytomegalovirus infections in newborn infants. J Pediatr 1981; 98: 281–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Cohen JI, Corey GR. Cytomegalovirus infection in the normal host. Medicine (Baltimore) 1985; 64: 100–114.Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Kirchner H. Immunobiology of infection with human cytomegalovirus. Adv Cancer Res 1983; 40: 31–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Peterson PK, Balfour HH, Marker SC, Fryd DS, Howard RJ, Simmons RL. Cytomegalovirus disease in renal allograft recipients: A prospective study of the clinical features, risk factors and impact on renal transplantation. Medicine (Baltimore) 1980; 59: 283–300.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Fiala M, Payne JE, Berne TV, et al. Epidemiology of cytomegalovirus infection after transplantation and immunosuppression. J Infect Dis 1975; 132: 421–433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Rubin RH, Cosimi AB, Tolkoff-Rubin NE, Russell PS, Hirsch MS. Infectious disease syndromes attributable to cytomegalovirus and their significance among renal transplant recipients. Transplantation 1977; 24: 458464.Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Rook AH, Quinnan GV, Frederick WJR, et al. Importance of cytotoxic lymphocytes during cytomegalovirus infection in renal transplant recipients. Am J Med 1984; 76: 385–392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Meyers JD, Flournoy N, Thomas ED. Nonbacterial pneumonia after allogeneic marrow transplantation: A review of ten years experience. Rev Infect Dis 1982; 4: 1119–1132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Blumenfeld W, Wagar E, Hadley WK. Use of the trans-bronchial biopsy for diagnosis of opportunistic pulmonary infections in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Am J Clin Pathol 1984; 81: 1–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Lamberson HV, Jr. Cytomegalovirus (CMV): The agent, its pathogenesis, and its epidemiology. Prog Clin Biol Res 1985;182:149–173.Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Griffiths PD. Diagnostic techniques for cytomegalovirus infection. Clin Haematol 1984; 13: 631–644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Moore DG, Davis BG, Oefinger PE, Carlson JR. Reactivity of serologic tests for the detection of antibody specific to cytomegalovirus. Am J Clin Pathol 1985; 83: 622–625.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    McHugh TM, Casavant CH, Wilber JC, Stites DP. Comparison of six methods for the detection of antibody to cytomegalovirus. J Clin Microbiol 1985; 22: 1014–1019.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Griffiths PD, Stagno S, Pass RF, Smith RJ, Alford CA Jr. Infection with cytomegalovirus during pregnancy: specific IgM antibodies as a marker of recent primary infection. J Infect Dis 1982; 145: 647–653.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Demmler GJ, Six HR, Hurst SM, Yow MD. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of IgMclass antibodies to cytomegalovirus. J Infect Dis 1986; 153: 1152–1155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Drew WL. Controversies in viral diagnosis. Rev Infect Dis 1986; 8: 814–824.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Smith TF, Holley KE, Keys TF, Macasaet FF. Cytomegalovirus studies of autopsy tissue. Am J Clin Pathol 1975; 63: 854–858.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Hackman RC, Myerson D, Meyers JD, et al. Rapid diagnosis of cytomegaloviral pneumonia by tissue immunofluorescence with a murine monoclonal antibody. J Infect Dis 1985; 151: 325–329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Abdallah PS, Mark JB, Merigan TC. Diagnosis of cytomegalovirus pneumonia in compromised hosts. Am J Med 1976; 61: 326–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Woods GL, Thompson AB, Rennard SL, Linder J. Detection of cytomegalovirus in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. Spin amplification and staining with a monoclonal antibody to the early nuclear antigen for diagnosis of cytomegalovirus pneumonia. Chest 1990; 98: 568575.Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    Weiss RL, Snow GW, Schumann GB, Hammond ME. Diagnosis of cytomegalovirus pneumonitis on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid: Comparison of cytology, immunofluorescence, and in situ hybridization with viral isolation. Diagn Cytopathol 1991; 7: 243–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Cordonnier C, Escudier E, Nicolas J-C, et al. Evaluation of three assays on alveolar lavage fluid in the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus pneumonitis after bone marrow transplantation. J Infect Dis 1987; 155: 495–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Myerson D, Hackman RC, Nelson JA, Ward DC, McDougall JK. Widespread presence of histologically occult cytomegalovirus. Hum Pathol 1984; 15: 430–439.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Schrier RD, Nelson JA, Oldstone MBA. Detection of human cytomegalovirus in peripheral blood lymphocytes in a natural infection. Science 1985; 230: 1048 1051.Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Hilborne LH, Nieberg RK, Cheng L, Lewin KJ. Direct in situ hybridization for rapid detection of cytomegalovirus in bronchoalveolar lavage. Am J Clin Pathol 1987; 87: 766–769.Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Paradis IL, Grgurich WF, Dummer JS, Dekker A, Dauber JH. Rapid detection of cytomegalovirus pneumonia from lung lavage cells. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988; 138: 697–702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Churchill MA, Zaia JA, Forman SJ, Sheibani K, Azumi N, Blume KG. Quantitation of human cytomegalovirus DNA in lungs from bone marrow transplant recipients with interstitial pneumonia. J Infect Dis 1987; 155: 50 1509.Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    Gleaves CA, Meyers JD. Rapid detection of cytomegalovirus in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from marrow transplant patients: Evaluation of a direct fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody reagent. J Virol Methods 1989; 26: 345–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Jesionek KA, Kiolemenoglou B. Über einen Befund von protozoën artigen Gebilden in den Oragnen eines hereditär-luetischen. Fötus Munch Med Wochenschr 1904; 43: 1905–1907.Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Goodpasture EW, Talbot FB. Concerning the nature of “protozoan-like” cells in certain lesions of infancy. Am J Dis Child 1921; 21: 415–425.Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Farber S, Wolbach SB. Intranuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions (“protozoan-like bodies”) in the salivary glands and other organs of infants. Am J Pathol 1932; 8: 123–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Cole R, Kuttner AG. A filterable virus present in the submaxillary blands of guinea pigs. J Exp Med 1926; 44: 855–873.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Smith MG. Propagation in tissue cultures of a cytopathogenic virus from human salivary gland virus (SGV) disease. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1956; 92: 424–430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Rowe WP, HartleyJW, Waterman S, Turner HC, Huebner RJ. Cytopathogenic agent resembling human salivary gland virus recovered from tissue cultures of human adenoids. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1956; 92: 418–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Weller TH, Macauley LC, Craig JM, Wirth P. Isolation of intranuclear inclusion producing agents from infants with illnesses resembling cytomegalic inclusion disease. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1957; 94: 4–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Irmiere A, Gibson W. Isolation of human cytomegalovirus intranuclear capsids, characterization of their protein constituents, and demonstration that the B-capsid assembly protein is also abundant in non-infectious enveloped particles. J Virol 1985; 56: 277–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Plotkin SA, Michelson S, Alford CA, et al. The pathogenesis and prevention of human cytomegalovirus infection. Pediatr Infect Dis 1984; 3: 67–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Hruban Z, Kuzo R, Heimann P, Weisenberg E, Hruban RH. Globular changes in cytomegaloviral inclusions after ganciclovir treatment. Arch Virol 1989; 108: 287293.Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    Gorelkin L, Chandler FW, Ewing EP, Jr. Staining qualities of cytomegalovirus inclusions in the lungs of patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: A potential source of diagnostic misinterpretation. Hum Pathol 1986; 17: 926–929.Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    Kanich RE, Craighead JE. Human cytomegalovirus infection of cultured fibroblasts. I. Cytopathologic effects induced by an adapted and a wild strain. Lab Invest 1972; 27: 263–272.Google Scholar
  238. 238.
    Iwasaki T, Satodate R, Masuda T, Kurata T, Hondo R. An immunofluorescent study of generalized infection of human cytomegalovirus in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Acta Pathol Jpn 1984; 34: 869–874.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Craighead JE. Pulmonary cytomegalovirus infection in the adult. Am J Pathol 1971; 63: 487–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Hirsch MS, Felsenstein D. Cytomegalovirus-induced immunosuppression. Ann NY Acad Sci 1984; 437: 8–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Gehrz RC, Rutzick SR. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific lysis of CMV-infected target cells can be mediated by both NK-like and virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Clin Exp Immunol 1985; 61: 80–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Borysiewicz LK, Rodgers B, Morris S, Graham S, Sissons JGP. Lysis of human cytomegalovirus infected fibroblasts by natural killer cells: demonstration of an interferon-independent component requiring expression of early viral proteins and characterization of effector cells. J Immunol 1985; 134: 2695–2701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Ho M. Pathology of cytomegalovirus infection. In: Greenough WB III, Merigan TC, eds. Cytomegalovirus: Biology and infection. Current topics in infectious disease. New York: Plenum, 1982: 119–129.Google Scholar
  244. 244.
    Ravic C, Smith GW, Ahern MJ, McLoud T, Putman C, Milchgrub S. Cytomegaloviral infection presenting as a solitary pulmonary nodule. Chest 1977; 71: 220–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Faulds D, Heel RE. Ganciclovir. A review of its antiviral activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy in cytomegalovirus infections. Drugs 1990; 39: 597–638.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Craighead JE, Meier M, Cooley MH. Pulmonary infection due to rhinovirus type 13. N Engl J Med 1969; 281: 1403–1404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Mundy GR. Infectious mononucleosis with pulmonary parenchymal involvement. Br Med J 1972; 1: 219–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Grist NR, Bell EJ, Assaad F. Enteroviruses in human disease. Prog Med Virol 1978; 24: 114–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Washington C. WinnJr.
  • David H. Walker

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations