Tests of Quantum Electrodynamics Using Hydrogen, Muonium, and Positronium

  • D. W. Gidley
  • A. Rich


In this paper we review the present status of experiments that test quantum electrodynamics (QED) using the simple atoms of hydrogen (H), muonium (Mu), and positronium (Ps). Since the recent developments in QED theory are reviewed separately (see G. P. Lepage — these proceedings) we need only introduce the results of such calculations for clarity and completeness. Emphasis will be given to the experimental techniques employed, the most recent experimental results, and the outlook for future improvement in the measurements.


Radiative Correction Quantum Electrodynamic Lamb Shift Channel Electron Multiplier Ground State Hyperfine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    H. Hellwig, R.F.C. Vessot, M.W. Levine, P.W. Zitzewitz, D.W. Allan, and D.J. Glaze, IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas. IM19, 200 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    L. Essen, R.W. Donaldson, M.J. Bangham, and E.G. Hope, Nature 229, 110 (1971).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    S.J. Brodsky and G.W. Erickson, Phys. Rev. 148, 26 (1966) and references therein.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    H. Grotch and D.R. Yennie, Reviews of Modern Physics 41, 350 (1969) and references therein.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    B.E. Lautrup, A. Peterman, and E. de Rafael, Physics Reports 3, 193 (1972)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 5.
    S.D. Drell and J.D. Sullivan, Phys. Rev. 154, 1477 (1967).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 6.
    See, for example, T. Kinoshita, Proceedings of the XIX International Conference on High Energy Physics, Tokyo, Japan (1978). See also ref. 5 (Lautrup, et al.) and ref. 8.Google Scholar
  8. 7.
    D.E. Casperson, T.W. Crane, A.B. Denison, P.O. Egan, V.W. Hughes, F.G. Mariam, H. Orth, H.W. Reist, P.A. Sauder, R.D. Stambaugh, P.A. Thompson, and G. zuPutlitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 956 (1977).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 8.
    V.W. Hughes, Muonium, in: “Exotic Atoms ’79”, K. Crowe, J. Duclos, G. Fiorentini, and G. Torelli editors, Plenum Publishing Corp. (1980).Google Scholar
  10. 9.
    E. Borie, preprint of a paper to be published in the proceedings of: Symposium uber Stand und Ziele der Quantenelektrodynamik, Mainz West Germany (1980).Google Scholar
  11. 10.
    R. De Voe, P.M. Mclntyre, A. Magnon, D.Y. Stowell, R.A. Swanson, and V.L. Telegdi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 1779 (1970). Experimental results where corrected (and error estimates correspondingly reduced) using more recent values for the argon and krypton linear and quadratic pressure shift coefficients.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 11.
    D. Favart, P.M. Mclntyre, D.Y. Stowell, V.L. Telegdi, R. De Voe, and R.A. Swanson, Phys. Rev. A8, 1195 (1973). Result quoted is from the krypton data with correction for the quadratic pressure shift.ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 12.
    D.E. Casperson, T.W. Crane, V.W. Hughes, P.A. Sauder, R.D. Stambaugh, P.A. Thompson, H. Orth, G. zu Putlitz, H.F. Kaspar, H.W. Reist, and A.B. Denison, Physics Letters 59B, 397 (1975).ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 13.
    E.R. Williams and P.T. Olsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1575 (1979).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 14.
    R. Karplus and A. Klein, Phys. Rev. 87, 848 (1952). This calculation includes terms through first order inADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 15.
    W.E. Caswell and G.P. Lepage, Phys. Rev. A20, 36 (1979). Corrections of 0(a2lna-l) are calculated.ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 16.
    For more details see A. Rich, Rev. Mod. Phys., 53, 1 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 17.
    A.P. Mills, Jr. and G.H. Bearman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 246 (1975).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 18.
    P.O. Egan, V.W. Hughes, and M.H. Yam, Phys. Rev. A 15, 251 (1977).ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. G.P. Lepage, private communication.Google Scholar
  21. V.W. Hughes, private communication.Google Scholar
  22. 21.
