Hazards from Pathogenic Microorganisms in Land-Disposed Sewage Sludge

  • Timothy M. Straub
  • Ian L. Pepper
  • Charles P. Gerba
Conference paper
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 132)


Municipal sewage sludge is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds of biological and mineral origin that are removed from wastewater and sewage in sewage treatment plants. Sludge is a by-product of physical (primary treatment), biological (activated sludge, trickling filters, or rotating biological contractors), and physiochemical (precipitation with lime, ferric chloride, or alum) treatment of wastewater. Many of the pathogenic microorganisms present in raw wastewaters will find their way into municipal sludges. Treatment of these sludges by anaerobic or aerobic digestion and/or dewatering will reduce the number of pathogens, but significant numbers will remain. The type of treatment will determine the concentrations and relative risk of disposal.


Sewage Sludge Anaerobic Digestion Fecal Coliform Sludge Treatment Enteric Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Timothy M. Straub
    • 1
  • Ian L. Pepper
    • 1
  • Charles P. Gerba
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Soil and Water ScienceThe University of ArizonaTucsonUSA

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