Advertisement

The “Nature” of Sex Differences: Myths of Male and Female

  • Charles T. Snowdon

Abstract

Variation is the raw material of natural selection. Without the variation produced by mutation, recombination, genetic drift, and behavioral plasticity, there would be no change, no need to write or think about evolutionary biology. Diversity, individual variation, and change are of greater importance than stasis or consistency. Thus, one should be wary about any statements concerning the evolutionary basis for X or the explanation for the evolution of Y.

Keywords

Parental Care Nonhuman Primate Parental Investment Sexual Aggression Infant Care 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adkins-Regan, E. 1989. Sex hormones and sexual orientation in animals. Psychobiology 16:335–347.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, R. D., J. L. Hoogland, R. D. Howard, K. M. Noonan, and P. W. Sherman. 1979. Sexual dimorphism and breeding systems in pinnipeds, ungulates, primates, and humans. In N. A. Chagnon and W. Irons (Eds.), Evolutionary Biology and Human Social Behavior: An Anthropological Perspective, pp. 402–435. North Scituate, MA: Duxbury Press.Google Scholar
  3. Altmann, J. 1980. Baboon Mothers and Infants. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Barash, D. P. 1979. The Whisperings Within. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  5. Berman, C. M. 1982. The social development of an orphaned rhesus infant on Cayo Santiago: Male care, foster mother-orphan interaction and peer interaction. American Journal of Primatology 3:131–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Breedlove, S. M. 1992. Sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior. In J. B. Becker, S. M. Breedlove, and D. Crews (Eds.), Behavioral Endocrinology, pp. 39–68. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bull, J. J. and R. C. Vogt. 1979. Temperature dependent sex determination in turtles. Science 206:1186–1188.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Cleveland, J. and C. T. Snowdon. 1984. Social development during the first twenty weeks in the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus o. oedipus). Animal Behaviour 32:432–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Converse, L. J., A. A. Carlson, T. E. Ziegler, and C. T. Snowdon. 1995. Communication of ovulatory state to mates by female pygmy marmosets, Cebuella pygmaea. Animal Behaviour 49:615–621.Google Scholar
  10. Demski, L. S. 1987. Diversity in reproductive patterns of teleost fishes. In D. Crews (Ed.), Psychobiology of Reproductive Behavior: An Evolutionary Perspective, pp. 1–27. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  11. de Waal, F. B. M. 1982. Chimpanzee Politics: Power and Sex Among Apes. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  12. Dixson, A. F. and L. George. 1982. Prolactin and paternal behavior in a male New World primate. Nature 229:551–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Draper, P. 1976. Social and economic constraints on child life among the !Kung. In R. B. Lee and I. deVore (Eds.), Kalahari Hunter-Gatherers, pp. 218–245. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Ehrhardt, A. A. and J. Money. 1967. Progestin-induced hermaphroditism: IQ and psycho-sexual identity in a study of 10 girls. Journal of Sex Research 3:83–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Epple, G. 1978. Reproductive and social behavior of marmosets with special reference to captive breeding. Primates in Medicine 10:50–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Frank, L. G. 1986. Social organization of the spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta. II. Dominance and reproduction. Animal Behaviour 34:1510–1527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gibber, J. R. and R. W. Goy. 1985. Infant directed behavior in young rhesus monkeys: Sex differences and effects of prenatal androgens. American Journal of Primatology 8:225–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goldfoot, D. A. 1982. Multiple channels of sexual communication in rhesus monkeys: Role of olfactory cues. In C. T. Snowdon, C. H. Brown, and M. R. Petersen (Eds.), Primate Communication, pp. 413–428. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Goldfoot, D. A., M. A. Kravetz, R. W. Goy, and S. K. Freeman. 1976. Lack of effect of vaginal lavages and aliphatic acids on ejaculatory responses in rhesus monkeys: Behavioral and chemical analyses. Hormones and Behavior 7:1–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Goy, R. W. and J. A. Resko. 1972. Gonadal hormones and behavior of normal and pseudohermaphroditic female primates. Recent Progress in Hormone Research 28:707–733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Harding, R. S. O. and D. Olson. 1986. Patterns of mating among male patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in Kenya. American Journal of Primatology 11:343–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hewlett, B. S. 1987. Intimate fathers: Patterns of holding among Aka pygmies. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The Father’s Role: Cross-Cultural Perspectives, pp. 295–330. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum A.Google Scholar
  23. Hwang, C. P. 1987. The changing role of Swedish fathers. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The Father’s Role: Cross-Cultural Perspectives, pp. 115–138. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  24. Imperator-McGinley, J., R. E. Peterson, T. Gautier, and E. Sturla. 1979. Androgens and the evolution of male gender identity among male pseudohermaphrodites with 5-alpha-reductase deficiency. New England Journal of Medicine 300:1233–1237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kappeler, P. M. and J. U. Ganzhorn. 1993. The evolution of primate communities and societies in Madagascar. Evolutionary Anthropology 2:159–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lewis, C. 1986. Becoming a Father. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Liebowitz, L. 1978. Males, Females and Families. North Scituate, MA: Duxbury Press.Google Scholar
  28. Loy, J. 1985. The copulatory behavior of adult male patas monkeys, Erythrocebus patas. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 45:193–195.Google Scholar
  29. Magdol, L., T. E. Moffitt, A. Caspi, D. L. Newman, J. Fagan, and P. A. Silva, in press. Gender differences in partner violence in a birth cohort of 21-year olds: Bridging the gap between clinical and epidemiological approaches. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Google Scholar
