Proximal Elements in the Vertebrate Limb: Evolutionary and Developmental Origin of the Pectoral Girdle

  • Ann Campbell Burke
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 205)


The vertebrate skeletal Bauplan consists of two major systems - the axial skeleton (skull, vertebrae and ribs), and the appendicular skeleton(pectoral and pelvic girdles, and limb bones). There are distinctions made between these two skeletal systems on the grounds of history, function, and development.


Limb Muscle Axial Skeleton Shoulder Girdle Lateral Plate Neural Arch 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ann Campbell Burke
    • 1
  1. 1.Biology DepartmentDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada

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