Uptake and Exchange of GABA and Glutamate in Isolated Nerve Endings

  • Giulio Levi
  • Ugo Poce
  • Maurizio Raiteri
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 69)


In the last years an increasing number of reports have favoured the concept that GABA and glutamate act as inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters respectively in the mammalian CNS11, 12, 25. One of the essential biochemical steps of neurotransmission is the rapid inactivation of the active substance liberated in the synaptic cleft. With the only known exception of acetylcholine, which is rapidly hydrolyzed by a specific enzyme, reuptake into the presynaptic terminal is considered as the major means for terminating the action of most other putative neurotransmitters11, 12, 21, 24, 37.


Nerve Ending Uptake System Synaptic Cleft Neurotransmitter Amino Acid Gaba Uptake 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Baker, P.F. and Crawford, A.C., A note on the mechanisms by which inhibitors of the sodium pump accelerate spontaneous release of transmitter from motor end terminals, J. Physiol.(London), 247 (1975) 209–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bauman, A., Bourgoin, S., Benda, P., Glowinski, J. and Hamon, M., Characteristics of tryptophan accumulation by glial cells. Brain Res.,66 (1974) 253–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Beart, P.M., Johnston, G.A.R. and Uhr, M.L., Competitive inhibition of GABA uptake in rat brain slices by some GABA analogs of restricted conformation, J. Neurochem., 19 (1972) 1855–1861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Belin, M.F. and Pujol, J.F., Transport synaptosomal du triptophane cerebrale: variation des characterisitques cinetiques du systeme de capture lie au substrat, CR Acad. Sci. (D)(Paris), 275 (1972) 2271–2274.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bennett, J.P., Mulder, A.H. and Snyder S.H., Neurochemical correlates of synaptically active amino acids. Life Sci., 15 (1974) 1045–1056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Blasberg, R. and Lajtha, A., Heterogeneity of the mediated tran_s port systems of amino acid uptake in brain. Brain Res., 1 (1966) 86–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bond, P.A., The uptake of γ-(3H)aminobutyric acid by slices from various regions of rat brain and the effect of lithium, J. Neuro- chem., 20 (1973) 511–517.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bowery, N.G. and Brown, D.A., γ -Aminobutyric acid uptake by Sympathetic ganglia. Nature New Biol., 238 (1972) 89–91.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bradford, H.F., Jones, D.G., Ward, H.K. and Booher, J., Biochemical and morphological studies of the short and long term survival of isolated nerve endings. Brain Res., 90 (1975) 245–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cohen, R.S. and Lajtha, A., Amino acid transport. In A. Lajtha (Ed.) Handbook of Neurochemistry, vol. 7, Plenum Press, New York, 1972, pp. 543–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Curtis, O.R. and Johnston, G.A.R., Amino acid transmitters. In A. Lajtha (Ed.), Handbook of Neurochemistry, vol. 4, Plenum Press, New York, 1970, pp. 115–134.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    DeFeudis, F.V., Amino acids as central neurotransmitters, Ann. Rev. Pharmacol., 15 (1975) 105–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fonnum, F., Grofova, I., Rinvik, E., Storm-Mathisen, J. and Walberg. F., Origin and distribution of glutamate-decarboxylase in substantia nigra of the cat. Brain Res., 71 (1974) 77–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Foreman, J.C., Mongar, J.L. and Gomperts, B.D., Calcium ionopho res and movement of calcium ions following the physiological sti mulus to a secretory process. Nature, 245 (1973) 249–251.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Goddard, G.A. and Robinson, J.D., Calcium fluxes in rat brain synaptosomes, Fed. Proc. (Abstracts), 34 (1975) 715.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hammerstad, J.P. and Cutler, R.W.P., Sodium ions movements and the spontaneous and electrically stimulated release of (3 h)GABA and 14C-glutamic acid from rat cortical slices. Brain Res., 47 (1972) 401–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Henn, F.A., Goldstein, M.N. and Hamberger, A., Uptake of the neurotransmitter candidate glutamate by glia. Nature, 249 (1974) 663–664.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Henn, F.A. and Hamberger, A Glial cell function: uptake of transmitter substances, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA), 68 (1971) 2686- 2690.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Holz, R.W., The release of dopamine from synaptosomes from rat striatum by the ionophores X537A and A23187, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 375 (1975) 138–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hutchinson, H.T., Werrbach, K., Vance, C. and Haber, B., Uptake of neurotransmitters by clonal lines of astrocytoma and neuroblastoma in culture. I. Transport of γ-aminobutyric acid. Brain Res., 66 (1974) 265–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Iversen, L.L., Role of transmitter uptake mechanisms in synaptic neurotransmission, Br. J. Pharmacol., 41 (1971) 571–591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Iversen, L.L. and Johnston, G.A.R., GABA uptake in rat CNS: comparison of uptake in slices and in homogenates and the effect of some inhibitors, J. Neurochem., 18 (1971) 1939–1950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kamino, K., Uyesaka, N. and Inouye, A., Calcium-binding of syn- aptosomes isolated from rat brain cortex. I. Effects of high external potassium ions, J. Membr. Biol., 17 (1974) 13–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Krnjevic, K., Chemical nature of synaptic transmission, Physiol. Rev., 54 (1974) 419–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Levi, G. and Raiteri, M., Detectability of high and low affinity uptake systems for GABA and glutamate in rat brain slices and synaptosomes. Life Sci. (1) 12 (1973) 81–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Levi, G. and Raiteri, M., Exchange of neurotransmitter amino acid at nerve endings can simulate high affinity uptake. Nature, 250 (1974) 735–737.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Levi, G., Coletti, A., Poce, U. and Raiteri, M., Decrease of uptake and exchange of neurotransmitter amino acids after depletion of their synaptosomal pools, Brain Res.,(in press).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Martin, D.L. and Smith III, A.A., Ions and the transport of gamma-aminobutyric acid by synaptosomes, J. Neurochem., 19 (1972) 841–855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Raiteri, M., Angelini, F. and Levi, G., A simple apparatus for studying the release of neurotransmitters from Symaptosomes, Eur. J. Pharmac., 25 (1974) 411–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Raiteri, M., Federico, R., Coletti, A. and Levi, G., Release and exchange studies relating to the synaptosomal uptake of GABA, J. Neurochem., 24 (1975) 1243–1250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Roberts, P.J. and Keen, P., 14C-glutamate uptake and compartment- ation in glia of rat dorsal sensory ganglia, J. Neurochem.,23 (1974) 201–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Roberts, P.J. and Watkins, J.C., Structural requirements for the inhibition of L-glutamate uptake by glia and nerve endings. Brain Res., 85 (1975) 120–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Schon, F. and Kelly, J.S., The characterization of (3H)GABA uptake into the satellite glial cells of rat sensory ganglia. Brain Res., 66 (1974) 289–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Schon, F. and Kelly, J.S., Selective uptake of (3H)-β-alanine by glia: association with the glial uptake system for GABA, Brain Res., 86 (1975) 243–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Simon, J.R. and Martin, D.L., The effects of L-2,4-diaminobuty- ric acid on the uptake of gamma-aminobutyric acid by a synaptosomal fraction from rat brain. Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 157 (1973) 348–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Simon, J.R., Martin, D.L. and Kroll, M., Sodium-dependent efflux and exchange of GABA in synaptosomes, J. Neurochem., 23 (1974) 981–991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Snyder, S.H., Young, A.B., Bennett, J.P. and Mulder, A.H., Synaptic biochemistry of amino acids. Fed. Proc., 32 (1973) 2039- 2047.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Stahl, W.L. and Swanson, P.D., Uptake of calcium by subcellular fractions isolated from ouabain treated cerebral tissue, J. Neu- rochem., 16 (1969) 1553–1563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Swanson, P.D., Anderson, L. and Stahl, W.L., Uptake of calcium ions by synaptosomes from rat brain, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 356 (1974) 174–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wilkin, G., Wilson, J.E., Balazs, R., Schon, F. and Kelly, J.S., How selective is high affinity uptake of GABA into inhibitory nerve terminals?. Nature, 252 (1974) 397–399.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giulio Levi
    • 1
  • Ugo Poce
    • 1
  • Maurizio Raiteri
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory of Cell BiologyRomeItaly
  2. 2.Institute of PharmacologyCatholic UniversityRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations