Evolution of Dermal Skeleton and Dentition in Vertebrates

The Odontode Regulation Theory
  • Wolf-Ernst Reif

Abstract

The starting point of comparative evolutionary studies of the dermal skeleton of vertebrates is Hertwig’s series of papers (1874, 1876/1879/1882), which directly stimulated many dozens of papers, most of them in German and some of them long forgotten. The literature on comparative histology and histogenesis of the dermal skeleton and on regulatory and morphogenetic processes of the vertebrate integument is so voluminous that it can hardly be summarized. Ever since Hertwig, attempts have been made not only to contribute descriptive and experimental data, but also to arrive at a synthesis. Most of the synthetic papers, however, address only a small section of the theoretical problems, and it seems that some important questions have never been asked.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aldinger, H., 1937, Permische Ganoidflsche aus Ostgrönland, Medd. Gronland, Volume 102, C. A. Reitzels Forlag, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, D. T., 1967, Morphological integration and animal evolution, Scientia 102:83–88.Google Scholar
  3. Aumônier, F. J., 1941, Development of the dermal bones in the skull of Lepidosteus osseus, Q. J. Microsc. Sci. 83:1–33.Google Scholar
  4. Bargmann, W., 1933, Die Zahnplatten von Chimaera monstrosa, Z. Zellforsch. Mikrosk. Anat. 19:537–561.Google Scholar
  5. Bendrix-Almgren, S. E., 1968, The bradyodont elasmobranchs and their affinities; a discussion, in: Current Problems of Lower Vertebrate Phylogeny Nobel Symposium 4 (T. Ørvig, ed.), pp. 153–170, Almqvist & Wisksell, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  6. Berkovitz, B. K. B., 1975, Observations on tooth replacement in Piranhas (Characidae), Arch. Oral Biol 20:53–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Berkovitz, B. K. B., 1977, Chronology of tooth development in the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), J. Exp. Zool. 200:65–70.Google Scholar
  8. Berkovitz, B. K. B., 1978a, Tooth ontogeny in the upper jaw and tongue of the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), J. Biol. Buccale 6:205–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Berkovitz, B. K. B., 1978b, The order of tooth development and eruption in the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), J. Exp. Zool. 201:221–226.Google Scholar
  10. Berkovitz, B. K. B., and Shellis, R. P., 1978, A longitudinal study of tooth succession in piranhas (Pisces, Characidae), with an analysis of the tooth replacement cycle, J. Zool. Lond. 184:545–561.Google Scholar
  11. Berafield, M. R., Cohn, R. H., and Baneijee, S. D., 1973, Glycosaminoglycans and epithelial organ formation, Am. Zool. 13:1067–1083.Google Scholar
  12. Bernhauser, A., 1961, Zur Knochen und Zahnhistologie von Latimeria chalumnae Smith und einiger Fossilformen, Sitzungsber. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. Abt. 1 170:119–137.Google Scholar
  13. Bertin, L., 1958, Écailles et sclérification dermiques, in: Traité de Zoologie, Tome XIII (Agnathes et Poissons) (P. P. Grassé, ed.), Volume 1, pp. 482–504, Masson, Paris.Google Scholar
  14. Bhatti, H. K., 1938, The integument and dermal skeleton of Siluroidea, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. 24(1): 1–79.Google Scholar
  15. Bigelow, H. B., and Schroeder, W. C., 1953, Sawfishes, guitarfishes, skates and rays, Mem. Sears Found. Mar. Res. 1(2): 1–514.Google Scholar
  16. Boas, J. E. V., 1879, Die Zähne der Scaroiden, Z. Wiss. Zool. 22:189–210.Google Scholar
  17. Bölau, E., 1951, Das Sinnesliniensystem der Tremataspiden und dessen Beziehungen zu anderen Gefäßsystemen des Exoskelettes, Acta Zool. 32:31–40.Google Scholar
  18. Bolt, J. R., and De Mar, R., 1975, An explanatory model of the evolution of multiple rows of teeth in Captorhinus aguti, J. Paleontol. 49:814–832.Google Scholar
  19. Brettnacher, H., 1939, Aufbau und Struktur der Holocephalenzähne, Z. Mikrosk.-Anat. Forsch. 46:584–616.Google Scholar
  20. Bryant, W. L., 1936, A study of the oldest known vertebrates, Astraspis and Eriptychius, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 76:409–427.Google Scholar
  21. Budker, P., 1971, The Life of Sharks, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London.Google Scholar
  22. Bystrow, A. P., 1938, Zahnstruktur der Labyrinthodonten, Acta Zool. 19:387–426.Google Scholar
  23. Bystrow, A. P., 1959, The microstructure of skeleton elements in some vertebrates from lower Devonian deposits of the U.S.S.R., Acta Zool. 40(l):59–83.Google Scholar
  24. Casey, J., and Lawson, R., 1978, Amphibians with scales: The structure of the scale in the caecilian Hypogeophis rostratus, Br. J. Herpetol. 5:831–833.Google Scholar
  25. Chibon, P., 1977, Vitesse de croissance et renouvellement des dents eher les Amphibiens, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 42:43–63.Google Scholar
  26. Clemen, G., 1978a, Aufbau und Veränderungen der Gaumenzahnleisten beim larvalen und metamorphosierenden Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Salamandridae: Amphibia), Zoomorphologie 90:135–150.Google Scholar
  27. Clemen, G., 1978b, Beziehungen zwischen Gaumenknochen und ihren Zahnleisten bei Salamandra salamandra (L.) während der Metamorphose, Wilhelm Roux’Arch. 185:19–36.Google Scholar
  28. Compagno, L. J. V., 1973, Interrelationships of living elasmobranchs, in: Interrelationships of Fishes (P. H. Greenwood, R. S. Miles, and C. Patterson, eds.), Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 53(Suppl. 1): 15–61.Google Scholar
  29. Compagno, L. J. V., 1977, Phyletic relationships of living sharks and rays, Am. Zool. 17:303–322.Google Scholar
  30. De Mar, R. E., 1972, Evolutionary implications of Zahnreihen, Evolution 26:435–450.Google Scholar
  31. De Mar, R. E., 1974, On the reality of Zahnreihen and the nature of reality in morphological studies, Evolution 38:328–330.Google Scholar
  32. Denison, R. H., 1947, The exoskeleton of Tremataspis, Am. J. Sci. 245:337–365.Google Scholar
  33. Denison, R. H., 1951, The exoskeleton of early Osteostraci, Fieldiana Geol. 11:199–218.Google Scholar
  34. Denison, R. H., 1952, Early Devonian fishes of Utah, Fieldiana Geol. 11(l):265–287.Google Scholar
  35. Denison, R. H., 1961, Feeding mechanisms of Agnatha and early gnathostomes, Am. Zool. 1:177–181.Google Scholar
  36. Denison, R. H., 1963, The early history of the vertebrate calcified skeleton, Clin. Ort op 34:141–152.Google Scholar
  37. Denison, R. H., 1966, The origin of the lateral-line sensory system, Am. Zool. 6:369–370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Denison, R. H., 1968, Early Devonian lungfishes from Wyoming, Utah, and Idaho, Fieldiana Geol. 17(4):353–413.Google Scholar
  39. Denison, R. H., 1969, The origin of the vertebrates: A critical evaluation of current theories in: Proceedings North American Paleont. Convention, September 1969, Part H, pp. 1132–1146.Google Scholar
  40. Denison, R. H., 1973, Growth and wear of the shield in Pteraspididae (Agnatha), Palaeontogr. Abt. A 143:1–10.Google Scholar
  41. Denison, R. H., 1974, The structure and evolution of teeth in lungfishes, Fieldiana Geol. 33(3):31–58.Google Scholar
  42. Denison, R. H., 1975, Evolution and classification of Placoderm Fishes, Breviora, Museum of Comparative Zoology, No. 432, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  43. Denison, R. H., 1978, Placodermi, in: Handbook of Paleoichthyology (H.-P. Schultze, ed.), Volume 2, Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  44. Denison, R. H., 1979, Acanthodii, in: Handbook of Paleoichthyology (H.-P. Schultze, ed.), Volume 5, Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  45. Dennis, K., and Miles, R. S., 1980, New durophagous arthrodires from Gogo, Western Australia, Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 69:43–85.Google Scholar
