Advertisement

Social Stories and Comic Strip Conversations with Students with Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism

Chapter
Part of the Current Issues in Autism book series (CIAM)

Abstract

It is impossible to observe a social interaction, or a social impairment, in a person who is alone. Regardless, the phrase social impairment in autism is frequently used to refer to the social challenges associated with disorders identified by Leo Kanner (1943) and Hans Asperger (1944). The words in autism in this case may leave a misleading impression that the social impairment lies solely within the individual with autism. This is inconsistent with the definition of the word social, which requires the involvement of more than one person. Firsthand accounts by people with autism (e.g., Cesaroni & Garber, 1991; Grandin & Scariano, 1986; Volkmar & Cohen, 1985; Williams, 1992), and families of individuals with autism (Hart, 1989; McDonnell, 1993; Moreno, 1992) raise awareness of the frustrations experienced by all parties as they work to understand, communicate, and interact successfully with one another. Confusion and feelings of being overwhelmed and misunderstood are experienced not only by people with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS), but also by parents, professionals, and friends.

Keywords

Social Skill Asperger Syndrome Social Information Social Story Instructional Technique 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Asperger, H. (1944). Die “Autistischen Psychopathen” im Kindesalter. Archiv für Psychiatrie and Nervenkrankhieten, 117, 76–136. ‘Autistic psychopathy’ in childhood (U. Frith, Trans.). In U. Frith (Ed.), Autism and Asperger syndrome (pp. 37–92). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Attwood, T. (1996). Asperger’s syndrome: A guide for parents and professionals. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  3. Baron-Cohen, S. (1995). Autism and mindblindness. In Mindblindness (pp. 59–84). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  4. Baron-Cohen, S., Leslie, A. M., & Frith, U. (1985). Does the autistic child have a “theory of mind”? Cognition, 21, 37–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cesaroni, L., & Garber, M. (1991). Exploring the experience of autism through firsthand accounts. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 21, 303–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cohen, S. (1990). Autism: A specific cognitive disorder of ‘mind-blindness.’ International Review of Psychiatry, 2, 79–88.Google Scholar
  7. Dalrymple, N. J. (1995). Environmental supports to develop flexibility and independence. In K. Quill (Ed.), Teaching children with autism: Strategies to enhance communication and socialization (pp. 243–264). New York: Delmar.Google Scholar
  8. Dawson, G., & Adams, A. (1984). Imitation and social responsiveness in autistic children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 12, 209–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dawson, G., & Galpert, L. (1990). Mother’s use of imitative play for facilitating social responsiveness and toy play in young autistic children. Development and Psychopathology, 2, 151–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ferrara, C., & Hill, S. (1980). The responsiveness of autistic children to the predictability of social and nonsocial toys. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 10, 51–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Frith, U. (1989). Autism: Explaining the enigma. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  12. Frith, U. (1991). Asperger and his syndrome. In U. Frith (Ed.), Autism and Asperger syndrome (pp. 1–36). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Geisel, T. S. (1940, renewed 1968). Horton hatches the egg. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  14. Gillberg, C. (1991). Clinical and neurobiological aspects of Asperger syndrome in six family studies. In U. Frith (Ed.), Autism and Asperger syndrome (pp. 122–146). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gillberg, I. C., & Gillberg, C. (1989). Asperger syndrome - some epidemiological considerations: A research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30, 631–638.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Grandin, T. (1995a). How people with autism think. In E. Schopler & G. B. Mesibov (Eds.), Learning and cognition in autism (pp. 137–156). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  17. Grandin, T. (1995b). The learning style of people with autism: An autobiography. In K. Quill (Ed.), Teaching children with autism: Strategies to enhance communication and socialization (pp. 33–52). New York: Delmar.Google Scholar
  18. Grandin, T., & Scariano, M. (1986). Emergence: Labeled autistic. Novato, CA: Arena.Google Scholar
  19. Gray, C. A. (1994a). Comic strip conversations. Arlington: Future Horizons.Google Scholar
  20. Gray, C. A. (1994b, October). Making sense out of the world: Social stories, comic strip conversations, and related instructional techniques. Paper presented at the Midwest Educational Leadership Conference on Autism, Kansas City, MO.Google Scholar
