Limonin Bitterness in Citrus Juices

  • Shin Hasegawa


Bitterness due to limonin in a variety of citrus juices, generally referred to as delayed bitterness, is a major problem of the citrus industry worldwide and has a significant negative economic impact. Significant progress has been made during the past 30 years in understanding the flavor chemistry and biochemistry of citrus limonoids. The mechanisms of the delayed bitterness and a naturally occurring limonoid debittering process have been established. Biosynthetic pathways of limonoids, and sites of the biosynthesis and accumulation have been well established. The delayed bitterness can be controlled to a semi-acceptable level by chemical, biochemical and physical means. Genetic engineering approaches to the problem will be an area of interest in the future. Research on citrus limonoids has recently extended to their biological functions including anticarcinogenic and insect antifeedant activities, and their chemotaxonomy.


Orange Juice Citrus Fruit Grapefruit Juice Fruit Growth Fruit Tissue 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shin Hasegawa
    • 1
  1. 1.Western Regional Research CenterAgricultural Research Service, USDAAlbanyUSA

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