  46. Edmund, G., 1960a, Evolution of dental patterns in the lower vertebrates, in: Evolution, its Science and Doctrine (T. W. M. Cameron, ed.), pp. 45–62, University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  47. Edmund, A. G., 1960b, Tooth Replacement Phenomena in the Lower Vertebrates, Royal Ontario Museum, Life Sciences Division, Contribution 52.Google Scholar
  48. Edmund, A. G., 1969, Dentition, in: Biology of the Reptiles, Part 1: Morphology A (C. Gans, ed.), pp. 117–200, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  49. Engel, H., 1910, Die Zähne am Rostrum der Pristiden, Zool. Jahrb. Abt. A Anat. 29:51–100.Google Scholar
  50. Ermin, R., Rau, R., and Reibedanz, H., 1971, Der submikroskopische Aufbau der Ganoidschuppen von Polypterus im Vergleich zu den Zahngeweben der Säugetiere, Biomineralisation Forsch. 3:12–21.Google Scholar
  51. Fach, M., 1936, Zur Entstehung der Fischschuppe, Z. Anat. Entwicklungsgesch. 105:288–304.Google Scholar
  52. Fahlbusch, K., 1957, Pteraspis dunensis Roemer. Eine Neubearbeitung der Pteraspidenfunde (Agnathen) von Overath (Ber. Köln), Palaeontogr. Abt. A 108:1–56.Google Scholar
  53. Fink, W. L., 1981, Ontogeny and phylogeny of tooth attachment modes in actinopterygian fishes, J. Morphol. 167:167–184.Google Scholar
  54. Frank, R. M., Sauvage, C., and Frank, P., 1972, Morphological basis of dental sensitivity, Int. Dent. J. 22:1–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Friedmann, E., 1897, Beiträge zur Zahnentstehung der Knochenfische, in: Morphologische Arbeiten (G. Schwalbe, ed.), Volume 7, pp. 545–582 G. Fischer-Verlag, Jena.Google Scholar
  56. Gardiner, B. G., 1973, Interrelationships of teleostomes, in: Interrelationships of Fishes (P. H. Greenwood, R. S. Miles, and C. Patterson, eds.), Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 53(Suppl. 1): 105–135.Google Scholar
  57. Garman, S., 1913, The Plagiostomia, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard College, No. 34.Google Scholar
  58. Gaunt, W. A., and Miles, A. E. W., 1967, Fundamental aspects of tooth morphogenesis, in: Structural and Chemical Organization of Teeth (A. E. W. Miles, ed.), Volume 1, pp. 151–198, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  59. Gegenbaur, C., 1872, Untersuchungen zur vergleichenden Anatomie der Wirbeltiere. 3: Das Kopfskelett der Selachier, Englemann, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  60. Gegenbaur, C., 1898/1901, Vergleichende Anatomie der Wirbeltiere mit Berücksichtigung der Wirbellosen, Englemann, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  61. Goetsch, W., 1921, Hautknochenbildungen bei Fischen, Zool. Jahrb. Abt. 242:1–42, 435–528.Google Scholar
  62. Goodrich, E. S., 1907, On the scales of fish, living and extinct, and their importance in classification, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 77:751–774.Google Scholar
  63. Grady, J. E., 1970a, Tooth development in sharks, Arch. Oral Biol. 15:613–619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Grady, J. E., 1970b, Tooth development in Latimeria chalumnae (Smith), J. Morphol. 132:377–388.Google Scholar
  65. Graham-Smith, W., 1978a, On some variations in the latero-sensory lines of the placoderm fish Bothriolepis, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 282:1–39.Google Scholar
  66. Graham-Smith, W., 1978b, On the lateral lines and dermal bones in the parietal region of some crossopterygian and dipnoan fishes, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 282:41–105.Google Scholar
  67. Grant, P., 1978, Biology of Developing Systems, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.Google Scholar
  68. Graver, H. T., 1973, The polarity of the dental lamina in the regenerating salamander jaw, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 30:635–646.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Graver, H. T., 1974, Origin of the dental lamina in the regenerating salamander jaw, J. Exp. Zool. 189:73–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Graver, H. T., 1978, Re-regeneration of lower jaws and the dental lamina in adult urodeles, J. Morphol. 157:269–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Greenwood, P. H., 1968, The osteology and relationships of the Denticipitidae, a family of clupeomorph fishes, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) 16(6):213–273.Google Scholar
  72. Gross, W., 1930, Die Fische des mittleren Old Red Süd-Livlands, Geolog. Pälaontolog. Abhandl. Neue Folge (J. F. Pompeckj and F. F. V. Huene, eds.) Fischer, Jena 18:123–156.Google Scholar
  73. Gross, W., 1936, Histologische Studien am Außenskelett fossiler Agnathen und Fische, Palaeontogr. Abt. A 83:1–60.Google Scholar
  74. Gross, W., 1938, Das Kopfskelett von Cladodus wildungenesis Jaekel. 2. Teil: Der Kieferbogen. Anhang: Protacrodus vetustus Jaekel, Senckenbergiana 20:123–145.Google Scholar
  75. Gross, W., 1953, Devonische Palaeonisciden-Reste in Mittel- und Osteuropa, Paläontol. Z. 27:85–112.Google Scholar
  76. Gross, W., 1956, Über Crossopterygier und Dipnoi aus dem baltischen Oberdevon im Zusammenhang einer vergleichenden Untersuchung des Porenkanalsystems paläozoischer Agnathen und Fische, K. Svenska Vet. Akad. Handl. (4) 5(6):5–140.Google Scholar
  77. Gross, W., 1957, Mundzähne und Hautzähne der Acanthodier und Arthrodiren, Palaeontogr. Abt. A 109:1–40.Google Scholar
  78. Gross, W., 1958a, Anaspiden-Schuppen aus dem Ludlow des Ostseegebiets, Paläontol. Z. 32:24–37.Google Scholar
  79. Gross, W., 1958b, Über die älteste Arthrodiren-Gattung, Notizbl. Hess. Landesamtes Bodenforsch. 86:7–30.Google Scholar
  80. Gross, W., 1959, Arthrodiren aus dem Obersilur der Prager Mulde, Palaeontogr. Abt. A 113:1–35.Google Scholar
  81. Gross, W., 1961, Aufbau des Panzers obersilurischer Heterostraci und Osteostraci Norddeutschlands (Geschiebe) und Oeseis, Acta Zool. 42:73–150.Google Scholar
  82. Gross, W., 1962, Neuuntersuchung der Stensiöellida (Arthrodira, Unterdevon), Notizbl. Hess. Landesamtes Bodenforsch. 90:48–86.Google Scholar
  83. Gross, W., 1963a, Gemuendina stuertzi Traquair, Notizbl. Hess. Landesamtes Bodenforsch. 91:36–73.Google Scholar
  84. Gross, W., 1963b, Drepanaspis gemuendensis Schlüter. Neuuntersuchung, Palaeontogr. Abt. A 121:133–155.Google Scholar
  85. Gross, W., 1966, Kleine Schuppenkunde, Neues Jahrb. Geol. Palaeontol. Abh. 125:29–48.Google Scholar
  86. Gross, W., 1967a, Über das Gebiss der Acanthodier und Piacodermen, J. Linn. Soc. London Zool. 47:121–130.Google Scholar
  87. Gross, W., 1967b, Über Thelodontier-Schuppen, Palaeontogr. Abt. A 127:1–67.Google Scholar
  88. Gross, W., 1968a, Porenschuppen und Sinneslinien des Thelodontiers Phlebolepis elegans Pander, Paläontol. Z. 42:131–146.Google Scholar
  89. Gross, W., 1968b, Die Agnathenfauna der silurischen Halla-Schichten Gotlands, Geol. Förening. Stockh. Förhandl. 90:369–400.Google Scholar
  90. Gross, W., 1968c, Fragliche Actinopterygier-Schuppen aus dem Silur Gotlands, Lethaia 1:184–218.Google Scholar
  91. Gross, W., 1969, Lophosteus superbus Pander, ein Teleostome aus dem Silur Oeseis, Lethaia 2:15–47.Google Scholar
  92. Gross, W., 1971a, Lophosteus superbus Pander: Zähne, Zahnknochen und besondere Schuppenformen, Lethaia 4:131–152.Google Scholar
  93. Gross, W., 1971b, Downtonische und dittonische Acanthodier-Reste des Ostseegebietes, Palaeontogr. Abt. A 136:1–82.Google Scholar
  94. Gross, W., 1971c, Unterdevonische Thelodontier- und Acanthodier-Schuppen aus West Australien, Paläontol. Z. 45:97–106.Google Scholar