  21. Gray, C. A. (1995). A close look at directive sentences. The Morning News,Summer, 4–7.Google Scholar
  22. Gray, C. A., & Garand, J. (1993). Social stories: Improving responses of individuals with autism with accurate social information. Focus on Autistic Behavior. 8,1–10.Google Scholar
  23. Groden, J., & LeVasseur, P. (1995). Cognitive picture rehearsal: A system to teach self-control. In K. Quill (Ed.), Teaching children with autism: Strategies to enhance communication and socialization (pp. 287–305). New York: Delmar.Google Scholar
  24. Happé, F. (1995). Autism: An introduction to psychological theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Happé, F., & Frith, U. (1995). Theory of mind in autism. In E. Schopler & G. B. Mesibov (Eds.), Learning and cognition in autism (pp. 177–197). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  26. Harris, P. (1993). Pretending and planning. In S. Baron-Cohen, H. Tager-Flusberg, & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Understanding other minds (pp. 228–246). London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Hart, C. (1989). Without reason. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  28. Hodgdon, L. (1995). Visual strategies for improving communication. Troy, MI: QuirkRoberts.Google Scholar
  29. Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child, 2, 217–250.Google Scholar
  30. Klinger, L. G., & Dawson, G. (1992). Facilitating early social and communicative development in children with autism. In S. F. Warren & J. Reichle (Eds.), Causes and effects in communication and language intervention (pp. 157–186). Baltimore: Brookes.Google Scholar
  31. Klinger, L. G., & Dawson, G. (1995). A fresh look at categorization abilities in persons with autism. In E. Schopler & G. B. Mesibov (Eds.), Learning and cognition in autism (pp. 119–136). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  32. Koegel, L. K., & Koegel, R. L. (1995). Motivating communication in children with autism. In E. Schopler & G. B. Mesibov (Eds.), Learning and cognition in autism (pp. 73–87). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  33. Leslie, A. M. (1987). Pretence and representation: the origins of a “theory of mind.” Psychological Review, 94, 412–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mayer Johnson, R. (1992). The picture communication symbols books I, II,& III. Solana Beach, CA: Mayer Johnson.Google Scholar
  35. McDonnell, J. T. (1993). News front the border. New York: Tickner & Fields.Google Scholar
  36. Mesibov, G. B., & Stephens, J. (1990). Perceptions of popularity among a group of high-functioning adults with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 20, 33–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Moreno, S. (1992). A parent’s view of mare able people with autism. In E. Schopler & G. B. Mesibov (Eds.), High functioning individuals with autism (pp. 91–103). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  38. Olley, J. G. (1986). The TEACCH curriculum for teaching social behavior to children with autism. In E. Schopler & G. B. Mesibov (Eds.), Social behavior in autism (pp. 351–373). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  39. Quill, K. A. (Ed.). (1995). Teaching children with autism: Strategies to enhance communication and socialization. New York: Delmar.Google Scholar
  40. Schopler, E., Mesibov, G. B., & Hearsey, K. (1995). Structured teaching in the TEACCH system. In E. Schopler & G. B. Mesibov (Eds.), Learning and cognition in autism (pp. 243–268). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  41. Schuler, A. L. (1995). Thinking in autism: Differences in learning and development. In K. Quill (Ed.), Teaching children with autism: Strategies to enhance communication and socialization (pp. 11–32). New York: Delmar.Google Scholar
  42. Swaggart, B. L., Gagnon, E., Bock, S. J., Earles, E. L., Quinn, C., Myles, B. S., & Simpson, R. L. (1995). Using social stories to teach social and behavioral skills to children with autism. Focus on Autistic Behavior, 10,1–15.Google Scholar
  43. Twachtman, D. (1995). Methods to enhance communication in verbal children. In K. Quill (Ed.), Teaching children with autism: Strategies to enhance communication and socialization (pp. 133–162). New York: Delmar.Google Scholar
  44. Volkmar, F., & Cohen, D. (1985). The experience of infantile autism: A first-person account by Tony W. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15, 47–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Williams, D. (1992). Nobody nowhere. New York: Times Books.Google Scholar
  46. Wing, L. (1992). Manifestations of social problems in high-functioning autistic people. In E. Schopler & G. B. Mesibov (Eds.), High functioning individuals with autism (pp. 129–142). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  47. Wycoff, J. (1991). Mindmapping. New York: Berkley Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jenison Public SchoolsJenisonUSA

Personalised recommendations