Functions of Shoaling Behaviour in Teleosts

  • Tony J. Pitcher


Predators and food are the keys to understanding fish shoals; synchronised co-operation defeats predators, and optimal food gathering in shoals reflects a shifting balance between joining, competing in, or leaving the group. In the wild, predators may arrive while shoaling fish are feeding, and so vigilance is a crucial behaviour. Once detected, predator defence takes precedence over feeding, since an animal’s life is worth more than today’s dinner.


Food Patch Ideal Free Distribution Shoal Size Good Patch Optimal Forage Theory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Tony J. Pitcher 1986

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