  95. Gross, W., 1973, Kleinschuppen, Flossenstacheln und Zähne von Fischen aus europäischen und nordamerikanischen Bonebeds des Devons, Palaeontogr. Abt. A 142:51–155.Google Scholar
  96. Gudger, E. W., and Smith, B. G., 1933, The natural history of the frilled shark Chlamydoselachus anguineus, in: Archaic Fishes (E. W. Gudger, ed.), Volume I, pp. 245–319, American Museum of Natural History, New York.Google Scholar
  97. Gunnell, F. H., 1931, Conodonts from the Fort Scott limestone of Missouri, J. Paleontol. 5:244–252.Google Scholar
  98. Gunnell, F. H., 1933, Conodonts and fish remains from the Cherokee, Kansas City, and Wabaunsee groups of Missouri and Kansas, J. Paleontol. 7:261–197.Google Scholar
  99. Gutmann, W. F., 1967, Das Dermalskelett der fossilen “Panzerfische” funktionell und phylogenetisch interpretiert, Senckenbergiana Lethaea 48:277–283.Google Scholar
  100. Gutmann, W. F., 1975, Das Schuppenhemd der niederen Wirbeltiere und seine mechanische Bedeutung, Nat. Mus. 105:169–185.Google Scholar
  101. Gutmann, W. F., 1977, Phylogenetic reconstruction: Theory, methodology, and application to chordate evolution, in: Major Patterns in Vertebrate Evolution (M. K. Hecht, P. C. Goody, and B. M. Hecht, eds.), pp. 645–669, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  102. Gutmann, W. F., and Bonik, K., 1981, Hennigs Theorien und die Strategie des stammesgeschichtlichen Rekonstruierens. Die Agnathen-Gnathostomen-Beziehung als Beispiel, Paläontol. Z. 55:51–70.Google Scholar
  103. Guttormsen, S. E., 1937, Beiträge zur Kenntnis des Ganoidengebisses, insbesondere des Gebisses von Colobodus, Schweiz. Palaeontol. Abh. 60:1–42.Google Scholar
  104. Hall, B. K., 1975, Evolutionary consequences of skeletal differentiation, Am. Zool. 15:329–350.Google Scholar
  105. Halstead, L. B., 1969a, The Pattern of Vertebrate Evolution, Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  106. Halstead, L. B., 1969b, Calcified tissues in the earliest vertebrates, Calcif. Tissue Res. 3:107–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Halstead, L. B., 1974, Vertebrate Hard Tissues, Wykeham, London.Google Scholar
  108. Halstead, L. B., 1979, Internal anatomy of the polybranchiaspids (Agnatha, Galeaspida), Nature 282:833–836.Google Scholar
  109. Halstead, L. B., Liu, Y.-H., and P’an, K., 1979, Agnathans from the Devonian of China, Nature 282:831–833.Google Scholar
  110. Halstead Tarlo, L. B., 1963, Aspidin: The precursor of bone, Nature 199:46–48.Google Scholar
  111. Halstead Tarlo, L. B., 1964a, The origin of bone, in: Proceedings of the First European Bone and Tooth Symposium, Oxford, April 1963, pp. 3–15, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  112. Halstead Tarlo, L. B., 1964b, Psammosteiformes (Agnatha). A review with descriptions of new material from the Lower Devonian of Poland I. General Part, Palaeontol. Pol. 13:1–135.Google Scholar
  113. Halstead Tarlo, L. B., 1967, The tessellated pattern of dermal armour in the Heterostraci, J. Linn. Soc. London Zool. 47:45–54.Google Scholar
  114. Halstead Tarlo, B. J., and Halstead Tarlo, L. B., 1965, The origin of teeth, Discovery 26:20–26.Google Scholar
  115. Harder, W., 1975, Anatomy of Fishes, Schweizerbart’sche, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  116. Harlton, B. H., 1933, Micropaleontology of the Pennsylvanian Johns Valley shale of the Ouachita mountains, Oklahoma, and its relationship to the Mississippian Caney shale, J. Paleontol. 7:3–29.Google Scholar
  117. Harper, D. A. T., 1979, Ordovician fish spines from Girvan, Scotland, Nature 278:634–635.Google Scholar
  118. Hase, A., 1911a, Studien liber das Integument von Cyclopterus lumpus. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Entwicklung der Haut und des Hautskelettes von Knochenfischen, Jen. Z. Naturwiss. 47:217–342.Google Scholar
  119. Hase, A., 1911b, Die morphologische Entwicklung der Ktenoidschuppe, Anat. Anz. 40:337–356.Google Scholar
  120. Herold, R. C., Graver, H. T., and Christner, P., 1980, Immunohistochemical localization of amelogenins in enameloid of lower vertebrate teeth, Science 207:1357–1358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Hertwig, O., 1874, Über Bau und Entwicklung der Placoidschuppen und der Zähne der Selachier, Jen. Z. Naturwiss. 8(N.F. l):331–404.Google Scholar
  122. Hertwig, O., 1876/1879/1882, Über das Hautskelett der Fische, Morphol. Jahrb. 2:328–395; 5:1–21; 7:1–42.Google Scholar
  123. Holmbakken, N., and Fosse, G., 1973, Tooth replacement in Gadus callarias, Z. Anat. Entwicklingsgesch, 143:65–79.Google Scholar
  124. Isokawa, S., Toda, Y., and Kubota, K., 1968, A histological observation of a coelacanth iLatimeria chalumnae), J. Nihon Univ, School Dentistry 10:102–114.Google Scholar
  125. Jaekel, O., 1924/1926, Zur Morphogenie der Gebisse und Zahne, Vierteljahresschr. Zahnheilkunde 1924:313–349; 1926:217–242, 354–6.Google Scholar
  126. Janvier, P., 1978, On the oldest known teleostome fish Andreolepis hedei Gross (Ludlow of Gotland), and the systematic position of the lophosteids, Eesti NSV Tead. Akad. Toim. K6ide Geol. 27(3):88–95. Google Scholar
  127. Janvier, P., 1979, D’etranges Poissons chinois, Recherche 100:584–586. Google Scholar
  128. Janvier, P., 1980, Osteolepid remains from the Devonian of the Middle East, with particular reference to the endoskeletal shoulder girdle, in: The Terrestrial Environment and the Origin ofLand Vertebrates (A. L. Panchen, ed.), pp. 223–254, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  129. Janvier, P., 1981,The phylogeny of the Craniata, with particular reference to the significance of fossil “agnathans,” J. Vertebr. Paleontol. 1:121–159.Google Scholar
  130. Janvier, P., and Blieck, A., 1979, New data on the internal anatomy of the Heterostraci (Agnatha), with general remarks on the phylogeny of the Craniota, Zool. Scr. 8:287–296.Google Scholar
  131. Jarvik, E., 1972, Middle and Upper Devonian Porolepiformes from East Greenland with Special Reference to Glyptolepis groenlandica n.sp., Medd. Gronland, Volume 187, No.2, C. A. Reitzels Forlag, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  132. Jessen, H., 1966, Die Crossopterygier des Oberen Plattenkalkes (Devon) der BergischGladbach-Paffrather Mulde (Rheinisches Schiefergebirge) unter Beriicksichtigung von amerikanischem und europaischem Onychodus-Material, Ark. Zool. (2) 18:305–389.Google Scholar
  133. Johnston, M. C., 1975, The neural crest in abnormalities of face and brain, Birth Defects Orig, Art. Sere 11:1–18. Google Scholar
  134. Jollie, M., 1968,Some implications of the acceptance of a delamination principle, in: Current Problems of Lower Vertebrate Phylogeney, Nobel Symposium 4, (T. Orvig, ed.), pp. 89–102, Almqvist & Wiksell, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  135. Karatajute-Talimaa, V., 1968, Novye telodonty, heterostraci i artrodiry iz Cortkorskogo Gorizonta Podolii, Ocerki po filogenii i sistematike iskopaemych ryb i besceljustuych, in: Otdelenic Obscej Biologii, pp. 33–42, Akad. Nauk SSSR. Karatajute-Talimaa, V., 1973, Elegestolepis grossi gen. et sp. nov., ein neuer Typ der Placoidschuppe aus dem oberen Silur der Tuwa, Palaeontogr. Abt. A 143:35–50.Google Scholar
  136. Karatajute-Talimaa, V., 1977, Stroenie i sistematiceskoe polozenie cesuj, Polymerolepis whitei Karatajute Talimaa, Ocerki Filogenii Akad. Nauk SSSR 1977:46–60.Google Scholar
  137. Karatajute-Talimaa, V., 1978, Silurian and Devonian Thelodonts ofthe U.S.S.R. and Spitzbergen, Mokslas, Vilnius.Google Scholar
  138. Kassner, J., 1965, Studies on the early stages of scale morphogenesis in the rainbow trout, Salmo irideus Gibb., Zool. Pol. 15:79–94.Google Scholar
  139. Kemp, A., 1977, The pattern of tooth plate formation in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri Krefft, Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 60:223–258. Google Scholar
  140. Kemp, A., 979, The histology of tooth formation in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri Krefft, Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 66:251–287. Google Scholar
  141. Kerebel, L.-M., and Le Cabellec, M.-Th., 1980, Enameloid in the teleost fish Lophius, Cell Tissue Res. 206:211–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Kerr, T., 1952, The scales of primitive living actinopterygians, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 122:55–78.Google Scholar
  143. Kerr, T., 1960, Development and structure of some actinopterygian and urodele teeth, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 133:401–422.Google Scholar
  144. Kiaer, J., 1928, The structure of the mouth of the oldest known vertebrates, pteraspids and cephalaspids, Palaeobiologica 1:117–134.Google Scholar
  145. Kiaer, J., and Heintz, A., 1932, New coelolepids from the Upper Silurian of Oesel (Esthonia), Eesti Loodustead. Ark. 10:1–8.Google Scholar
  146. Klaatsch, H., 1890, Zur Morphologie der Fischschuppen und der Geschichte der Hartsubstanzgewebe, Morphol. Jahrb. 16:97–202, 209–258.Google Scholar
  147. Kollar, E. J., 1972, The development of the integument: Spatial, temporal, and phylogenetic factors, Am. Zool. 12:125–135.Google Scholar
  148. Kollar, E. J., and Baird, G. R., 1969, The influence of the dental papilla on the development of tooth shape in embryonic mouse tooth germs, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 21:131–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Kollar, E. J., and Fisher, C., 1980, Tooth induction in chick epithelium: Expression of qiescent genes for enamel synthesis, Science 207:933–995.Google Scholar
  150. Laaser, P., 1900, Die Entwicklung der Zahnleiste bei den Selachiern, Anat. Anz. 17:479–489.Google Scholar
  151. Laaser, P., 1903, Die Zahnleiste und die ersten Zahnanlagen der Selachier, Jen. Z. Naturwiss. 37:551–570.Google Scholar
  152. Lauder, G., Jr., 1980a, Evolution of the feeding mechanism in primitive actinopterygian fishes. A functional anatomical analysis of Polypterus, Lepisostus, and Amia, J. Morphol. 163:283–317.Google Scholar
  153. Lauder, G. V., 1980b, Hydrodynamics of prey capture by teleost fishes, Biofluid Mechanics 2:161–181.Google Scholar
  154. Lauder, G. V., and Liem, K. F., 1980, The feeding mechanism and cephalic myology of Salvelinus fontinalis: Form, function and evolutionary significance, in: Charrs. Salmonid Fishes of the genus Salvelinus (E. K. Balon, ed.), pp. 365–390, W. Junk, The Hague, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  155. Lawson, R., 1963, The anatomy of Hypogeophis rostratus Cuvier. Part I: The skin and skeleton, Proc. Univ. Durham Philos. Soc. 13A(25):254–273.Google Scholar
  156. Le Douarin, N., 1975, The neural crest in the neck and other parts of the body, Birth Defects Orig. Art. Ser. 11:19–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Lehmann, J. P., 1967, Quelques remarques concernant Drepanaspis gemuendensis Schlüter, J. Linn. Soc. London Zool. 47:39–43.Google Scholar
  158. Lehtola, K. A., 1973, Ordovician vertebrates from Ontario, Contrib. Mus. Palaeontol. Univ. Mich. 24:23–30.Google Scholar
  159. Lison, L., 1941, Recherches sur la structure et l’histogenese des dents des Poissons Dipneustes, Arch. Biol. Paris 52(3):279–320.Google Scholar
  160. Liu, Y., 1975, Lower Devonian agnathans of Yunnan and Sichuan, Vertebr. Palasiatica 13:202–216 (in Chinese, with English summary).Google Scholar
  161. Lühmann, M., 1954, Die histogenetischen Grundlagen des periodischen Zahnwechsels der Katfische und Wasserkatzen (Fam. Anarrhichidae, Teleostei), Z. Zellforsch. 40:470–509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Lund, R., 1977, Echinochimaera meltoni, new genus and species (Chimaeriformes), from the Mississippian of Montana, Ann. Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist. 46(13): 195–221.Google Scholar
  163. Maderson, P. F. A., 1972, When? Why? and How?: Some speculations on the evolution of the vertebrate integument, Am. Zool. 12:159–171.Google Scholar
  164. Maderson, P. F. A., 1978, On the early evolutionary history of the neural crest, Am. Zool. 18:586.Google Scholar
  165. Maisey, J. G., 1979, Finspine morphogenesis in squalid and heterodontid sharks, Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 66:161–183.Google Scholar
  166. Maisey, J. G., 1980, An evaluation of jaw suspension in sharks, Am. Mus. Novit. 2706:1–17.Google Scholar
  167. Markert, F., 1876, Die Flossenstacheln von Acanthias, ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Hartsubstanz: Gebilde der Elasmobranchier, Zool. Jahrb. Anat. 9:665–730.Google Scholar
  168. Markus, H., 1934, Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Gymnophionen. Nr. 21: Das Integument, Z. Anat. Entwicklungsgesch. 103:189–234.Google Scholar
  169. Marss, T., 1977, Structure of Tolypelepis from the Baltic Upper Silurian, Eesti NSV lead. Akad. Toim. Köide Keem. Geol. 26:57–69.Google Scholar
  170. Marss, T., 1979, Lateral line sensory system of the Ludlovian thelodont Phlebolepis elegans Pander, Eesti NSV lead. Akad. Toim. Köide Keem. Geol. 28:108–111.Google Scholar
  171. Meincke, D. K., 1980, Structure and development of the dermal skeleton of Polypterus and fossil osteichthyans and acanthodians, Ph.D. Thesis, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, No. 8026428).Google Scholar
  172. Miles, A. E. W., 1967, Structural and Chemical Organization of Teeth, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  173. Miles, A. E. W., and Poole, D. F. G., 1967, The history and general organization of dentitions, in: Structural and Chemical Organization of Teeth (A. E. W. Miles, ed.), Volume 1, pp. 3–44, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  174. Miles, R. S., 1968, Jaw articulation and suspension in Acanthodes and their significance, in: Current Problems of Lower Vertebrate Phylogeny, Nobel Symposium 4 (T. Ørvig, ed.), pp. 109–127 Almquist & Wiksell, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  175. Miles, R. S., 1973, Relationships of acanthodians, in: Interrelationships of Fishes (P. H. Greenwood, R. S. Miles, and C. Patterson, eds.), Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 53(Suppl 1):63–103.Google Scholar
  176. Miles, R. S., 1975, The relationships of the Dipnoi, Colloq. Int. CNRS 218:133–148.Google Scholar
  177. Miles, R. S., 1977, Dipnoan (Lungfish) skulls and the relationships of the group. A study based on new specimens from the Devonian of Australia, J. Linn. Soc. London Zool. 61:1–328.Google Scholar
  178. Miles, R. S., and Young, G. C., 1977, Placoderm interrelationships reconsidered in the light of new ptyctodontids from Gogo, Western Australia, in: Problems in Vertebrate Evolution, (M. S. Andrews, R. S. Miles, and A. D. Walker, eds.), Linnean Soc. Symp. Ser. 4:123–198.Google Scholar
  179. Miller, W. A., 1969, Tooth enamel of Latimeria chalumnae (Smith), Nature 221:1244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Miller, W. A., and Hobdell, M. H., 1968, Preliminary report on the histology of the dental and paradental tissues of Latimeria chalumnae (Smith) with a note on tooth replacement, Arch. Oral. Biol. 13:1289–1291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Moss, M. L., 1968a, Bone, dentin, and enamel and the evolution of vertebrates, in: Biology of the Mouth, AAAS Symposium, pp. 37–65.Google Scholar
  182. Moss, M. L., 1968b, The origin of vertebrate calcified tissues, in: Current Problems of Lower Vertebrate Phylogeny, Nobel Symposium 4 (T. Ørvig, ed.), pp. 359–371, Almquist & Wiksell, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  183. Moss, M. L., 1968c, Comparative anatomy of vertebrate dermal bone and teeth. 1: The epidermal co-participation hypothesis, Acta Anat. 71:178–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Moss, M. L., 1969, Phylogeny and comparative anatomy of oral ectodermal-ectomesenchymal inductive interactions, J. Dent. Res. 48:732–737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Moss, M. L., 1972, The vertebrate dermis and the integumental skeleton, Am. Zool. 12:27–34.Google Scholar
  186. Motta, P. J., 1977, Anatomy and functional morphology of dermal collagen fibres in sharks, Copeia 1977(3):454–464.Google Scholar
  187. Moy-Thomas, J. A., 1971, Palaeozoic Fishes, 2nd ed., revised by R. S. Miles, Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  188. Nardi, F., 1936, Zur Genese der Fischschuppe, Biol. Zentralbl. 56:630–639.Google Scholar
  189. Neave, F., 1936, Origin of the teleost scale-pattern and the development of the teleost scale, Nature 137:1034–1038.Google Scholar
  190. Nelson, G. J., 1970, Pharyngeal denticles (placoid scales) of sharks, with notes on the dermal skeleton of vertebrates, Am. Mus. Novit. 2415:1–26.Google Scholar
  191. Nelson, J. S., 1976, Fishes of the World, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  192. Nickerson, W. S., 1893, Development of the scales of Lepisosteus, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harv. 24:115–138.Google Scholar
  193. Obruchev, D. V., 1967, Branch Agnata, in: Fundamentals of Paleontology (Osnovy paleontologii), Volume 9, pp. 36–167, translated from the Russian, Israel Program of Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.Google Scholar
  194. Obruchev, D., and Karatajute-Talimaa, V., 1967, Vertebrate faunas and correlation of the Ludlovian-Lower Devonian in eastern Europe, J. Linn. Soc. London Zool. 47:5–14.Google Scholar
  195. Ørvig, T., 1951, Histologic studies of placoderms and fossil elasmobranchs 1: The endoskeleton, with remarks on the hard tissues of lower vertebrates in general, Ark. Zool. 2:321–454.Google Scholar
  196. Ørvig, T., 1958, Pycnaspis splendens, new genus, new species, a new ostracoderm from the Upper Ordovician of North America, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 108(3391):1-23.Google Scholar
  197. Ørvig, T., 1960, New finds of acanthodians, arthrodires, crossopterygians, ganoids and dipnoans in the Upper Middle Devonian calcareous flags (Oberer Plattenkalk) of the Bergisch Gladbach-Paffrath Trough. 1, Palaontol. Z. 34:295–335.Google Scholar
  198. Ørvig, T., 1961, Notes on some early representative of the Drepanaspida (Pteraspidomorphi, Heterostraci), Ark. Zool. Ser. 212(33):515–535.Google Scholar
  199. Ørvig, T., 1962. Y a-t-il une relation directe entre les Arthrodires Ptyctodontides et les Holocephales? in: Problems actuels de Paleontologie: Evolution des Vertebres, Colloq. Int. CRNS 104:49–61.Google Scholar
  200. Ørvig, T., 1965, Palaeohistological notes. 2: Certain comments on the phyletic significance of acellular bone tissue in early lower vertebrates, Ark. Zool. 16:531–556.Google Scholar
  201. Ørvig, T., 1966, Histologic studies of ostracoderms, placoderms and fossil elasmobranchs. 2: On the dermal skeleton of two late Palaeozoic elasmobranchs, Ark. Zool. 19:1–39.Google Scholar
  202. Ørvig, T., 1967a, Phylogeny of tooth tissues: Evolution of some calcified tissues in early vertebrates, in: Structural and Chemical Organization of Teeth (A. E. W. Miles, ed.), Volume 1, pp. 45–110, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  203. Ørvig, T., 1967b, Some new acanthodian material from the lower Devonian of Europe, J. Linn. Soc. London Zool. 47:131–153.Google Scholar
  204. Ørvig, T., 1968, The dermal skeleton, general considerations, in: Current Problems of Vertebrate Phylogeny, Nobel Symposium 4 (T. Ørvig, ed.), pp. 373–398, Almquist & Wiksell, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  205. Ørvig, T., 1969a, Cosmine and cosmine growth, Lethaia 2:241–260.Google Scholar
  206. Ørvig, T., 1969b, Vertebrates from the Wood Bay Group and the position of the Emsian- Eifelian boundary in the Devonian of Vestspitzbergen, Lethaia 2:273–328.Google Scholar
  207. Ørvig, T., 1972, The latero-sensory component of the dermal skeleton in lower vertebrates and its phyletic significance, Zool. Scr. 1:139–155.Google Scholar
  208. Ørvig, T., 1973a, Acanthodian dentition and its bearing on the relationships of the group, Palaeontogr. Abt. A 143:119–150.Google Scholar
  209. Ørvig, T., 1973b, Fossila fisktander i svepelektronmikroskopet: Gamla fragestallningar i ny belysning, Fauna Flora 68:166–173.Google Scholar
  210. Ørvig, T., 1975, Description, with special reference to the dermal skeleton, of a new radotinid arthrodire from the Gedinnian of Arctic Canada, Colloq. Int. CNRS 218:41–71.Google Scholar
  211. Ørvig, T., 1976a, Palaeohistological notes. 3: The interpretation of pleromin (pleromic hard tissue) in the dermal skeleton of psammosteid heterostracans, Zool. Scr. 5:35–47.Google Scholar
  212. Ørvig, T., 1976b, Palaeohistological notes: The interpretation of osteodentine, with remarks on the dentition in the Devonian dipnoan Griphognathus, Zool. Scr. 5:79–96.Google Scholar
  213. Ørvig, T., 1977, A survey of odontodes (‘dermal teeth’) from developmental, structural, functional and phyletic points of view, in: Problems in Vertebrate Evolution (S. M. Andrews, R. S. Miles, and A. D. Walker, eds.), Linnean Soc. Symp. Ser. 4:53–75.Google Scholar
  214. Ørvig, T., 1978a, Microstructure and growth of the dermal skeleton in fossil actinopterygian fishes: Birgeria and Scanilepis, Zool. Scr. 7:33–56.Google Scholar
  215. Ørvig, T., 1978b, Microstructure and growth of the dermal skeleton in fossil actinopterygian fishes: Boreosomus, Plegmolepis and Gyrolepis, Zool. Scr. 7:125–144.Google Scholar
  216. Ørvig, T., 1978c, Microstructure and growth of the dermal skeleton in fossil actinopterygian fishes: Nephrotus and Colobodus: with remarks on the dentition in other forms, Zool. Scr. 7:297–326.Google Scholar
  217. Ørvig, T., 1980a, Histologic studies of ostracoderms, placoderms and fossil elasmobranchs. 3: Structure and growth of the gnathalia of certain arthrodires, Zool. Scr. 9:141–159.Google Scholar
  218. Ørvig, T., 1980b, Histologic studies of ostracoderms, placoderms and fossil elasmobranchs. 4: Ptyctodontid tooth plates and their bearing on holocephalan ancestry: The condition of Ctenurella and Ptyctodus, Zool. Scr. 9:219–239.Google Scholar
  219. Osborn, J. W., 1970, New approach to Zahnreihen, Nature 225:343–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Osborn, J. W., 1971, The ontogeny of tooth succession in Lacerta vivipara Jacquin (1787), Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 179:261–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Osborn, J. W., 1973a, The evolution of dentitions, Am. Sci. 61:548–559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Osborn, J. W., 1973b, On the biological improbability of Zahnreihen as embryological units, Evolution 26:601–607.Google Scholar
  223. Osborn, J. W., 1974, On the control of tooth replacement in reptiles and its relationship to growth, J. Theor. Biol. 46:509–527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Osborn, J. W., 1977, The interpretation of patterns in dentitions, Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 9:217–229.Google Scholar
  225. Osborn, J. W., 1978, Morphogenetic gradients: Fields versus clones, in: Development, Function and Evolution of Teeth (P. M. Butler and K. A. Joysey, eds.), pp. 171–202, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  226. Parker, H. W., and Boeseman, M., 1954, The basking shark Cetorhinus in winter, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 124:185–194.Google Scholar