  30. McGrew, W. C. 1988. Parental division of labour varies with family composition in cotton-top tamarins. Animal Behaviour 36:285–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Melson, G. F., A. Fogel, and S. Toda. 1986. Children’s ideas about infants and their care. Child Development 57:1519–1527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Michael, R. P. and E. B. Keverne. 1968. Pheromones and the communication of sexual status in primates. Nature 218:746–749.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Mitchell, G. and E. M. Brandt. 1972. Paternal behavior in primates. In F. Poirier (Ed.), Primate Socialization, pp. 173–206, New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  34. Money, J. and A. A. Ehrhardt. 1972. Man and Woman, Boy and Girl. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  35. New, R. S. and L. Benigni. 1987. Italian fathers and infants: Cultural constraints on paternal behavior. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The Father’s Role: Cross-cultural Perspectives, pp. 139–167. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  36. O’Leary, K. D., J., Barling, I. Arias, A. Rosenbaum, J. Malone, and A. Tyree. 1989. Prevalence and stability of physical aggression between spouses: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 57:263–268.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Parke, R. D. and S. E. O’Leary. 1976. Father-mother-infant interactions in the newborn period: Some findings, some observations and some unresolved issues. In K. Riegel and J. Meacham (Eds.), The Developing Individual in a Changing World: Vol. 2. Social and Environmental Issues, pp. 653–663. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
  38. Phillips, K. A., I. S. Bernstein, E. L. Dettmer, H. Devermann, and M. Powers. 1994. Sexual behavior in brown capuchins (Cebus apelld). International Journal of Primatology 15:907–917.Google Scholar
  39. Porter, T. A. 1994. The development and maintenance of heterosexual pair associations in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus o. oedipus). Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison.Google Scholar
  40. Redican, W. K. 1976. Adult male-infant interactions in nonhuman primates. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The Role of the Father in Child Development, pp. 345–385, New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  41. Robbins, M. M. 1995. A demographic analysis of male life history and social structure of mountain gorillas. Behaviour 132:21–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Savage, A., C. T. Snowdon, H. Giraldo, and H. Soto, in press. Parental care patterns and vigilance in wild cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) In M. Norconk, A. Rosenberger, and P. A. Garber (Eds.), Adaptive Radiations of Neotropical Primates, New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  43. Schwagmeyer, P. L. and G. A. Parker. 1987. Queuing for mates in thirteen lined ground squirrels. Animal Behaviour 36:1015–1025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Schwalb, D. W., N. Imaizumi, and J. Nakazawa. 1987. The modern Japanese father: Roles and problems in a changing society. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The Father’s Role: Cross-Cultural Perspectives, pp. 247–269. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  45. Smuts, B. B. 1985. Sex and Friendship in Baboons, Hawthorne, NY: Aldine.Google Scholar
  46. Smuts, B. B. and R. W. Smuts. 1993. Male aggression and sexual coercion of females in nonhuman primates and other mammals: Evidence and theoretical implications. Advances in the Study of Behavior 22:1–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Smuts, B. B. and D. J. Gubernick. 1992. Male-infant relationships in nonhuman primates: Parental investment or mating effort? In B. S. Hewlett (Ed.), Father-Child Relations: Cultural and biosocial contexts, pp. 1–30. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  48. Snowdon, C. T. 1990. Mechanisms maintaining monogamy in monkeys. In D. A. Dewsbury (Ed.), Contemporary Issues in Comparative Psychology, pp. 225–251. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Snowdon, C. T., A. Savage, and P. B. McConnell. 1985. A breeding colony of cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus), Laboratory Animal Science 35:477–480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Snowdon, C. T., T. E. Ziegler, and T. M. Widowski. 1993. Increased hormonal suppression of eldest daughter cotton-top tamarins following birth of infants. American Journal of Primatology 31:11–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Straus, M. A. and R. J. Gelles. 1986. Societal change and change in family violence from 1975 to 1985 as revealed by two national surveys. Journal of Marriage and the Family 48:465–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Strier, K. B. 1992. Faces in the Forest: The Endangered Muriqui Monkeys of Brasil, New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Strier, K. B. 1994. Myth of the typical primate. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 37:233–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sussman, R. W. and P. A. Garber. 1987. A new interpretation of the social organization and mating system of the Callitrichidae. International Journal of Primatology 8:73–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Taub, D. M. 1984. Primate Paternalism New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  56. Thierry, B. and J. R. Anderson. 1986. Adoption in anthropoid primates. International Journal of Primatology 7:191–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Trivers, R. L. 1972. Parental investment and sexual selection. In B. Campbell (Ed.), Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man 1871–1971, pp. 136–179. Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  58. Ziegler, T. E., T. M. Widowski, M. L. Larson, and C. T. Snowdon. 1990. Nursing does affect the duration of the post-partum to ovulation interval in the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 90:563–570.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Ziegler, T. E., G. Epple, C. T. Snowdon, T. A. Porter, A. M. Belcher, and I. Kuderling. 1993. Detection of the chemical signals of ovulation in the cotton-top tamarin, Saguinus oedipus. Animal Behaviour 45:313–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles T. Snowdon

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations