Understanding and Changing Social Systems

An Ecological View
  • James G. Kelly
  • Ann Marie Ryan
  • B. Eileen Altman
  • Stephen P. Stelzner


A preventive orientation affirms how social systems can be organized to have a positive impact on the development of those individuals who make it up. Here, the authors affirm that an ecological approach to social systems is useful to build a community-based community psychology, a psychology that is attentive to the promotion of competent individuals in responsive social systems


Elementary School Social Norm Community Mental Health System Boundary Social Setting 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aldridge, H. E. (1979). Organizations and environments. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-HallGoogle Scholar
  2. Aldwin, C., & Stokols, A. (1988). The effects of environmental change on individuals and groups: Some neglected issues in stress research. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 8, 57–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen, K. E., Stelzner, S. P., & Wielkiewicz, R. M. (1998). The ecology of leadership: Adapting to the challenges of a changing world. The Journal of Leadership Studies, 5 (2), 62–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aronson, E., Stephan, C., Sikes, J., Blaney, N., & Snapp, M. (1978). The jigsaw classroom. Beverly Hills: SageGoogle Scholar
  5. Ashford, S. J., & Black, J. S. (1996). Proactivity during organizational entry: The role of desire for control. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 199–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ashkenas, R. (1997). The organization’s new clothes. In E Hesselbein, M. Goldsmith, & R. Beckhard (Eds.), The organization of the future (pp. 99–108). San Francisco: Jossey-BassGoogle Scholar
  7. Barker, R. G. (1968). Ecological psychology. Stanford: Stanford University PressGoogle Scholar
  8. Barker, R. G. (1987). Prospecting in environmental psychology: Oskaloosa revested. In D. Stokols & I. Altman (Eds.), Handbook of environmental psychology (pp. 1413–1432). New York: WileyGoogle Scholar
  9. Bateson, G. (1972). Steps to an ecology of mind. New York: BallantineGoogle Scholar
  10. Bateson, G. (1979). Mind and nature. New York: DuttonGoogle Scholar
  11. Bertalanffy, L. von (1968). General system theory. New York: George BrazillerGoogle Scholar
  12. Bertalanffy, L. von (1975). Perspectives on general system theory. New York: George BrazillerGoogle Scholar
  13. Biddle, B. J. (1986). Recent developments in role theory. In Annual review of sociology (pp. 67–92). Palo Alto, CA: Annual ReviewsGoogle Scholar
  14. Brim, J. O. G., & Wheeler, S. (1966). Socialization after childhood: Two essays. New York: WileyGoogle Scholar
  15. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University PressGoogle Scholar
  16. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1986). Ecology of the family as a context of human development. American Psychologist, 32, 513–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown, C., & O’Brien, K. M. (1998). Understanding stress and burnout in shelter workers. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 29, 383–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Buckley, W. (Ed.). (1968). Modern systems research for the behavioral scientist. Chicago: AldineGoogle Scholar
  19. Cable, D. M., & Judge, T. A. (1997). Interviewers’ perceptions of person-organization fit and organizational selection decisions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 546–561PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Capra, F. (1996). The web of life: A new scientific understanding of living systems. New York: AnchorGoogle Scholar
  21. Chaleff, I. (1995). The courageous follower: Standing up to and for our leaders. San Francisco. Berrett-KoehlerGoogle Scholar
  22. Cherniss, C. (1980). Professional burnout in human service organizations. New York: PraegerGoogle Scholar
  23. Cialdini, R., & Trost, M. (1998). Social influence: Social norms, conformity, and compliance. In D. Gilbert, S. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The Handbook of Social Psychology (pp. 151–192). New York: McGraw-HillGoogle Scholar
  24. Clausen, J. A. (Ed.). (1968). Socialization and society. Boston: Little, Brown & CompanyGoogle Scholar
  25. Davis, G. F., Kahn, R. L., & Zald, M. N. (1990). Contracts, treaties, and joint ventures. In R. L. Kahn & M. M. Zald (Eds.), Organizations and nation-states: New perspectives on conflict and cooperation (pp. 19–54). San Francisco: Jossey-BassGoogle Scholar
  26. Deutsch, M., & Gerard, H. B. (1955). A study of normative and informational social influences upon individual judgment. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 51, 629–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Drentea, P. (1998). Consequences of women’s formal and informal job search methods for employment in female-dominated jobs. Gender and Society, 12, 321–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Freeman, J. (1972). The tyranny of structurelessness. In A. Koedt, E. Levine, & A. Rapone (Eds.), Radical feminism. New York: QuadrangleGoogle Scholar
  29. Galbraith, J. R. (1997). The reconfigurable organization. In R Hesselbein, M. Goldsmith, & R. Beckhard (Eds.), The organization of the future (pp. 87–98). San Francisco: Jossey-BassGoogle Scholar
  30. Glidewell, J. C. (1959). The entry problem in consultation. The Journal of Social Issues, 15(2), 51–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Glidewell, J. C. (1972). A social psychology of mental health. In C. Eisdorfer, & S. E. Golann (Eds.), Handbook of community mental health. New York: Appleton-Century-CroftsGoogle Scholar
  32. Glidewell, J. C. (1987). Induced change and stability in psychological and social systems. American Journal of Community Psychology, 15, 741–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gottlieb, B. H. (Ed.). (1981). Social networks and social support, (Vol. 4), Sage studies in community mental health. Beverly Hills: SageGoogle Scholar
  34. Granovetter, M. (1973). The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78, 1360–1380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gruber, J., & Trickett, E. J. (1987). Can we empower others? The paradox of empowerment in the governing of an alternative public school. American Journal of Community Psychology, 15, 353–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gump, P. (1987). School and classroom environments. In D. Stokols & I. Altman (Eds.), Handbook of environmental psychology (pp. 691–732). New York: WileyGoogle Scholar
  37. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1989). Cooperation and competition. Edina, MN: Interaction Book CompanyGoogle Scholar
  38. Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Holubec, E. J. (1991). Cooperation in the classroom: Revised. Edina, MN: Interaction Book CompanyGoogle Scholar
  39. Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Smith, R. A. (1991). Active learning: Cooperation in the college classroom: Revised. Edina, MN: Interaction Book CompanyGoogle Scholar
  40. Juras, J. L., Mackin, J. R., Curtis, S. E., & Foster-Fishman, P. G. (1997). Key concepts of community psychology: Implications for consulting in educational and human service settings. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 8, 111–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kahn, R. L. (1968). Implications of organizational research for community mental health. In J. W. Carter, Jr. (Ed.), Research contributions from psychology to community mental health (pp. 60–74). New York: Behavioral PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  42. Kahn, R. L. (1989). Nations as organizations: Organizational theory and international relations. Journal of Social Issues, 45(2), 181–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal, 33, 692–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kanter, R. M. (1983). The change masters: Innovation for productivity in the American corporation. New York: Simon & SchusterGoogle Scholar
  45. Kanter, R. M. (1996). World class leaders: The power of partnering. In F. Hesselbein, M. Goldsmith, & R. Beckhard (Eds.), The leader of the future (pp. 39–98). San Francisco: Jossey-BassGoogle Scholar
  46. Kaplan, B. (1966). The comparative developmental approach and its application to symbolization and language in psychopathology. In S. Arieti (Ed.), American handbook of psychiatry, Vol. 3. New York: Basic BooksGoogle Scholar
  47. Katz, D., & Golomb, N. (1974). Integration, effectiveness and adaptation in social systems: A comparative analysis of kibbutzim communities. Part 1. Administration and Society, 6, 283–316. Part II, 1975, 6, 389–422Google Scholar
  48. Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1978). The social psychology of organizations (2nd ed.). New York: WileyGoogle Scholar
  49. Kelly, H. H., & Thibaut, J. W. (1969). Group problem solving. In G. Lindzey (Ed.), The handbook of social psychology, Vol. 4. Reading, MA: Addison-WesleyGoogle Scholar
  50. Kelly, J. (1984). Women, history, and theory. Chicago: University of Chicago PressGoogle Scholar
  51. Kelly, J. G. (1966). Ecological constraints on mental health services. American Psychologist, 21, 535–539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kelly, J. G. (1968). Toward an ecological conception of preventive interventions. In J. W. Carter, Jr. (Ed.), Research contributions from psychology to community mental health (pp. 75–99). New York: Behavioral PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  53. Kelly, J. G. (Ed.). (1979a). Adolescent boys in high school. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence ErlbaumGoogle Scholar
  54. Kelly, J. G. (1979b). ‘Tain’t what you do, it’s the way that you do it. American Journal of Community Psychology, 7, 244–261Google Scholar
  55. Kelly, J. G. (1994). Beyond prevention techniques: Generating social settings for a public’s health. In D. Satin (Ed.), Insights and innovations in community mental health (pp. 125–146). New York: GuilfordGoogle Scholar
  56. Kelly, J. G., & Hess, R. E. (Eds.). (1987). The ecology of prevention: Illustrating mental health consultation. New York: HaworthGoogle Scholar
  57. Kelly, J. G., Ryan, A. M., Altman, B. E., & Stelzner, S. P. (1987). Preserving the efficacy of policy reform organizations: Reflections from two case studies. Paper presented at the First Biennial Conference on Community Research and Action, Columbia, SCGoogle Scholar
  58. Kelly, J. G., Dassoff, N., Levin, I., Schreckengost, J., Stelzner, S., Altman, E. (1988). A guide to conducting prevention research in the community: First steps. New York: HaworthGoogle Scholar
  59. Keys, C. B. (1986). Organization development: An approach to mental health consultation. In F. V. Mannino, E. J. Trickett, M. F. Shore, M. G. Kidder, G. Levin (Eds.), Handbook of mental health consultation (pp. 81–112). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing OfficeGoogle Scholar
  60. King, A., & King, W. (1990). Role conflict and role ambiguity: A critical assessment of construct validity. Psychological Bulletin, 107(1), 48–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kingry-Westergaard, C., & Kelly, J. G. (1990). A contextualist epistemology for ecological research. In P. Tolan, C. Keys, F. Chertok, & L. Jason (Eds.), Researching community psychology: Issues of theory and methods (pp. 2431). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological AssociationGoogle Scholar
  62. Klein, D. C. (1968). Community dynamics and mental health. New York: WileyGoogle Scholar
  63. Kristof, A. L. (1996). Person-organization fit: An integrative review of its conceptualizations, measurement, and implications. Personal Psychology, 49, 1–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Levering, R., Moskowitz, M., & Katz, M. (1984). The 100 best companies to work for in America. Reading, MA: Addison-WesleyGoogle Scholar
  65. Levin, G. Handbook of Mental Health Consultation: Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, No. ADM 86–1446, 81–112Google Scholar
  66. Luke, D. A., Rappaport, J., & Seidman, E. (1991). Setting phenotypes in a mutual help organization: Expanding behavior setting theory. American Journal of Community Psychology, 19, 147–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Maguire, L. (1983). Understanding social networks. Beverly Hills: SageGoogle Scholar
  68. Mann, P. A. (1983). Transition points in consultation: Entry, transfer, and termination. In S. Cooper, W. F. Hodges (Eds.), The mental health consultation field. New York: Human SciencesGoogle Scholar
  69. Mannino, E V., Trickett, E. J., Shore, M., Shore, M. E, Kidder, M. G., & Levin, G. (Eds.). (1986). Handbook of mental health consultation. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Government Printing, Washington, D.CGoogle Scholar
  70. McKelvey, B. (1982). Organizational systematics. Berkeley: University of California PressGoogle Scholar
  71. Meyer, J. P., Irving, P. G., & Allen, N. J. (1998). Examination of the combined effects of work values and early work experiences on organizational commitment. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19, 29–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Miller, J. G. (1978). Living Systems. New York: McGraw-HillGoogle Scholar
  73. Miller, V. D., & Jablin, F. M. (1991). Information seeking during organizational entry: Influences, tactics, and a model of the process. Academy of Management Review, 16(1), 92–120Google Scholar
  74. Mitchell, R. E., & Trickett, E. J. (1992). An ecological metaphor for research and intervention in community psychology. In M. S. Gibbs, J. R. Lachenmeyer, & J. Sigal (Eds.), Community psychology and mental health (2nd Ed.) (pp. 13–28). NY: GardnerGoogle Scholar
  75. Moore, D. R., Soltman, S. W., Manar, U., Steinberg, L. S., & Fogel, D. S. (1983). Standing up for children: Effective child advocacy in the schools. (Available from Designs for Change, 200 S. State St., Suite 1900, Chicago, IL 60604)Google Scholar
  76. Morrison, A. M., White, R. P., & Van Velsor, E. (1987). Breaking the glass ceiling: Can women reach the top of America’s largest corporations? Reading, MA: Addison-WesleyGoogle Scholar
  77. Muñoz, R. F., Snowden, L. R., & Kelly, J. G. (1979). Social and psychological research in community settings. San Francisco: Jossey-BassGoogle Scholar
  78. Naparstek, A. J., Biegel, D. E., & Spiro, H. R. (1982). Neighborhood networks for humane mental health care. New York: PlenumCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Newman, P. R. (1979). Persons and settings: A comparative analysis of the quality and range of social interaction in two high schools. In James G. Kelly (Ed.), Adolescent boys in high school: A psychological study of coping and adaptation (pp. 187–217). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence ErlbaumGoogle Scholar
  80. Nicholson, N. (1984). A theory of work role transitions. Administrative Science Quarterly, 29, 172–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Paris, B. E. (1998). The development of a medical student interest group in geriatrics. Educational Gerontology, 24, 199–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pfeffer, J. (1981). Power in organizations. Boston: PitmanGoogle Scholar
  83. Pfeffer, J. (1982). Organizations and organization theory. Boston: PitmanGoogle Scholar
  84. Pfeffer, J. (1985). Organizations and organizational theory. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (3rd ed.). New York: Random HouseGoogle Scholar
  85. Pilisuk, M., & Parks, S. H. (1986). The healing web: Social networks and human survival. Hanover, MA: University Press of New EnglandGoogle Scholar
  86. Rappaport, J., Seidman, E., Toro, P. A., McFadden, L. S., Reischl, T. M., Roberts, L. J., Salen, D. A., Stein, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (1985). Collaborative research with a mutual help organization. Social Policy, 12–24Google Scholar
  87. Rappaport, R. A. (1990). Ecosystems, populations and people. In E. F. Moran (Ed.), The ecosystem approach in anthropology: From concept to practice (pp. 41–72). Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan PressGoogle Scholar
  88. Raush, H. L. (1977). Paradox, level, and junctures in person-situation systems. In D. Magnuson & N. S. Endler (Eds.), Personality at the crosswords: Current issues in interactional psychology (pp. 287–305). New York: WileyGoogle Scholar
  89. Raush, H. L. (1979). Epistemology, metaphysics, and person situation methodology. In L. R. Kahle (Ed.), New directions for methodology: Person-situation interactions (pp. 93–106). San Francisco: Jossey-BassGoogle Scholar
  90. Raush, H. L., Barry, W. A., Hertel, R. K., & Swain, M. A. (1974). Communication, conflict and marriage. San Fran-cisco: Jossey-BassGoogle Scholar
  91. Roberts, L. J., Luke, D. A., Rappaport, J., Seidman, E., Toro, P. A., & Reischl, T. M. (1991). Charting uncharted ter-rain: A behavioral observation system for mutual help groups. American Journal of Community Psychology, 119, 715–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sameroff, A. J. (1980). Developmental systems: Contexts and evolution. In P. Mussen (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology, Vol. 1 (pp. 237–294). New York: WileyGoogle Scholar
  93. Sarason, S. B. (1972). The creation of settings and the future of societies. San Francisco: Jossey-BassGoogle Scholar
  94. Schein, E. H. (1990). Organizational culture. American Psychologist, 45(2), 109–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Schneider, B. (Ed.). (1990). Organizational climate and culture. San Francisco: Jossey-BassGoogle Scholar
  96. Schoggen, P. (1989). Behavior settings. Stanford: Stanford University PressGoogle Scholar
  97. Scott, W. R. (1981). Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice HallGoogle Scholar
  98. Senge, P. M. (1997). Leading learning organizations: The bold, the powerful, and the invisible. In F. Hesselbein, M. Goldsmith, & R. Beckhard (Eds.), The organization of the future (pp. 41–58). San Francisco: Jossey-BassGoogle Scholar
  99. Smith, K. K., & Corse, S. J. (1986). The process of consultation: Critical issues. In F. V. Mannino, E. J. Trickett, M. F. Shore, M. G. Kidder, & G. Levin (Eds.), Handbook of mental health consultation (DHHS Publication No. ADM 86–1446). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing OfficeGoogle Scholar
  100. Stevenson, J., Florin, P., & Mitchell, R. (1998). Predicting intermediate outcomes for prevention coalitions: A developmental perspective. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association Annual Convention, San Francisco, CAGoogle Scholar
  101. Stokols, D. (1987). Conceptual strategies of environmental psychology. In D. Stokols and I. Altman (Eds.), Handbook of environmental psychology, Vol. 1 (pp. 41–70). New York: WileyGoogle Scholar
  102. Stokols, D. (1988). Transformational processes in people-environmental relations. In J. E. McGrath (Ed.), The social psychology of time: New perspectives (pp. 233–254). Newbury Park, CA: SageGoogle Scholar
  103. Thomas, K. G., Gatz, M., & Luczak, S. E. (1997). A tale of two school districts: Lessons to be learned about the impact of relationship building and ecology on consultation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 8, 297–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Tjosvold, D. (1997). Networking by professionals to manage change: Dentists’ cooperation and competition to develop their business. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18, 745–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Trickett, E. J. (1984). Toward a distinctive community psychology: An ecological metaphor for the conduct of community research and the nature of training. American Journal of Community Psychology, 12, 261–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Trickett, E. J. (1987). Community interventions and health psychology. An ecologically oriented perspective. In G. Stone (Ed.), Health psychology: A discipline and a profession (pp. 151–163). Chicago: University of Chicago PressGoogle Scholar
  107. Trickett, E. J. (1991). Living an idea: Empowerment and the evolution of an alternative high school. Brookline, MA: Brookline BooksGoogle Scholar
  108. Trickett, E. J. (1996). A future for community psychology: The contexts of diversity of contexts. American Journal of Community Psychology, 24(2), 203–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Trist, E. L. (1981). The sociotechnical perspective: The evolution of sociotechnical systems as a conceptual framework and as an action research program. In A. H. Van de Ven & W. F. Joyce (Eds.), Perspectives on organization design and behavior. New York: WileyGoogle Scholar
  110. Trist, E. L., & Bamforth, K. W. (1951). Some social and psychological consequences of the long-wall method of coal-getting. Human Relations, 4, 3–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Ulrich, D. (1997). Organizing around capabilities. In F. Hesselbein, M. Goldsmith, & R. Beckhard (Eds.), Organizing around capabilities (pp. 189–196). San Francisco: Jossey-BassGoogle Scholar
  112. Umbarger, C. C. (1983). Structural family therapy. Orlando, FL: Grune & StrattonGoogle Scholar
  113. Vaux, A. (1988). Social support: Theory, research, and intervention. New York: PraegerGoogle Scholar
  114. Vincent, J. (1986). System and process, 1974–1985. Annual Review of Anthropology, 15, 99–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Vondracek, F. W., Lerner, R. M., & Schulenberg, J. E. (1986). Career development: A life-span developmental approach. Hillsdale, NJ: ErlbaumGoogle Scholar
  116. Wapner, S. (1987). A holistic, developmental, systems-oriented environmental psychology: Some beginnings. In D. Stokols & I. Altman (Eds.), Handbook of environmental psychology, Vol. 2. New York: WileyGoogle Scholar
  117. Weinstein, C. S. (1991). The classroom as a social context for learning. Annual Review of Psychology, 42, 493–525PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Wellman, B., Carrington, P. J., & Hall, A. (1988). Networks as personal communities. In Wellman & Berkowitz (Eds.), Social structures: A network approach (pp. 130–184). New York: University of Cambridge PressGoogle Scholar
  119. Wicker, A. W. (1987). Behavior settings reconsidered: Temporal stages, resources, internal, dynamics, context. In D. Stokols & I. Altman (Eds.), Handbook of environmental psychology (pp. 613–654). New York: WileyGoogle Scholar
  120. Zimmerman, M. A., Reischl, T. M., Seidman, E., Rappaport, J., Toro, P. A., & Salem, D. A. (1991). Expansion strategies of a mutual help organization. American Journal of Community Psychology, 19, 251–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar


  1. Albee, G. W. (1996). Revolutions and counterrevolutions in prevention. American Psychologist, 51, 1130–1133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albee, G. W., Joffe, J. M., & Dusenbury, L. (Eds.). (1988). Prevention, powerlessness, and politics. Beverly Hills: SageGoogle Scholar
  3. Belenky, M. F., Bond, L. A., & Weinstock, J. S. (1997). A tradition that has no name: Nurturing the development of people, families, and communities. New York: Basic BooksGoogle Scholar
  4. Fawcett, S. B., Mathews, R. M., & Fletcher, R. F. (1980). Some promising dimensions for behavioral community technology. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7, 1–9Google Scholar
  5. Glenwick, D. S., & Jason, L. A. (Eds.). (1980). Behavioral community psychology: Progress and prospects. New York: PraegerGoogle Scholar
  6. Jason, L. A., & Glenwick, D. S. (1984). Behavioral community psychology: A review of recent research and applications. In M. Hersen, R. M. Eisler, & P. M. Miller (Eds.), Progress in behavior modification, Vol. 18 (pp. 85–121). New York: AcademicGoogle Scholar
  7. Miller, J. B. (1986). Toward a new psychology of women (2nd edition). Boston: BeaconGoogle Scholar
  8. Nietzel, M. T., Winett, R. A., MacDonald, M. L., & Davidson, W. S. (1977). Behavioral approaches to community psychology. New York: PergamonGoogle Scholar
  9. Perkins, D. D., & Zimmerman, M. A. (1995). Empowerment theory, research, and application. American Journal of Community Psychology, 23, 569–579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Rappaport, J. (1981). In praise of paradox: A social policy of empowerment over prevention. American Journal of Community Psychology, 9, 1–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Rappaport, J. (1987). Terms of empowerment/exemplars of prevention: Toward a theory for community psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology, 15, 117–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Rappaport, J. (1990). Research methods and the empowerment social agenda. In P. Tolan, C. Keys, F. Chertok, & L. Jason (Eds.), Researching community psychology: Integrating theories and methodologies. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological AssociationGoogle Scholar
  13. Rappaport, J. (1995). Empowerment meets narrative: Listening to stories and creating settings. American Journal of Community Psychology, 23. 795–807PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Rappaport, J. (1998). The art of social change: Community narratives as resources for individual and collective identity. In X. B. Arriaga, & S. Oskamp (Eds.), Addressing community problems: Research and intervention. Thousand Oaks, CA: SageGoogle Scholar
  15. Rappaport, J., & Chinsky, J. M. (1974). Models for delivery of service: An historical and conceptual perspective. Professional Psychology, 5, 42–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rappaport, J., Seidman, E., & Davidson, W. S. (1979). Demonstration research and manifest versus true adoption: The natural history of a research project to divert adolescents from the legal system. In R. E Muñoz, L. R. Snowden, & J. G. Kelly (Eds.), Social and psychological research in community settings. San Francisco: Jossey-BassGoogle Scholar
  17. Sampson, E. E. (1993). Identity politics. American Psychologist, 48, 1219–1230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sarason, S. B. (1978). The nature of social problem solving in social action. American Psychologist, 33, 370–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Seidman, E. (1988). Back to the future, community psychology: Unfolding the theory of social intervention. American Journal of Community Psychology, 16, 3–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • James G. Kelly
    • 1
  • Ann Marie Ryan
    • 2
  • B. Eileen Altman
    • 3
  • Stephen P. Stelzner
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyMichigan State UniversityUSA
  3. 3.Santa CruzUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyCollege of St.BenedictSt.JosephUSA

Personalised recommendations