Advertisement

Evaluation and Management of Infections in Patients with Collagen Vascular Disease

  • Donald G. Payan
Chapter
  • 33 Downloads

Abstract

The clinical outcome of patients with the various manifestations of collagen vascular disease (CVD) has significantly improved over the past two decades with the increased use of diuretics, cytotoxic agents, dialysis, transplantation, and the judicious use of corticosteroids and other antiinflammatory agents directed at altering or delaying end-organ damage by the underlying immunopathologic process.1–4 A more rigorous definition of the various CVD clinical syndromes and a greater sophistication in the serologic, radiologic, and pathologic diagnostic methods have meant that patients with these diseases are now coming to clinical attention earlier in the course of their illness. Consequently, the physician is now encountering a greater number of clinical problems over a longer time span for each individual patient, rather than just the well-known complications of their end-stage disease.

Keywords

Rheumatoid Arthritis Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Lupus Nephritis Septic Arthritis Cryptococcal Meningitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Carpenter RC, Sturgill BC: The course of systemic lupus erythematosus. J Chronic Dis 19:117–131, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dubois EL, Tuffanelli DL: clinical manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus: Computer analysis of the 520 cases. JAMA 190:112–119, 1964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Perez HD, Goldstein IM: Infection and host defenses in systemic lupus erythematosus. In Franklin EC (ed): Dinical Immunology Update. Elsevier, New York, 1979, pp. 133–159.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Steinberg AD: Management of systcmic lupus erythematosus. In Kelley WN, Harris ED, Ruddy S, Sledge CB (eds): Textbook of Rheumatology. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, 1985, pp. 1098–1115.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Coplon NS, Diskin CJ, Petersen SJ, et al: The long-term clinical course of systemic lupus erythematosus in end-stage renal disease. N Engl J Med 308:186–190, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cohen J, Pinching AJ: Infection and immunosuppression. A study of the infective complications of 75 patients with im-munologically-mediated disease. Q J Med 51:1–15, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Platt JL, Burke, BA, Fish AJ, et al: Systemic lupus erythematosus in the first two decades of life. Am J Kidney Dis 2(suppl l):212–222, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rosner S, Ginzler EM, Diamond HS, et al: A multicenter study of outcome in systemic lupus erythematosus. II. Causes of death. Arthritis Rheum 6:612–617, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kiernan M, Bresnihan B: clinical features and outcome of infection in systemic lupus erythematosus. Ir J Med Sci 152:382–386, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wallace DJ, Podell TE, Weiner JM, et al: Lupus nephritis. Experience with 230 patients in a private practice from 1950 to 1980. Am J Med 72:209–220, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hashimoto H, Shiokawa Y: Changing pattern of clinical features and prognosis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Scand J Rheumatol 7:219–224, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ginzler E, Diamond H, Kaplan D, et al: Computer analysis of factors influencing frequency of infection in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1978.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fish AJ, Blau EB, Westerberg NG, et al: Systemic lupus erythematosus within the first two decades of21:31–44, life. Am J Med 62:99–117, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Urowitz MB, Bookman AA, Koehler BE, et al: The bio-modal mortality pattern of systemic lupus erythematosus. Am J Med 60:221–225, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Staples PG, Gerding DN, Decker JL, et al: Incidence of infection in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 17:1–10, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vandenbroucke JP, Hazevoet HM, Cats A: Survival and cause of death in rheumatoid arthritis: A 25-year prospective followup. J Rheumatol 11:158–161, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hollingsworth JW, Saykaly RJ: Systemic complications of rheumatoid arthritis. Med clin North Am 61:217–228, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Prior P, Symmons DP, Scott DL, et al: Cause of death in rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Rheumatol 23:92–99, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lee P, Urowitz MB, Bookman AAM, et al: Systemic lupus erythematosus. A review of 110 cases with reference to nephritis, the nervous system, infections, aseptic necrosis and prognosis. Q J Med 181:1–32, 1977.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rothfield N: Clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus. In Kelly WN, Harris ED, Ruddy S, Sledge CB (eds): Textbook of Rheumatology. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, 1985, pp. 1070–1907.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Harris ED Jr: Rheumatoid arthritis: The clinical spectrum. In Kelly WN, Harris ED, Ruddy S, Sledge CB (eds): Textbook of Rheumatology. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, 1985, pp. 915–950.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Myers AR: Septic arthritis caused by bacteria: In Kelly WN, Harris ED, Ruddy S, Sledge CB (eds): Textbook of Rheumatology. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, 1985, pp. 1507–1527.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schnitzer TJ: Viral arthritis. In Kelly WN, Harris ED, Ruddy S, Sledge CB (eds): Textbook of Rheumatology. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, 1985, pp. 1540–1556.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Benson CH, Harisdangkul V: Disseminated gonococcal infection in systemic lupus erythematosus. (Letter.) J Rheumatol 10:668–669, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Churchill MA, Geraci JE, Hunder GG: Musculoskeletal manifestations of bacterial endocarditis. Ann Intern Med 87:754–757, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ellis SG, Verity MA: Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus: A review of neuropathology findings in 57 cases, 1955–1977. Sem Arch Rheum 8:212–221, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Johnson R, Richardson E: The neurological manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus. Medicine (Baltimore) 47:1399–1402, 1968.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schur PH: Systemic lupus erythematosus. In Wyngaarden JB, Smith LH Jr (eds): Cecil Textbook of Medicine. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, 1982, pp. 1852–1857.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mitchell WS, Brooks PM, Stevenson RD, et al: Septic arthritis in patients with rheumatoid disease: A still underdiagnosed complication. J Rheumatol 3:124–133, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Huskisson EC, Hart FD: Severe, unusual, and recurrent infections in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 31:118–121, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Walker WC: Pulmonary infections and rheumatoid arthritis. Q J Med 36:239–251, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Klemperer P, Pollack AD, Baehr G: Pathology of disseminated lupus erythematosus. Arch Pathol Lab Med 32:569–631, 1941.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ropes MW: Observations on the natural course of disseminated lupus erythematosus. Medicine (Baltimore) 43:387–391, 1964.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dubois EL, Wierzchowiecki M, Cox MB, et al: Duration and death in systemic lupus erythematosus: An analysis of 249 cases. JAMA 227:1399–1402, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Harvey AM, Shulman LE, Tumulty PA, et al: Systemic lupus erythematosus: Review of the literature and clinical analysis of 138 cases. Medicine (Baltimore) 33:291–437, 1954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Estes D, Christian CL: The natural history of systemic lupus erythematosus by prospective analysis. Medicine (Baltimore) 50:85–95, 1971.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hashimoto H, Shiokawa Y: Changing pattern of clinical features and prognosis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Scand J Rheum 7:219–224, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Allebeck P: Increased mortality in rheumatoid arthritis. Scand J Rheum 11:81–86, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Koota K, Isomaki H, Mutra O.: Death rate and causes of death in RA patients during a period of five years. Scand J Rheum 6:241–244, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mutra O, Koota K, Isomaki H: Causes of death in autopsied RA patients. Scand J Rheum 5:239–240, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cosh JA: Survival and death in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheum 11:117–118, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zvaifler NJ, Woods VL Jr: Etiology and pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. In Kelley WN, Harris ED, Ruddy S, Sledge CB (eds): Textbook of Rheumatology. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, 1985, pp. 1042–1070.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bennett JC: The etiology of rheumatoid arthritis. In Kelley WN, Harris ED, Ruddy S, Sledge CB (eds): Textbook of Rheumatology. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, 1985, pp. 879–886.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Harris ED Jr: Pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. In Kelley WN, Harris ED, Ruddy S, Sledge CB (eds): Textbook of Rheumatology. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, 1985, pp. 886–915.