Leveling is a process to determine the vertical position of different points below, on, or above the ground. In surveying operations, vertical elevations and vertical control are generally derived independently of horizontal control. Some modern positioning devices, termed total stations, allow simultaneous determination of spatial coordinates. Elevation is the vertical distance above a known datum or arbitrary reference surface. Elevations are helpful for the placement of a water drain line to provide free gravity flow, construction of a sports playing field, and among other applications, the vertical layout of a roadbed to allow a smooth flow of trucks and trains, which must ascend or descend sloping terrain.


Gravity Field Geoidal Height Bench Mark Vertical Angle Vertical Control 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

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