  227. Parrington, F. R., 1958, On the nature of the Anaspida, in: Studies on Fossil Vertebrates (T. S. Westoll, ed.), pp. 108–128, University of London, The Athlone Press, London.Google Scholar
  228. Patterson, C., 1965, The phylogeny of the chimaeroids, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 249:101–219.Google Scholar
  229. Patterson, C., 1968, Menaspis and the bradyodonts, in: Current Problems of Lower Vertebrate Phylogeny, Nobel Symposium 4 (T. Ørvig, ed.), pp. 171–206, Almqvist & Wiksell, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  230. Patterson, C., 1977, Cartilage bones, dermal bones and membrane bones, or the exoskeleton versus the endoskeleton, in: Problems in Vertebrate Evolution (S. M. Andrews, R. S. Miles, and A. D. Walker, eds.), Linn. Soc. Symp. Ser. 4:77–121.Google Scholar
  231. Pearson, D. M., 1981, Functional aspects of the integument in polypterid fishes, Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 72:72–93.Google Scholar
  232. Peyer, B., 1919, Die Flossenstacheln der Welse, Anat. Anz. 52.Google Scholar
  233. Peyer, B., 1931, Hartgebilde des Integuments, in: Handbuch der vergleichenden Anatomie der Wirbeltiere (L. Bolk, E. Göppert, E. Kallius, and W. Lubosch, eds.), Volume 1, pp. 703–752, Urban & Schwarzenberg, Berlin.Google Scholar
  234. Peyer, B., 1937, Zähne und Gebiss, in: Handbuch der vergleichenden Anatomie (L. Bolk, E. Göppert, E. Kallius, and W. Lubosch, eds.), Volume 3, Urban und Schwarzenberg, Berlin.Google Scholar
  235. Peyer, B., 1968, Comparative Odontology, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  236. Pflugfelder, O., 1930, Das Gebiß der Gymnodonten. Ein Beitrag zur Histogenese des Dentins, Z. Anat. Entwicklungsgesch. 93:543–566.Google Scholar
  237. Poole, D. F. G., 1956, Fine structure of scales and teeth of Raja clavata, Q. J. Microsc. Sci. 97:99–107.Google Scholar
  238. Poole, D. F. G., 1967, Phylogeny of tooth tissues: Enameloid and enamel in Recent vertebrates, with a note on the history of cementum, in: Structural and Chemical Organization of Teeth (A. E. W. Miles, ed.), Volume 1, pp. 111–149, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  239. Poole, D. F. G., 1971, An introduction to the phylogeny of calcified tissues, in: Dental Morphology and Evolution (A. A. Dahlberg, ed.), pp. 65–79, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  240. Poole, D. F. G., and Shellis, R. P., 1976, Eruptive tooth movements in non-mammalian vertebrates, in: Eruption and Occlusion of Teeth (D. F. G. Poole and M. V. Stack, ed.), Colston Papers no. 27, pp. 65–79, Butterworths, London.Google Scholar
  241. Preuschoft, H., Reif, W.-E., and Müller, W.-H., 1974, Funktionsanpassungen in Form und Struktur an Haifischzähnen, Z. Anat. Entwicklungsgesch. 143:315–344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Rauther, M., 1940, Echte Fische, Integument, in: Bronns Klassen und Ordnungen des Tierreichs, 6. Bd., 1. Abt., 2. Buch, Teil 1, pp. 206–335.Google Scholar
  243. Regan, C. T., 1924, Reversible evolution with examples from fishes, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1:175–176.Google Scholar
  244. Reif, W. E., 1973a, Morphologie und Ultrastruktur des Hai-”Schmelzes,” Zool. Scr. 2:231–250.Google Scholar
  245. Reif, W. E., 1973b, Ontogenese des Hautskeletts von Heterodontus faeifer (Selachii) aus dem Untertithon, Stuttg. Beitr. Naturkd. 7:1–16.Google Scholar
  246. Reif, W. E., 1974, Morphogenese und Musterbildung im Hautzähnchen-Skelett von Heterodontus, Lethaia 7:25–42.Google Scholar
  247. Reif, W. E., 1975, Lenkende und limitierende Faktoren in der Evolution, Acta Biotheoret. 24:136–162.Google Scholar
  248. Reif, W. E., 1976, Morphogenesis, pattern formation and function of the dentition of Heterodontus (Selachii), Zoomorphologie 83:1–47.Google Scholar
  249. Reif, W. E., 1977, Tooth enameloid as taxonomic criterion: 1. A new euselachian shark from the Rhaetic-Liassic boundary, Neues Jahrb. Geol. Palaeontol. Monatsh. 1977:565–576.Google Scholar
  250. Reif, W. E., 1978a, Types of morphogenesis of the dermal skeleton in fossil sharks, Palaeontol. Z. 52:110–128.Google Scholar
  251. Reif, W. E., 1978b, Shark dentitions: Morphogenetic processes and evolution, Neues Jahrb. Geol. Palaeontol. Abh. 157:107–115.Google Scholar
  252. Reif, W. E., 1978c, Tooth enameloid as a taxonomic criterion: 2. Is “Dalatias” barnstonensis Sykes, 1971 (Triassic, England) a squalomorphic shark? Neues Jahrb. Geol. Palaeontol. Monatsh. 1978:42–58.Google Scholar
  253. Reif, W. E., 1978d, Bending-resistant enameloid in carnivorous teleosts, Neues Jahrb. Geol. Palaeontol. Abh. 157:173–175.Google Scholar
  254. Reif, W. E., 1979a, Morphogenesis and histology of large scales of batoids (Elasmobranchii), Palaeontol. Z. 53:26–37.Google Scholar
  255. Reif, W. E., 1979b, Structural convergences between enameloid of actinopterygian teeth and of shark teeth, Scanning Electron Microscopy 1979(11):546–554.Google Scholar
  256. Reif, W. E., 1980a, A model of morphogenetic processes in the dermal skeleton of elasmobranchs, Neues Jahrb. Geol. Palaeontol. Abh. 159:339–359.Google Scholar
  257. Reif, W. E., 1980b, Development of dentition and dermal skeleton in embryonic Scyliorhinus canicula, J. Morphol. 166:275–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Reif, W. E., 1980c, Tooth enameloid as a taxonomic criterion: 3. A new primitive shark family from the lower Keuper, Neues Jahrb. Geol. Palaeontol. Abh. 160:61–72.Google Scholar
  259. Reif, W. E., unpublished, SEM atlas of scales of Recent sharks, to be deposited at the library of the Department of Geology, University of Tübingen.Google Scholar
  260. Reif, W. E., and Goto, M., 1979, Placoid scales from the Permian of Japan, Neues Jahrb. Geol. Palaeontol. Monatsh. 1979:201–207.Google Scholar
  261. Reif, W. E., McGill, D., and Motta, P., 1978, Tooth replacement rates of the sharks Triakis semifasciata and Ginglymostoma cirratum, Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Anat. 99:151–156.Google Scholar
  262. Repetski, J. E., 1978, A fish from the Upper Cambrian of North America, Science 200:529–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Richey, F. T., 1977, An histochemical basis for the origin and differentiation of dentine and enamel, in: South. Calif. Acad. Sci. Ann. Meet. 1977, p. 135.Google Scholar
  264. Ritchie, A., 1968, Phlebolepis elegans Pander, an Upper Silurian thelodont from Oesel, with remarks on the morphology of thelodonts, in: Current Problems of Lower Vertebrate Phylogeny, Nobel Symposium 4 (T. Ørvig, ed.), pp. 81–88, Almsqvist & Wiksell, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  265. Romer, A. S., 1966, Vertebrate Paleontology, 3rd ed., University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  266. Romer, A. S., 1976, Vergleichende Anatomie der Wirbeltiere, 4th ed., Verlag Paul Parey, Hamburg.Google Scholar
  267. Röse, C., 1892, Über Zahnbau und Zahnwechsel der Dipnoer, Anat. Anz. 7:821–839.Google Scholar
  268. Rosen, D. E., Forey, P. L., Gardiner, B. G., and Patterson, C., 1981, Lungfishes, tetrapods, paleontology, and plesiomorphy, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 167:157–276.Google Scholar
  269. Rosön, N., 1913, Studies on the plectognaths. 3. The integument, Ark. Zool. 8(10):1-29.Google Scholar
  270. Rosön, N., 1914, Wie wachsen die Ktenoidschuppen?, Ark. Zool. 9(20): 1–6.Google Scholar
  271. Roux, C. H., 1942, The microscopic anatomy of the Latimeria scale, S. Afr. J. Med. Sci. (Biol. Suppl.) 7:1–18.Google Scholar
