Advertisement

Thromboembolism and Contraceptive Medication: Incidence and Mechanism

  • Anthony P. Fletcher
  • Norma Alkjaersig

Abstract

The nature of this morning’s meeting on blood and vascular changes resulting from contraceptive medication differs sharply from those previously held. Earlier we have considered significant biochemical changes resulting from contraceptive medication, changes which, in the main, appeared reversible or potentially reversible on discontinuation of medication and which were, generally speaking, clinically asymptomatic.

Keywords

Blood Coagulation Thromboembolic Complication Contraceptive Medication Blood Coagulation Factor Coagulation Function 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Inman, W.H. and Vessey, M.P.: Investigation of deaths from pulmonary, coronary and cerebral thrombosis and embolism in women of childbearing age. Brit. Med. J. 2:193 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vessey, M.P. and Doll, R.: Investigation of relation between use of oral contraceptives and thromboembolic disease. Brit. Med. J. 2:199 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Drill, V.A. and Calhoun, D.W.: Oral contraceptives and thromboembolic disease. J.A.M.A. 206:77 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    The Veterans Administration Co-operative Urological Research Group. Treatment and survival of patients with cancer of the prostrate. Surg. Obstet. Gyn. 124: 1011 (1967).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Oliver, M.F. and Boyd, G.S.: Influence of reduction of serum lipids on prognosis of coronary heart-disease. A five year study using oestrogen. Lancet ii:499 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stamler, J., Pick, B., Katz, L.N., Pick, A., Berkson, D.M. and Century, D.: Effectiveness of oestrogens for therapy of myocardial infarction in middle-aged men. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 183: 632 (1963).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Daniel, D.G., Campbell, H. and Tumball, A.C.: Puerperal thromboembolism and suppression of lactation. Lancet ii:287 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jeffcoate, T.N.A., Miller, J., Roos, R.F. and Tindall, V.B.:Puerpal thromboembolism in relation to the inhibition of lactation by oestrogen therapy. Brit. Med. J. 4:19 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mustard, J.F., Roswell, H.C. and Murphy, E.A.: Thrombosis. Amer. J. Med. Sci. 248:469 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mustard, J.F. and Packman, M.A.: The biochemistry of primary hemostasis. Page 306 in Plenary Session Papers XII. Congress International Society of Hematology, New York, (1968).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mitchell, J. R. A.: The pathogenesis of thrombosis. Page 321 in Plenary Session Papers XII. Congress International Society of Hematology, New York (1968).12.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Esnouf, M.P.: Biochemical aspects of blood coagulation. Page 315 in Plenary Session Papers XII. Congress International Society of Hematology, New York (1968).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Crumb, J.D, and Ratnoff, O.D.: Activation of Hageman factor by solutions of ellagic acid. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 62:1006 (1963).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sise, H.: Anovulatory hormones and blood coagulation. In Blood Coagulation, Thrombosis and Female Hormones. Editors: T. Astrup and I.S. Wright, James F. Mitchell Foundation, Washington, D.C., 1968, p. 19.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Owen, C.A., Thompson, J.H., Jr., Bowie, W., Didisheim, P. and Spittell, J.A.: Coagulation studies during pregnancy and hormone treatment. In Blood Coagulation, Thrombosis and Female Hormones. Editors: T. Astrup and I.S. Wright. James F. Mitchell Foundation, Washington, D.C., 1968, p. 24.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Poller, L., Tabiowa, A. and Thompson, J.M.: Effects of low-dose oral contraceptives on blood coagulation. Brit. Med. J. 2:218 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gormsen, J., Fletcher, A.P., Alkjaersig, N. and Sherry, S.: Enzymatic lysis of plasma clots: the influence of fibrin stabilization on lysis rates. Archives of Biochem. and Biophys. 120:654 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Coopland, A., Fletcher, A.P. and Alkjaersig, N.: Reduction of plasma factor XIII (fibrin stabilizing factor) concentration during pregnancy. J. Lab. Clin. Med. (In Press).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fletcher, A.P.: The problem of intravascular fibrinolytic reaction. In Platelets: Their Role in Hemostasis and Thrombosis. Editors: K.M. Brinkhous, I.S. Wright, J.P. Samlier, H.R. Roberts and S. Hinnon. Thromb. et diath. Haemorrh. Suppl. 26:343 (1967).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fletcher, A.P. and Alkjaersig, N.: Plasma fibrinogen and hemostatic function (pathological and genetic disorders) Progress in Hematology (Editors: E.B. Brown and C.V. Moore), 5:246 (1966).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Allison, A.C. and Humphrey, J.H.: A theoretical and experimental analysis of double diffusion precipitin reaction in gels and its application characterization of antigens. Immunology 3:95 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Alkjaersig, N., Fletcher, A.P. and Bachmann, F.: In Preparation.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Scheraga, H.A. and Laskowski, M., Jr.: The fibrinogen- fibrin conversion. Advances in Protein Chemistry 12: 1(1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Alkjaersig, N., Fletcher, A.P. and Sherry, S.: The mechanism of clot dissolution by plasmin. J. Clin. Invest. 38: 1086 (1959).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fletcher, A.P., Alkjaersig, N. and Sherry, S.: Fibrinolytic mechanisms and the development of thrombolytic therapy. Am. J. Med. 33:738 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fletcher, A.P.: Measurement of plasma thrombolytic activity:isotopic method. In Blood Coagulation, Hemorrhage and Thrombosis:Methods of Study. Editors: L.A. Kazal and L.M. Tocantins. Grune and Stratton, 1964, p. 254.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sawyer, W.D., Fletcher, A.P., Alkjaersig, N. and Sherry, S.: Studies on the thrombolytic activity of human plasma. J. Clin. Invest. 39:426 (1960).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anthony P. Fletcher
    • 1
  • Norma Alkjaersig
    • 1
  1. 1.Washington University School of MedicineMissouriUSA

Personalised recommendations