Outcomes of Children and Adolescents with Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder

  • Paul J. Frick
  • Bryan R. Loney


Children and adolescents with severe conduct problems, such as those diagnosed with conduct disorders (CD), by definition have significant impairments in their social, emotional, and educational functioning (Frick & O’Brien, 1995; Lahey et al., 1994). In addition, their behavior is highly costly to society (e.g., costs of incarceration) and to the victims of their antisocial and aggressive acts. Perhaps the greatest cause for concern for children and adolescents with CD, however, is the fact that their behavior is often quite stable and persistent. In fact, it is one of the most persistent forms of childhood psychopathology (Offord et al., 1992). Given the impairment, cost, and stability of CD, it is not surprising that a great deal of research has focused on understanding the developmental course of youth with this disorder.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul J. Frick
    • 1
  • Bryan R. Loney
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of AlabamaTuscaloosaUSA

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