Ecological Factors Controlling Stream Zoobenthos with Emphasis on Thermal Modification of Regulated Streams

  • James V. Ward
  • Jack A. Stanford


A myriad of factors, including temperature, flow, substrate, aquatic and riparian vegetation, dissolved substances, food and bio-tic interactions, determine the composition and abundance of stream zoobenthos (Macan, 1961, 1974; Hynes, 1970a, b). The influence of the watershed on many of these factors has only recently been fully appreciated (e.g., Hynes,, 1975; Cummins, this volume).


Riparian Vegetation Stream Temperature Thermal Modification South Fork Bottom Fauna 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • James V. Ward
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jack A. Stanford
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Dept. Zoology & EntomologyColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA
  2. 2.Dept. Biological SciencesNorth Texas State UniversityDentonUSA

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