Methods in X-Ray Structure Analysis. II

  • M. F. C. Ladd
  • R. A. Palmer


In this chapter, we shall introduce Fourier series and show how they are used in structure analysis. This discussion leads naturally to the Patterson function and the very important heavy-atom and isomorphous replacement techniques for solving the phase problem.


Heavy Atom Phase Problem Anomalous Scattering Origin Peak Atomic Scattering Factor 
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General Structure Analysis

  1. Buerger, M. J., Vector Space, New York, Wiley (1959).Google Scholar
  2. Lipson, H. S., Crystals and X-Rays, London, Wykeham Publications (1970).Google Scholar
  3. Stout, G. H., and Jensen, L. H., X-Ray Structure Determination—A Practical Guide, New York, Macmillan (1968).Google Scholar
  4. Woolfson, M. M, An Introduction to X-Ray Crystallography, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press (1970).Google Scholar

Protein Crystallography

  1. Blundell, T. L., and Johnson, L. N., Protein Crystallography, New York/London/San Francisco, Academic Press (1977).Google Scholar
  2. Eisenberg, D., in The Enzymes, Vol. I, X-ray crystallography and enzyme structure, New York, Academic Press (1970).Google Scholar
  3. Phillips, D. C., Advances in Structure Research by Diffraction Methods 2, 75 (1966).Google Scholar

Chemical Data

  1. Sutton, L. E. (Editor), Tables of Interatomic Distances and Configuration in Molecules and Ions, London, The Chemical Society (1958; supplement, 1965).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. F. C. Ladd
    • 1
  • R. A. Palmer
    • 2
  1. 1.University of SurreyGuildfordEngland
  2. 2.Birkbeck CollegeUniversity of LondonLondonEngland

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