Advertisement

Domains of Aerobic Function and Their Limiting Parameters

  • Brian J. Whipp

Abstract

Aerobic energy transfer during muscular exercise requires that hydrogen atoms be “stripped” out of previously stored substrate molecules, and their component proton and electrons put to work to generate ATP in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The electron flow is used to supply the redox potential necessary to establish the transmembrane proton gradients which subsequently power the phosphorylation. These reactions require oxygen as the terminal electron transport chain oxidant. Consequently, the ability to sustain muscular exercise is dependent in large part on the body’s ability to transport oxygen from the atmosphere to the cytochrome oxidase terminus of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The time course of pulmonary O2 uptake (̇VO2) at high work rates should therefore be considered a major index of systemic O2 transport function. It is perhaps surprising, therefore, how little attention has been paid to the physiological control inferences which may be drawn from the nonsteady-state response profiles of ̇VO2. Such determinations are likely to be revealing, as the bulk of the control information regarding a physiological system resides in its transient rather than its steady-state behavior.

Keywords

Work Rate Critical Power Lactate Threshold Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Muscle Blood Flow 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Åstrand, P.-O., and K. Rodahl. Textbook of Work Physiology. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1970, p. 284.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barstow, T.J., N. Lamarra, and B.J. Whipp. Modulation of muscle and pulmonary O2 uptakes by circulatory dynamics during exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 68: 979–989, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barstow, T.J., and P.A. Molé. Linear and nonlinear characteristics of oxygen uptake kinetics during heavy exercise. J.Appl. Physiol. 71: 2099–2106, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cerretelli, P., and P.E. Di Prampero. Gas exchange in exercise. In: Handbook of Physiology 3. The Respiratory System, vol.IV, edited by L.E. Fahri and S. M. Tenney. Bethesda, American Physiological Society, 1987, pp. 297–339.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chance, B., J.S. Leigh, Jr., B.J. Clarke, J. Maris, J. Kent, S. Nioka, and D. Smith. Control of oxidative metabolism and oxygen delivery in human skeletal muscle: a steady-state analysis of the work/energy cost transfer function. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 82. 8384–8388, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Clausen, J.P. Circulatory adjustments to dynamic exercise and effect of physical training in normal subjects and in patients with coronary artery disease. Prog. Cardiovasc. Dis. 18: 459–495, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dennis, S.C., T.D. Noakes, and A.P. Bosch. Ventilation and blood lactate increase exponentially during incremental exercise. J. Sports Sci. 10: 437–449, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Funk, C.I., A. Clark, Jr., and R.J. Connett. A simple model of aerobic metabolism: applications to work transitions in muscle. Amer. J. Physiol. 258: C995–C1005, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Griffiths, T.L., L.C. Henson, and B.J. Whipp. Influence of peripheral chemoreceptors on the dynamics of the exercise hyperpnea in man. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 380: 387–403, 1986.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Henson, L.C, D.C. Poole, and B.J. Whipp. Fitness as a determinant of oxygen uptake response to constantload exercise. Europ. J. Appl. Physiol. 59: 21–28, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hughson, R.L., and M. Morrissey. Delayed kinetics of respiratory gas exchange in the transition from prior exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 52: 921–929, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hughson, R.L., K.H. Weisiger, and G.D. Swanson. Blood lactate concentration increases as a continuous function in progressive exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 62: 1975–1981, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Krogh, A., and J. Lindhard. The regulation of respiration and circulation during the initial stages of muscular work. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 47: 112–136, 1913.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kushmerick, M.J., R.A. Meyer, and T.R. Brown. Regulation of oxygen consumption in fast-and slowtwitch muscle. Amer. J. Physiol. 263: C598–C606, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lamarra, N., B.J. Whipp, M. Blumenberg, and K. Wasserman. Model-order estimation of cardiorespiratory dynamics during moderate exercise. In: Modelling and Control of Breathing, edited by B.J. Whipp and D.M. Wiberg. New York: Elsevier, 1983, pp. 338–345.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lamarra, N., B.J. Whipp, S.A. Ward, and K. Wasserman. Breath-to-breath “noise” and parameter estimation of exercise gas-exchange kinetics. J. Appl. Physiol. 62: 2003–2012, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Linnarsson, D. Dynamics of pulmonary gas exchange and heart rate changes at start and end of exercise. Acta Physiol Scand. (suppl.) 415: 1–68, 1974.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Paterson, D.H., and B.J. Whipp. Asymmetries of oxygen uptake transients at the on-and off-set of heavy exercise in humans. J. Physiol. (Lond.). 443: 575–586, 1991.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Poole, D.C, S.A. Ward, G.W. Gardner, and B.J. Whipp. Metabolic and respiratory profile of the upper limit for prolonged exercise in man. Ergonomics 31: 1265–1279, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Poole, D.C, S.A. Ward, and B.J. Whipp. Effect of training on the metabolic and respiratory profile of heavy and severe exercise. Europ. J. Appl. Physiol. 59: 421–429, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Roston, W.L., B.J. Whipp, J.A. Davis, R.M. Effros, and K. Wasserman. Oxygen uptake kinetics and lactate concentration during exercise in man. Amer. Rev. Resp. Dis. 135: 1080–1084, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Whipp, B.J. Dynamics of pulmonary gas exchange. Circulation 76: VI-18-VI-28, 1987.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Whipp, B.J. The slow component of O2 uptake kinetics during heavy exercise. Med. Sci. Sports Ex. 26: 1319–1326, 1994.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Whipp, B.J., and M. Mahler. Dynamics of pulmonary gas exchange during exercise. In: Pulmonary Gas Exchange, vol. II, edited by J.B. West. New York, Academic Press, 1980, pp. 33–96.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Whipp, B.J., and S.A. Ward. Physiological determinants of pulmonary gas exchange kinetics during exercise. Med. Sci. Sports Ex. 22: 62–71, 1990.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Whipp, B.J., S.A. Ward, N. Lamarra, J.A. Davis, and K. Wasserman. Parameters of ventilatory and gas exchange dynamics during exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 52: 1506–1513, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wilkie, D.R. Equations describing power input by humans as a function of duration of exercise. In: Exercise Bioenergetics and Gas Exchange, edited by P. Cerretelli and B.J. Whipp. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 75–80, 1980.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian J. Whipp
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologySt. George’s Hospital Medical School LondonUK

Personalised recommendations