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Johnston RB, Stroud RM: Complement and host defense against infection. J Pediatr 90:169–179, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Muller-Eberhard HJ: Complement. Annu Rev Biochem 44:697–724, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Shur PH: Complement in lupus. ClinRheum Dis 1:519–524, 1975.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kaplan RA, Curd JG, DeHeer DH, et al: Metabolism of C4 and factor B in rheumatoid arthritis: relation to rheumatoid factor. Arthritis Rheum 23:911–924, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kohler PF, Ten Beusel R: Serial complement component alterations in acute glomerulonephritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. clin Exp Immunol 4:1091–1202, 1969.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Jasin HE, Ziff M: Immunoglobulin synthesis by peripheral blood cells in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 18:219–228, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    McLean RH, Michael AF: Properdin and C3 proactivator: Alternate pathway components in human glomerulonephritis. J clin Invest 52:634–644, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Schur PH, Sandson J: Immunologic factors and clinical activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. N Engl J Med 278:533–535, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ellis HA, Felix-Davies D: Serum complement, rheumatoid factor, and other serum proteins in rheumatoid disease and systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis 18:215–244, 1959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ross SC, Densen P: Complement deficiency states and infection: Epidemiology, pathogenesis and consequences of Neisserial and other infections in an immune deficiency. Medicine (Baltimore) 63:243–273, 1984.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Jazin HE, Orozco JH, Ziff M: Serum heat-labile opsonins in systemic lupus erythematosus. J clin Invest 53:343–353, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Louie JS, Nies KM, Shoji KT, et al: Clinical and antibody responses after influenza immunization in systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Intern Med 88:790–792, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Williams GW, Steinberg AD, Reinertsen JL, et al: Influenza immunization in systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Intern Med 88:729–734, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hess EV: Influenza immunization in systemic lupus erythematosus: Safe, effective? Ann Intern Med 88:833–834, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Meiselas LE, Zingale SB, Lee SL, et al: Antibody production in rheumatic diseases: The effect of Brucella antigen. J clin Invest 40:1872–1881, 1961.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Baum J, Ziff M: Decreased 19S antibody response to bacterial antigens in systemic lupus erythematosus. J clin Invest 48:758–767, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Messner RP, DeHoratius RJ: Epidemiology of anti-lymphocyte antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 21:S167–169, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bluestein HG: Autoantibodies to lymphocyte membrane antigens: Pathogenetic implications. Clin Rheum Dis 4:643–647, 1978.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Winfield JB, Cohen PL, Litvin DA: Antibodies to activated cells and their soluble products in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 25:814–819, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ciark RA, Kimball HR, Decker JL: Neutrophil Chemotaxis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis 33:167–172, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Goetzl EJ: Defective responsiveness to ascorbic acid of neutrophil random and chemotactic migration in Felty’s syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis 35:510–515, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Perez HD, Lipton M, Goldstein IM: A specific inhibitor of complement (C5)-derived chemotactic activity in serum from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. J clin Invest 62:29–38, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Perez HD, Andron RI, Goldstein IM: Infection in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Association with a serum inhibitor of complement-derived chemotactic activity. Arthritis Rheum 22:1326–1333, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Brandt L, Hedberg H: Impaired phagocytosis by peripheral blood granulocytes in systemic lupus erythematosus. Scand J Haematol 6:348–353, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Wenger ME, Bole GG: Nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction by peripheral leukocytes from rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus patients measured by a histo-chemical and spectrophotometric method. J Lab clin Med 82:513–521, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Karnovsky ML: The metabolism of leukocytes. Semin Hematol 5:156–165, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    McLeod R, Wing EJ, Remington JS: Lymphocytes and macrophages in cell-mediated immunity. In Mandell GL, Douglas RG, Bennett JE (eds): Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. Wiley, New York, 1985, pp. 72–93.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hahn BH, Bagby MK, Osterland CK: Abnormalities of delayed hypersensitivity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Am J Med 55:25–30, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Rosenthal CJ, Franklin DC: Depression of cellular-mediated immunity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 18:208–212,1975.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Horowitz DA: Impaired delayed hypersensitivity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 15:353–355, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sakane T, Steinberg AD, Green I: Failure of autologous mixed lymphocyte reactions between T and non-T cells in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75:3464–3467, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Smolen JS, Chused TM, Leiserson WM, et al: Heterogeneity of immunoregulatory T-cell subsets in systemic lupus erythematosus. Correlation with clinical features. Am J Med 72:783–786, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ginsberg WW, Finkelman FD, Lipsky PE: Circulating and pokeweed mitogen-induced immunoglobulin-secreting cells in systemic lupus erythematosus. clin Exp Immunol 35:76–80, 1979.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Sagawa A, Abdou NI: Suppressor-cell dysfunction in systemic lupus erythematosus: Cells involved and in vitro correction. J clin Invest 62:789–794, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Katz P, Zaytoun AM, Lee JH Jr, et al: Abnormal natural killer cell activity in systemic lupus erythematosus: An intrinsic defect in the lytic event. J Immunol 129:1966–1970, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hasler F, Bluestein HG, Zvaifler NJ, et al: Analysis of the defects responsible for the impaired regulation of Epstein-Barr virus-induced B cell proliferation by rheumatoid arthritis lymphocytes. I. Diminished gamma interferon production in response to autologous stimulation, J Exp Med 157:173–179, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Trentham DE, Dynesius RA, Rocklin RE, et al: Cellular sensitivity to collagen in rheumatoid arthritis. N Engl J Med 299:327–331, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Dohlong JH, Forre O, Kvien TK, et al: Natural killer (NK) cell activity of peripheral blood, synovial fluid, and synovial tissue lymphocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 41:490–494, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Parillo JE, Fauci AS: Mechanisms of glucocorticoid action on immune processes. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 19:179–191,1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Axelrod L: Glucocorticoids. In Kelley WN, Harris ED, Ruddy S, Sledge CB (eds): Textbook of Rheumatology. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, 1985, pp. 815–832.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Fauci AS, Dale DC, Balow JE: Glucocorticosteroid therapy: Mechanisms of action and clinical considerations. Am Intern Med 84:304–315, 1976.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Bovornkitti S, Kangsadal P, Sathirpat P, et al: Reversion and reconversion rate of tuberculin skin reactions in correlation with the use of prednisone. Dis Chest 38:51–55, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Balow JE, Rosenthal AS: Glucocorticoid suppression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor. J Exp Med 137:1031–1042, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    DeSousa M, Fachet J: The cellular basis of the mechanism of action of cortisone acetate on contact sensitivity to ox-azolone in the mouse, Clin Exp Immunol 10:673–684, 1972.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Reinehart JJ, Sagone AL, Balcerzak SP: Effects of corticosteroid therapy on human monocyte function. N Engl J Med 292:236–241, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Fauci AS, Dale DC: The effect of in vivo hydrocortisone on subpopulations of human lymphocytes. J clin Invest 53:240–246, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Stavy L, Cohen IR, Feldman M: The effect of hydrocortisone on lymphocyte-mediated cytolysis. Cell Immunol 7:302–312, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Bishop CR, Athens JW, Boggs DR, et al: Leukokinetic studies XIII: A non steady-state kinetic evaluation of the mechanisms of cortisone-induced granulocytosis, J clin Invest 47:249–261, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Butler WT, Rossen RD: Effects of corticosteroids on immunity in man. I. Decreased serum IgG concentration caused by 3 or 5 days of high doses of methyl prednisolone. J clin Invest 52:2629–2640, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Atkinson JP, Frank MM: Effects of cortisone therapy on serum complement components. J Immunol 111:1061 – 1066, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Robinson DR, Tashjian AH Jr, Levine L: Prostaglandin-stimulated bone resorption by rheumatoid synovia: A possible mechanism for bone destruction in rheumatoid arthritis. J clin Invest 56:1181–1189, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Samuelsson B: Leukotrienes: Mediators of immediate hypersensitivity reactions and inflammation. Science 220:568–572, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Shand FL: The immunopharmacology of cyclophosphamide. Int J Pharmacol 1:165–180, 1979.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Decker JL: Toxicity of immunosuppressive drugs in man. Arthritis Rheum 16:89–101, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Cupps TR, Edgar LC, Fauci AS: Suppression of human B lymphocyte function by cyclophosphamide. J Immunol 128:2453–2457, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Hurd ER, Giuliano VJ: The effect of cyclophosphamide on B and T lymphocytes in patients with connective tissue diseases. Arthritis Rheum 18:67–75, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Askenase PW, Hayden BJ, Gershon RK: Augmentation of delayed-type hypersensitivity by doses of cyclophosphamide which do not effect antibody responses. J Exp Med 141:697–703, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Yu DT, ciements PJ, Peter JB, et al: Lymphocyte characteristics in rheumatic patients and the effects of azathioprine therapy. Arthritis Rheum 17:37–43, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Maibach HI, Epstein WL: Immunologic responses of healthy volunteers receiving azathioprine (Imuran). IntArch Allergy 27:102–107, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Fournier C, Bach MA, Dardenne M, Bach JF: Selective action of azathioprine on T cells. Transplant Proc 5:523–527, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Gassman AE, vanFurth R: The effects of azathioprine on the kinetics of monocytes and macrophages during the normal steady state and an acute inflammatory reaction. Blood 46:51–59, 1975.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Levy J, Barnett EV, MacDonald NS, et al: The effect of azathioprine on gammaglobulin synthesis in man. J clin Invest 51:2233–2238, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Schultz DR, Volanakis JE, Arnold PI, et al: Inactivation of ci in rheumatoid synovial fluid, purified ci and ci esterase, by gold compounds. Clin Exp Immunol 17:395–401, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Paltemaa S: The inhibition of lysosomal enzymes by gold salts in human synovial fluid cells. Acta Rheum Scand 14:161–165, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Penneys NS, Ziboh V, Gottlieb NL, et al: Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and human epidermal enzymes by au-rothiomalate in vitro: Possible actions of gold in pemphigus. J Invest Dermatol 63:356–361, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Jessop JE, Vernon-Roberts B, Harris, J: Effects of gold salts and prednisolone on inflammatory cells. Ann Rheum Dis 32:294–301, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Lies RB, Cardin C, Paulus HE: Inhibition by gold of human lymphocyte stimulation. Ann Rheum Dis 36:216–220, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Cohen J, Pinching AJ, Rees AJ, et al: Infection and immunosuppression. A study of the infective complications of 75 patients with immunologically-mediated disease. Q J Med 51:1–15, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Hashimoto H, Maekawa S, Nasu H, et al: Systemic vascular lesions and prognosis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Scand J Rheum 13:45–55, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Baum J: Infection and rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 14:135–137, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Poss R, Thornhill TS, Ewald FC, et al: Factors influencing the incidence and outcome of infection following total joint arthroplasty. clin Orthop 182:117–126, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Stahl NI, Klippel JH, Decker JL: Fever in systemic lupus erythematosus. Am J Med 67:935–940, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Siekert RG, Ciark EC: Neurologic signs and symptoms as early manifestations of SLE. Neurology (NY) 5:84–88, 1955.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Feinglass EJ, Arnett FC, Dorsch CA, et al: Neuropsychiatrie manifestations of SLE: diagnosis, clinical spectrum and relationship to other features of the disease. Medicine (Baltimore) 55:323–339, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Reintz E, Hubbard D, Grayzel AI: Central nervous system systemic lupus erythematosus versus central nervous system infection: Low cerebral spinal fluid glucose and pleocytosis in a patient with a prolonged course. Arthritis Rheum 25:583–588, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Gibson T, Myers AR: Nervous system involvement in SLE. Ann Rheum Dis 35:398–406, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Andrianakos AA, Duffy J, Suzuki M, Sharp JT: Transverse myelopathy in SLE. Ann Intern Med 83:616–624, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Collins JV, Tong D, Bucknall RG, et al: Cryptococcal meningitis as a complication of systemic lupus erythematosus treated with systemic corticosteroids. Postgrad Med J 48:52–55, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Sieving RR, Kaufman CA, Watanakunakor C: Deep fungal infection in systemic lupus erythematosus: Three cases reported, literature reviewed. J Rheumatol 2:61–72, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Bennett J, Dismukes W, Duma R, et al: A collaborative trial of flucytosine-amphotericin B and amphotericin B alone in cryptococcal meningitis. N Engl J Med 301:126–130,1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Diamond RD, Bennett JE: Prognostic factors in cryptococcal meningitis. A study of 111 cases. Ann Intern Med 80:176–181, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Matthay RA, Schwarz MI, Petty TL, et al: Pulmonary manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus: Review of twelve cases of acute lupus pneumonitis. Medicine (Baltimore) 54:397–409, 1974.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Haupt HM, Moore GW, Hutchins GM: The lung in systemic lupus erythematosus. Analysis of the pathologic changes in 120 patients. Am J Med 71:791–798, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Matthay RA, Schwarz MI, Petty TL: Pleuro-pulmonary manifestations of connective tissue diseases. Clin Notes Re-spir Dis 16:3–9, 1977.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Hunninghake GW, Fauci AS: Pulmonary involvement in the collagen vascular diseases. Am Rev Respir Dis 119:471–503, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Israel HL: The pulmonary manifestations of disseminated lupus erythematosus. Am J Med Sci. 226:387–392, 1953.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Webb WR, Gamsu G: Cavitary pulmonary nodules with systemic lupus erythematosus: Differential diagnosis. Am J Radiol 136:27–31, 1981.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Eagen JW, Memoli VA, Roberts JL: Pulmonary hemorrhage in systemic lupus erythematosus. Medicine (Baltimore) 57:545–560, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Feng PH, Tan TH: Tuberculosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis 41:11–14, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Millar JW, Home NW: Tuberculosis in immunosuppressed patients. Lancet 1:1176–1178, 1982.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Palmer DL, Harvey RL, Wheeler JK: Diagnostic and therapeutic considerations in Nocardia asteroides infection. Medicine (Baltimore) 53:391–401, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Gorevic PD, Katler EI, Argus B: Pulmonary nocardiosis. Occurrence in men with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arch Intern Med 140:361–364, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    O’Neill PB: Gastrointestinal abnormalities in the collagen diseases. Am J Dig Dis 6:1069–1085, 1961.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Hoffman BI, Katz WA: The gastrointestinal manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus: A review of the literature. Semin Arthritis Rheum 9:237–247, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Zizic TM, ciassen JN, Stevens MB: Acute abdominal complications of systemic lupus erythematosus and polyarteritis nodosa. Am J Med 73:525–531, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Pollack VE, Grove WJ, Kark RM, et al: Systemic lupus erythematosus simulating acute surgical condition of the abdomen. N Engl J Med 259:258–266, 1958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Reynolds J: Acute pancreatitis in systemic lupus erythematosus: Report of 20 cases and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 61:25–32, 1982.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Lipsky JPE, Hardin JA, Schour L, et al: Spontaneous peritonitis and systemic lupus erythematosus. JAMA 232:929–931, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Scinknecht CW, Urowitz MB, Pruzanski W, et al: Felty’s syndomre: clinic and serologic analysis of 34 cases. Ann Rheum Dis 36:500–507, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Ortbals DW, Marr JJ: A comparative study of tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections and their association with malignancy. Am Rev Respir Dis 117:39–45, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    DeMerieux PA, Keystone EC, Hutcheon M, et al: Polyarthritis due to Mycobacterium kansasii in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 39:90–94, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Hoffman GS, Myers RL, Stark FR, et al: Septic arthritis associated with Mycobacterium avium: A case report and literature review. J Rheum 5:199–209, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Quismorio FP, Dubois EL: Septic arthritis in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheum 2:73–82, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald G. Payan
    • 1
  1. 1.Divisions of Allergy-Immunology and Infectious DiseasesUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations