Phylogenetically Ancient Pattern in Ontogenesis of Limb Muscles

  • Radomír Čihák
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 205)


From the beginning of this century when Lewis (1901/02, 1910), Bardeen and Lewis (1901) and Bardeen (1906/07) published their impressive illustrations of embryonal muscles, obtained by plastic reconstructions from serial sections and when Gräfenberg (1905/06) brought the descriptions of stages of muscle development, it has generally been accepted that limb muscles undergo a “direct” or a “straight up” differentiation in their ontogenesis. This means that every one muscle primordium separates from the larger blas-tema, i.e. from the premuscular mass for flexors or extensors, already in its form and position corresponding to the definitive muscle.


Ulnar Nerve Radial Nerve Human Hand Comparative Anatomy Pectoralis Major Muscle 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Radomír Čihák
    • 1
  1. 1.Charles University First Medical FacultyPragueCzechoslovakia

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