  272. Ryder, J. A., 1892, On the mechanical genesis of the scales of fishes, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1892:219–224.Google Scholar
  273. Schaeffer, B., 1963, Cretaceous fishes from Bolivia, with comments on pristid evolution, Am. Mus. Novit. 2159:1–20.Google Scholar
  274. Schaeffer, B., 1975, Comments on the origin and basic radiation of the gnathostome fishes with particular reference to the feeding mechanism, Colloq. Int. CNRS 218:101–109.Google Scholar
  275. Schaeffer, B., 1977, The dermal skeleton in fishes, in: Problems in Vertebrate Evolution (S. M. Andrews, R. S. Miles, and A. D. Walker, eds.), Linnean Soc. Symp. Ser. 4:25–52.Google Scholar
  276. Schaeffer, B., and Williams, M., 1977, Relationships of fossil and Recent elasmobranchs, Am. Zool. 17:293–302.Google Scholar
  277. Schauinsland, H., 1903, Beiträge zur Entwicklungsgeschichte und Anatomie der Wirbeltiere, Teil 1: Sphenodon, Callorhynchus, Chamaeleo, Zoologica (Stuttgart) 39:1–98.Google Scholar
  278. Schmidt, W. J., 1958, Faserung und Durodentin-Metaplasie bei Fischzähnen, Anat. Anz. 105:349–360.Google Scholar
  279. Schmidt, W. J., and Keil, A., 1971, Polarizing Microscopy of Dental Tissues, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  280. Schnakenbeck, W., 1962, Pisces, in: Hand. Zool. 6, 1 Hälfte, 1 Teil, pp. 551–1115, Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin.Google Scholar
  281. Schultze, H. P., 1966, Morphologische und histologische Untersuchungen an Schuppen mesozoischer Actinopterygier (Übergang von Ganoidzu Rundschuppen), Neues Jahrb. Geol. Palaeontol. Abh. 126:232–314.Google Scholar
  282. Schultze, H. P., 1968, Palaeoniscoiden-Schuppen aus dem Unterdevon Australiens und Kanadas und aus dem Mitteldevon Spitzbergens, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Geol. 16:341–368.Google Scholar
  283. Schultze, H. P., 1969, Die Faltenzähne der rhipidistiiden Crossopterygier, der Tetrapoden und der Actinopterygier-Gattung Lepisosteus, Palaeontogr. Ital. N.S. 35:63–136.Google Scholar
  284. Schultze, H. P., 1977a, Ausgangsform und Entwicklung der rhombischen Schuppen der Osteichthyes (Pisces), Palaeontol. Z. 51:152–168.Google Scholar
  285. Schultze, H. P., 1977b, The origin of the tetrapod limb within the rhipidistian fishes, in: Major Patterns in Vertebrate Evolution (M. K. Hecht, P. C. Goody, and B. M. Hecht, eds.), pp. 542–543, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  286. Schultze, H. P., 1980, Crossopterygier-Schuppen aus dem obersten Oberdevon Lettlands (Osteichthyes, Pisces), Neues Jahrb. Geol. Palaeontol. Monatsh. 1980:215–228.Google Scholar
  287. Schultze, H. P., 1981, Hennig und der Ursprung der Tetrapoda, Palaeontol. Z. 55:71–86.Google Scholar
  288. Semon, R., 1899, Die Zahnentwicklung von Ceratodus forsten, in: Zoologische Forschungsreisen in Australien und des Malayischen Archipel (R. Semon, ed.), Volume 1, part 3, Denkschr. Med.-Naturwiss. Ges. Jena 4:115–135.Google Scholar
  289. Sewertzoff, A. N., 1932, Die Entwicklung der Knochenschuppe von Polypterus delhesi, Jen. Z. Med. Naturwiss. 67(N.F. 60):387–418.Google Scholar
  290. Shellis, R. P., 1975, A histological and histochemical study of the matrices of enameloid and dentine in teleost fishes, Arch. Oral Biol. 20:183–187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Shellis, R. P., 1978, The role of the inner dental epithelium in the formation of the teeth in fish, in: Development, Function, and Evolution of Teeth (P. M. Butler and K. A. Joysey, eds.), pp. 31–42, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  292. Shellis, R. P., 1982, Comparative anatomy of tooth attachment, in: The Periodontal Ligament in Health and Disease (B. K. B. Berkovitz, B. Moxham, and H. N. Newman, eds.), pp. 3–24, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  293. Shellis, R. P., and Berkovitz, B. K. B., 1976, Observations on the dental anatomy of piranhas (Characidae) with special reference to tooth structure, J. Zool. Lond. 180:69–84.Google Scholar
  294. Shellis, R. P., and Berkovitz, B. K. B., 1980, Dentine structure in the rostral teeth of the sawfish Pristis (Elasmobranchii), Arch. Oral Biol. 25:339–343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. Shellis, R. P., and Miles, A. E. W., 1974, Autoradiographic study of the formation of enameloid and dentine matrices in teleost fishes using tritiated amino acids, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 185:51–72.Google Scholar
  296. Shellis, R. P., and Miles, A. E. W., 1976, Observations with the electron microscope on enameloid formation in the common eel (Anguilla anguilla Teleostei), Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 194:253–269.Google Scholar
  297. Shellis, R. P., and Poole, D. F. G., 1978, The structure of the dental hard tissues of the coelacanthid fish Latimeria chalumnae Smith, Arch. Oral Biol. 23:1105–1113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. Slaughter, B. H., and Springer, St., 1968, Replacement of rostral teeth in sawfishes and sawsharks, Copeia 1968(3):499–506.Google Scholar
  299. Smith B. G., 1937, The anatomy of the frilled shark, Chlamydoselachus anguineus, in: Archaic Fishes (E. W. Gudger, ed.), Volume II, pp. 331–520, American Museum of Natural History, New York.Google Scholar
  300. Smith, M. M., 1977, The microstructure of the dentition and dermal ornament of three dipnoans from the Devonian of Western Australia: A contribution towards dipnoan interrelations, and morphogenesis, growth and adaption of the skeletal tissues, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 281:29–72.Google Scholar
  301. Smith, M. M., 1978, Enamel in the oral teeth of Latimeria chalumnae (Pisces: Actinistia): A scanning electron microscope study, J. Zool. Lond. 185:355–369.Google Scholar
  302. Smith, M. M., 1979a, Scanning electron microscopy of dontodes in the scales of a coelacanth embryo, Latimeria chalumnae Smith, Arch. Oral Biol. 24:179–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Smith, M. M., 1979b, Structure and histogenesis of tooth plates in Sagenodus inaequalis Owen considered in relation to the phylogeny of post-Devonian dipnoans, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 204:15–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. Smith, M. M., 1979c, SEM of the enamel layer in oral teeth of fossil and extant crossopterygian and dipnoan fishes, Scanning Electron Microscopy 1979(II):483–489.Google Scholar
  305. Smith, M. M., and Miles, A. E. W., 1969, An autoradiographic investigation with the light microscope of proline-H3 incorporation during tooth development in the crested newt (Triturus cristatus), Arch. Oral Biol. 14:479–490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. Smith, M. M., and Miles, A. E. W., 1971, The ultrastructure of odontogenesis in larval and adult urodeles: Differentiation of the dental epithelial cells, Z. Zellforsch. Mikrosk. Anat. 121:470–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Smith, M. M., Hobdell, M. H., and Miller, W. A., 1972, The structure of the scales of Latimeria chalumnae, J. Zool. Lond. 167:501–509.Google Scholar
  308. Stadtmüller, F., 1936a, Kranium und Visceralskelett der Stegocephalen und Amphibien, in: Handbuch der vergleichenden Anatomie der Wirbeltiere (L. Bolk, E. Göppert, E. Kallius, and W. Lubosch, eds.), Volume 4, pp. 501–698, Urban & Schwarzenberg, Berlin.Google Scholar
  309. Stadtmüller, F., 1936b, Kranium und Visceralskelett der Säugetiere, in: Handbuch der vergleichenden Anatomie der Wirbeltiere (L. Bolk, E. Göppert, E. Kallius, and W. Lubosch, eds.), Volume 4, pp. 501–698, Urban & Schwarzenberg, Berlin.Google Scholar
  310. Starck, D., 1979, Vergleichende Anatomie der Wirbeltiere, Volume 2, Springer, Berlin.Google Scholar
  311. Stensiö, E. A., 1927, The Downtonian and Devonian Vertebrates of Spitzbergen. Part I: Family Cephalaspidae, Skrift. Svalbard og Nordishavet, No. 12, Hos Jacob Dybwad, Oslo.Google Scholar
  312. Stensiö, E. A., 1932, The Cephalaspids of Great Britain, British Museum (Natural History), London.Google Scholar
  313. Stensiö, E., 1958, Les Cyclostomes fossiles ou Ostracoderms, in: Traité de Zoologie (P.-P. Grassé, ed.), Volume 13, part 1, pp. 173–428, Masson, Paris.Google Scholar
  314. Stensiö, E., 1961, Permian vertebrates, in: Geology of the Arctic (G. O. Raasch, ed.), Volume 1, pp. 231–247, University of Toronto Press, Toronto.Google Scholar
  315. Stensiö, E. A., 1962, Origine et nature des écailles placoides et des dents, in: Problèmes actuels de Paléontologie, pp. 75–85, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris.Google Scholar
  316. Stensiö, E., 1964, Les Cyclostomes fossiles ou Ostracodermes, in: Traite de Paléontologie (J. Piveteau, ed.), Volume 4, part 1, pp. 96–382, Masson, Paris.Google Scholar
  317. Stensiö, E., 1968, The cyclostomes with special reference to the diphyletic origin of the Petromyzontida and Myxinoidea, in: Current Problems of Lower Vertebrate Phylogeny, Nobel Symposium 4 (T. Ørvig, ed.), pp. 13–70, Almqvist & Wiksell, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  318. Studniöka, F. K., 1942, Über die Zahnersatzgruppen bei Myliobatis aquila L., Anat. Anz. 93:85–95.Google Scholar
  319. Tarlo, L. B., and Tarlo, B. J., 1961, Histological sections of the dermal armour of psammosteid ostracoderms, Proc. Geol. Soc. Lond. 1953:3–4.Google Scholar
  320. Thomasset, J., 1930, Recherches sur les tissus dentaires des poissons fossiles, Arch. Anat. Histol. Embryol. 11:5–153.Google Scholar
  321. Thomson, K. S., 1975, On the Biology of Cosmine, Yale Univ. Peabody Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull. 40.Google Scholar
  322. Thomson, K. S., 1977, On the individual history of cosmine and a possible electroreceptive function of the pore-canal system in fossil fishes, in: Problems in Vertebrate Evolution (S. M. Andrews, R. S. Miles, and A. D. Walker, eds.), Linn. Soc. Symp. Ser. 4:247–270.Google Scholar
  323. Thomson, K. S., 1980, The ecology of Devonian lobe-finned fishes, in: The Terrestrial Environment and the Origin of Land Vertebrates (A. Z. Panchen, ed.), pp. 187–222, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  324. Thorsteinsson, R., 1973, Dermal elements of a new lower vertebrate from middle Silurian (upper Wenlockian) rocks of the Canadian Arctic archipelago, Palaeontogr. Abt. A 143:51–57.Google Scholar
  325. Tretjakoff, D., and Chinkus, F., 1927, Das Knochengewebe der Fische, Z. Ges. Anat. Abt. 183:363–396.Google Scholar
  326. Turner, S., 1976, Thelodonti (Agnathi), Fossil Catalogues, I: Animalia, pars 122, Junk, s’Gravenhage.Google Scholar
  327. Twai, L. E., 1979, Pennsyivanian Ichthyoliths from the Shawnee Group of Eastern Kansas, Univ. Kansas Paleontol. Contrib. 96.Google Scholar
  328. Verluys, J., 1936, Kranium und Visceralskelett der Sauropsiden. Teil 1: Reptilien, in: Handbuch der vergleichenden Anatomie der Wirbeltiere (L. Bolk, E. Göppert, E. Kallius, and W. Lubosch, eds.), Volume 4, pp. 699–808, Urban & Schwarzenberg, Berlin.Google Scholar
  329. Vieth, J., 1980, Thelodontier-, Acanthodier undElasmobranchier-Schuppen aus dem UnterDevon der Kanadischen Arktis (Agnatha, Pisces), Göttinger Arb. Geol. Paläont. 23.Google Scholar
  330. Wahlert, G. von, 1966a, Biologie und Evolution der Atemwege bei Haien und Rochen, Veroeff. Inst. Meeresforsch. Bremerhaven, Sonderband 11:337–356.Google Scholar
  331. Wahlert, G. von, 1966b, Atemwege und Schädelbau der Fische, Stuttgarter Beitr. Naturk. 159.Google Scholar
  332. Wahlert, G. von, 1968, Latimeria und die Geschichte der Wirbeltiere. Eine evolutionsbiologische Untersuchung, Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  333. Wahlert, G. von, 1970, Die Entstehung des Kieferapparates der Gnathostomen, Verh. Dtsch. Zool. Ges. 64:344–347.Google Scholar
  334. Wainwright, S. A., Vosburgh, F., and Hebrank, J. H., 1978, Shark skin: Function in locomotion, Science 202:747–749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. Wängsjö, G., 1944, On the genus Dartmuthia Patten with special reference to the minute structure of the exoskeleton, Bull. Geol. Inst. Uppsala 31:349–362.Google Scholar
  336. Watson, D. M. S., 1937, The acanthodian fishes, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 228:49–146.Google Scholar
  337. Wells, J. W., 1944, Fish remains from the Middle Devonian bone beds of the Cincinnati Arch region, Palaeontogr. Am. 3:5–46.Google Scholar
  338. Westoll, T. S., 1962, Ptyctodontid fishes and the ancestry of Holocephali, Nature 194:949–952.Google Scholar
  339. Westoll, T. S., 1980, Prologue: Problems of tetrapod origin, in: The Terrestrial Environment and the Origin of Land Vertebrates (A. L. Panchen, ed.), pp. 1–10, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  340. Westphal, F., 1975, Bauprinzipien im Panzer der Placodonten, (Reptilia triadica), Palaeontol. Z. 49:97–125.Google Scholar
  341. Westphal, F., 1976, The dermal armour of some Triassic placodont reptiles, in: Morphology and Biology of Reptiles (A. A. Bellairs and C. B. Cox, eds.), Linn. Soc. Symp. Ser. 3:31–41.Google Scholar
  342. White, E. J., 1946, The genus Phialaspis and the “Psammosteus Limestones,” Q. J. Geol. Soc. Lond. 101:207–242.Google Scholar
  343. White, E. J., 1958, Original environments of the craniates, in: Studies on Fossil Vertebrates (T. S. Westoll, ed.), pp. 212–234, University of London, The Athlone Press, London.Google Scholar
  344. White, E. J., 1968, Discussion to E. A. Stensiö, in: Current Problems of Lower VertebrateGoogle Scholar
  345. Phytogeny, Nobel Symposium 4 (T. Ørvig, ed.), pp. 70–71, Almqvist & Wiksell, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  346. White, E. J., 1973, Form and growth of Belgicaspis (Heterostraci), Palaeontogr. Abt. A 143:11–24.Google Scholar
  347. Williamson, W. C., 1849, On the microscopic structure of the scales and dermal teeth of some ganoid and placoid fish, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 139:435–475.Google Scholar
  348. Williamson, W. S., 1851, Investigation into the structure and development of the scales and bones of fishes, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 141:643–702.Google Scholar
  349. Woodward, A. S., and White, E. J., 1938, The dermal tubercles of the Upper Devonian shark, Cladoselache, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 11(2):367–368.Google Scholar
  350. Yakovlev, V. N., 1966, Funktsional’naya evolyutsiya skeletaryb, Paleont. Zh. 1966(3):3–12 [Functional evolution of the fish skeleton, Int. Geol. Rev. 9:525–532].Google Scholar
  351. Zangerl, R., 1966, A new shark of the family Edestidae, Ornithoperion hertwigi, Fieldiana Geol. 16(1): 1–43.Google Scholar
  352. Zangerl, R., 1968, The morphology and the developmental history of the scales of the Paleozoic sharks Holme sella? sp. and Orodus, in: Current Problems of Vertebrate Phylogeny, Nobel Symposium 4 (T. Ørvig, ed.), pp. 399–412, Almqvist & Wiksell, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  353. Zangerl, R., and Case, G. R., 1976, Cobelodus aculeatus (Cope), an anacanthous shark from Pennsylvanian black shales of North America, Palaeontogr. Abt. A 154:107–157.Google Scholar
  354. Zangerl, R., and Williams, M. E., 1975, New evidence on the nature of the jaw suspension in Palaeozoic anacanthous sharks, Palaeontology 18:333–341.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wolf-Ernst Reif
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geology and PaleontologyUniversity of TübingenTübingenWest Germany

Personalised recommendations