    D.A. Andrews and G. Newton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 1254 (1976).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. We thank S.R. Lundeen and F.M. Pipkin for their new result prior to publication.Google Scholar
  24. 23.
    S.R. Lundeen and F.M. Pipkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 1368 (1975).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 24.
    G.W. Erickson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 780 (1971).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    P.J. Mohr, Phys. Rev. Lett.34, 1050 (1975).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 26.
    L.N. Hand, D.G. Miller, and R.M. Wilson, Rev. Mod. Phys. 35, 335 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 27.
    R. Hofstadter and H.R. Collard in Nuclear Radii Group I, Vol.2 of the Landolt-Bornstein new series, H. Schopper ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1967).Google Scholar
  29. 28.
    F. Borkowski, G.G. Simon, V.H. Walther, and R.D. Wendung, Z. Physik A 275, 29 (1975);.ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. 28.
    Hohler, E. Pietarinen, I. Sabba-Stefanescu, F. Borkowski, G.G. Simon, V.H. Walther, and R.D. Wendling, Nuc. Phys. B 114, 505 (1976); .ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 28.
    G.G. Simon, F. Borkowski, C. Schmitt, and V.H. Walther, Z. Naturforsch. 35A, 1 (1980).ADSGoogle Scholar
  32. 29.
    K.F. Canter, A.P. Mills, and S. Berko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 177 (1975).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 30.
    A.P. Mills, Jr., S. Berko, and K.F. Canter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 1541 (1975).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 31.
    T. Fulton and P.C. Martin, Phys. Rev. 95, 811 (1954).ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. S. Berko, private communication. See also reference 33.Google Scholar
  36. 33.
    S. Berko, K.F. Canter, B.O. Clark, and D.C. Schoepf, Proc. 5th Int. Conf. Positron Annihilation, Japan (1979).Google Scholar
  37. 34.
    B.A. Barnett, C.Y. Chang, P. Steinberg, G.B. Yodh, H.D. Orr, J.B. Carroll, M. Eckhause, J.R. Kane, C.B. Spence, and C.S. Hsieh, Phys. Rev. A 15, 2246 (1977).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 35.
    W. Beer, P.R. Botton, P.O. Egan, V.W. Hughes, D.C. Lu, F.G. Mariam, P. A. Sauder, J. Vetter, M. Gladisch, G. zuPutlitz, and U. Moser, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 675 (1979). See also reference 8.Google Scholar
  39. 36.
    A.P. Mills, Jr. and S. Berko, Phys. Rev. Lett.18, 420 (1967).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 37.
    K. Marko and A. Rich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 980 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 38.
    A. Ore and J. L. Powell, Phys. Rev. 75, 1696 (1949).ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 39.
    D.W. Gidley, K.A. Marko, and A. Rich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36., 395 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 40.
    D.W. Gidley, P.W. Zitzewitz, K.A. Marko, and A. Rich, Phys. Rev. Lett.37, 729 (1976).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 41.
    D.W. Gidley, Ph.D. Thesis, The university of Michigan (1979).Google Scholar
  45. 42.
    D.W. Gidley, A. Rich, P.W. Zitzewitz, and D.A.L. Paul, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 737 (1978).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 43.
    T.C. Griffith, G.R. Heyland, K.S. Lines, and T.R. Twomey, J. Phys.B 11, 743 (1978).ADSGoogle Scholar
  47. 44.
    D.W. Gidley and P.W. Zitzewitz, Phys. Lett. 69A, 97 (1978).ADSGoogle Scholar
  48. 45.
    I. Harris and L. Brown, Phys. Rev. 105, 1656 (1957).ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 46.
    V.K. Cung, A. Devoto, T. Fulton, and W.W. Repko, Michigan State university preprint, March 1978.Google Scholar
  50. 47.
    J.R. Freeling, Ph.D. Thesis, The university of Michigan (1979).Google Scholar
  51. 48.
    Y. Tomozawa, University of Michigan preprint, UMHE79-17 (1979), to be published in Annals of Physics, 1980.Google Scholar
  52. 49.
    E.D. Theriot, Jr., R.H. Beers, V.W. Hughes, and K.O.H. Ziock, Phys. Rev. A2, 707 (1970).ADSGoogle Scholar
  53. 50.
    We note that theory and experiment now differ by 2.3 standard deviations for the electron g-factor anomaly (see ref. 13 for details).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. W. Gidley
    • 1
  • A. Rich
    • 1
  1. 1.Randall Laboratory of PhysicsUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations