Application of Learning to Pest Management

  • Ronald J. Prokopy
  • W. Joseph Lewis


There are several kinds of learning that may occur in pest and beneficial insects. Described more fully elsewhere (Papaj and Prokopy, 1989), these include habituation (a waning of response to stimuli with repeated exposure to the stimulus), sensitization (the counterpart of habituation, involving a gradual increase in response to a stimulus with repeated exposure, even when unpaired with any other stimulus), associative learning (establishment through experience of an association between two stimuli or between a stimulus and a response), and induction of preference (effects of experience on diet choice that cannot be assigned readily to any of the preceding kinds of learning). This chapter is concerned principally with how these various kinds of learning in harmful or beneficial insects might play a role in current and future strategies and tactics of pest management.


Pest Management Integrate Pest Management Aversion Learning Trap Crop Beneficial Insect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Altieri, M.A. 1987. Agroecology. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
  2. Altieri, M., Lewis, W.J., Nordlund, D.A., Gueldner, R.C., and Todd, J.W. 1981. Chemical interactions between plants and Trichogramma wasps in Georgia soybean fields. Prot. Ecol. 3:259–263.Google Scholar
  3. Aluja, M., and Prokopy, R.J. 1992. Host search behavior by Rhagoletis pomonella flies: Inter-tree movement patterns in response to wind-borne fruit volatiles under field conditions. Physiol. Entomol. 17:1–8.Google Scholar
  4. Aluja, M., Prokopy, R.J., Elkinton, J.S., and Laurence, F. 1989. Novel approach for tracking and quantifying the movement patterns of insects in three dimensions under seminatural conditions. Environ. Entomol. 18:1–7. Google Scholar
  5. Andow, D.A. 1991. Vegetational diversity and arthropod population response. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 36:561–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bartell, R.J. 1982. Mechanisms of communication disruption by pheromone in the control of Lepidoptera: A review. Physiol. Entomol. 7:353–364.Google Scholar
  7. Bateman, M.A., and Sonleitner, F.J. 1967. The ecology of a natural population of the Queensland fruit fly, Dacus tryoni. I. The parameters of the pupal and adult populations during a single season. Aust. J. Zool. 15:303–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Begon, M. 1979. Investigating Animal Abundance: Capture-Recapture for Biologists. University Park Press, Baltimore, 104 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Bell, W.J. 1990. Searching behavior patterns of insects. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 35:447–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bernays, E.A. 1983. Antifeedants in crop pest management. In D.L. Whitehead and W.S. Bowers (eds.), Natural Products for Innovative Pest Management. Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 259–271.Google Scholar
  11. Bernays, E., and Chapman, R. 1987. The evolution of deterrent responses in plant-feeding insects. In R.F. Chapman, E.A. Bernays, and J.G. Stoffolano (eds.), Perspectives in Chemoreception and Behavior. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 159–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bernays, E.A., and Lee, J.C. 1988. Food aversion learning in the polyphagous grasshopper Schistocerca americana. Physiol. Entornol. 13:131–137.Google Scholar
  13. Bernays, E.A., and Wrubel, R.P. 1985. Learning by grasshoppers: Association of colour and light intensity with food. Physiol. Entomol. 10:359–369.Google Scholar
  14. Blaney, W.M., and Simmonds, M.S.J. 1985. Food selection by locusts: The role of learning in rejection behavior. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 39:273–278.Google Scholar
  15. Blaney, W.M., Winstanley, C., and Simmonds, M.S.J. 1985. Food selection by locusts: An analysis of rejection behavior. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 38:35–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Blois, C., and Cloarec, A. 1985. Influence of experience on prey selection by Anax imperator larvae (Aeschnidae-Odonata). Z. Tierpsychol. 68:303–312.Google Scholar
  17. Cardé R.T. 1990. Principles of mating disruption. In R.L. Ridgway, R.M. Silverstein, and M.N. Inscoe (eds.), Behavior-Modifying Chemicals for Pest Management. Marcel-Dekkar, New York, pp. 47–71.Google Scholar
  18. Carle, S.A., Averill, A.L., Rule, G.S., Reissig, W.H., and Roelofs, W.L. 1987. Variation in fruit volatiles attractive to apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella. J. Chem. Ecol. 13:795–805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chapman, R.F., and Bernays, E.A. 1989. Insect behavior at the leaf surface and learning as aspects of host plant selection. Experientia 45:215–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dawson, G.W., Griffiths, D.C., Pickett, J.A., Plumb, R.T., Woodcock, C.M., and Zhong-Ning, Z. 1988. Structure/activity studies on aphid alarm pheromone derivatives and their field use against transmission of barley yellow dwarf virus. Pestic. Sci. 22:17–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dethier, V.G. 1976. Man’s Plague? Insects and Agriculture. Darwin Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  22. Dethier, V.G. 1980. Food-aversion learning in two phytophagous caterpillars, Diacrisia virginica and Extigmene congrua. Physiol. Entomol. 5:321–325.Google Scholar
  23. Dicke, M., van der Mass, K.J., Takabayashi, J., and Vet, L.E.M. 1990. Learning affects response to volatile allelochemicals by predatory mites. Proc. Exp. Appl. Entomol. 1:31–36.Google Scholar
  24. Ding, D., Swedenborg, P.D., and Jones, R.L. 1989. Chemical stimuli in host-seeking behavior of Macrocentrus grandii (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 82:232–236.Google Scholar
  25. Ebling, W., Wagner, R.E., and Reierson, D.A. 1966. Influence of repellency on the efficacy of blatticides. I. Learned modification of behavior of the German cockroach. J. Econ. Entomol. 59:1374–1387.Google Scholar
  26. Economopoulos, A.P. 1989. Use of traps based on color and/or shape. In A.S. Robinson and G. Hooper (eds.), Fruit Flies, Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 315–328.Google Scholar
  27. Emden, H.F. van, and Hagen, K.S. 1976. Olfactory reactions of the green lacewing, Chrysopa carnea, to tryptophan and certain breakdown products. Environ. Entomol. 5:469–473.Google Scholar
  28. Gill, J.S. 1972. Studies on insect feeding deterrents with special reference to the fruit extracts of the neem tree, Azadirachta indica. Ph.D. dissertation, University of London.Google Scholar
  29. Gould, F. 1984. Role of behavior in the evolution of insect adaptation to insecticides and resistant host plants. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am. 30(4):34–41.Google Scholar
  30. Gould, F. 1988. Evolutionary biology and genetically engineered crops. Bioscience 38:26–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gould, F. 1991. Arthropod behavior and the efficacy of plant protectants. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 36:305–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gould, J.L. 1986. The biology of learning. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 37:163–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gross, H.R., Lewis, W.J., Jones, R.L., and Nordlund, D.A. 1975. Kairomones and their use for management of entomophagous insects: III. Stimulation of Trichogramma achaeae, T. pretiosum and Microplitis croceipes with host-seeking stimuli at time of release to improve their efficiency. J. Chem. Ecol. 1:431–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hagen, K.S., and Bishop, G.W. 1979. Use of supplemental foods and behavioral chemicals to increase the effectiveness of natural enemies. In D.W. Davis, J.A. McMurtry, and S.C. Hoyt (eds.), Biological Control and Insect Management. California Agricultural Experimental Station Publication 4096, Berkeley, pp. 49–60.Google Scholar
  35. Hagen, K.S., Sawall, E.F., Jr., and Tassan, R.L. 1970. The use of food sprays to increase effectiveness of entomophagous insects. Proc. Tall Timbers Conf. Ecol. Anim. Control Habitat Manage. 2:59–81.Google Scholar
  36. Hall, F.R. 1979. Effects of synthetic pyrethroids on major insect and mite pests of apple. J. Econ. Entomol. 72:441–446.Google Scholar
  37. Harrison, J.M., and Breed, M.D. 1987. Temporal learning in the giant tropical ant, Paraponera clavata. Physiol. Entomol. 12:317–320.Google Scholar
  38. Haynes, K.F. 1988. Sublethal effects of neurotoxic insecticides on insect behavior. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 33:149–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Heinrich, B. 1976. The foraging specializations of individual bumblebees. Ecol. Monogr. 42:105–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hendrichs, J., and Hendrichs, M.A. 1990. Mediterranean fruit fly in nature: Location and diel pattern of feeding and other activities on fruiting and nonfruiting hosts and nonhosts. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 83:632–641.Google Scholar
  41. Herard, F.H., Keller, M.A., Lewis, W.J., and Tumlinson, J.H. 1988. Beneficial arthropod behavior mediated by airborne semiochemicals. IV. Influence of host diet on host-oriented flight chamber responses of Microplitis demolitor. J. Chem. Ecol. 14:1597–1606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Herzog, D.C., and Funderburk, J.E. 1986. Ecological basis for habitat management and pest cultural control. In M. Kogan (ed.), Ecological Theory and Integrated Pest Management Practice. John Wiley, New York, pp. 217–250.Google Scholar
  43. Hokkanen, H.M.T. 1991. Trap cropping in pest management. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 36:119–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hokkanen, H., Granlund, H., Husberg, G.B., and Markkula, M. 1986. Trap crops used successfully to control Meligethes aeneus, the rape blossom beetle. Ann. Entomol. Fennici 52:115–120.Google Scholar
  45. Horn, D.J. 1988. Ecological Approach to Pest Management. Guilford Press, New York, 285 pp.Google Scholar
  46. Houck, M.A. 1986. Prey preference in Stethorus punctum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Environ. Entomol. 15:967–970.Google Scholar
  47. Jermy, T. 1983. Multiplicity of insect antifeedants in plants. In D.L. Whitehead and W.S. Bowers (eds.), Natural Products for Innovative Pest Management. Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 223–236.Google Scholar
  48. Jermy, T. 1987. The role of experience in the host selection of phytophagous insects. In R.F. Chapman, E.A. Bernays, and J.G. Stoffolano (eds.), Perspectives in Chemoreception. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 143–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jermy, T. 1990. Prospects of antifeedant approach to pest control¡ªA critical review. J. Chem. Ecol. 16:3151–3166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jermy, T., Bernays, E.A., and Szentesi, A. 1982. The effect of repeated exposure to feeding deterrents on their acceptibility to phytophagous insects. In J.H. Visser and A.K. Minks (eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Insect¨CPlant Relationships. Pudoc, Wageningen, pp. 25–32.Google Scholar
  51. Jones, R.E. 1987. Behavioral evolution in the cabbage butterfly (Pieris rapae). Oecologia 72:69–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jones, R.E., and Ives, P.M. 1979. The adaptiveness of searching and host selection behavior in Pieris rapae. Aust. J. Ecol. 4:75–86.Google Scholar
  53. Kareiva, P. 1982. Experimental and mathematical analysis of herbivore movement: quantifying the influence of plant spacing and quality on foraging discrimination. Ecol. Monogr. 52:261–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kareiva, P. 1983. Influence of vegetation texture on herbivore populations: resource concentrations and herbivore movement. In R.F. Denno and M.S. McClure (eds.), Variable Plants and Herbivores in Natural and Managed Systems. Academic Press, New York, pp. 259–289.Google Scholar
  55. Katsoyannos, B.I. 1987. Effect of color properties of spheres on their attractiveness for Ceratitis capitata flies in the field. J. Appl. Entomol. 104:79–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kennedy, G.C., Gould, F., Deponti, O.M.B., and Stinner, R.E. 1987. Ecological, agricultural, genetic and commercial considerations in the deployment of insect-resistant germplasm. Environ. Entomol. 16:327–338.Google Scholar
  57. Kogan, M. 1986. Plant defense strategies and host-plant resistance. In M. Kogan (ed.), Ecological Theory and Integrated Pest Management Practice. John Wiley, New York, pp. 83–134.Google Scholar
  58. Kortisas, V.M., and Garsed, S.G. 1985. The effects of nitrogen and sulfur nutrition on the response of brussel sprout plants to infestation by the aphid Brevicoryne brassicae. Ann. Appl. Biol. 106:1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lanier, G.N. 1990. Principles of attraction-annihilation: Mass trapping and other means. In R.L. Ridgway, R.M. Silverstein, and M.N. Inscoe (eds.), Behavior-Modifying Chemicals for Insect Management. Marcel-Dekker, New York, pp. 25–46.Google Scholar
  60. Lee, J.C., and Bernays, E.A. 1988. Declining acceptability of a food plant for the polyphagous grasshopper, Schistocerca americana: The role of food aversion learning. Physiol. Entomol. 13:291–301.Google Scholar
  61. Lenteren, J.C. van 1981. Host discrimination by parasitoids. In D.A. Nordlund, R.L. Jones, and W.J. Lewis (eds.), Semiochemicals: Their Role in Pest Control. John Wiley, New York, pp. 153–179.Google Scholar
  62. Leppla, N.C., and Ashley, T.R. 1989. Quality control in insect mass production: A review and model. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am. 35:33–44.Google Scholar
  63. Lewis, A.C. 1986. Memory constraints and flower choice in Pieris rapae. Science, 232:863–865.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lewis, A.C., and Lipani, G.A. 1990. Learning and flower use in butterflies: Hypotheses from honey bees. In E.A. Bernays (ed.), Insect¡ªPlant Interactions. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 95–110.Google Scholar
  65. Lewis, W.J., Jones, R.L., Nordlund, D.A., and Sparks, A.N. 1975a. Kairomones and their use for management of entomophagous insects: I. Evaluation for increasing rates of parasitization by Trichogramma spp. in the field. J. Chem. Ecol. 1:343–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lewis, W.J., Jones, R.L., Nordlund, D.A., and Gross, H.R. 1975b. Kairomones and their use for management of entomophagous insects: II. Mechanism causing increase in rate of parasitization by Trichogramma spp. J. Chem. Ecol. 1:349–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lewis, W.J., Nordlund, D.A., Gueldner, R.C., Teal, P.E.A., and Tumlinson, J.H. 1982. Kairomones and their use for management of entomophagous insects: XIII. Kairomonal activity for Trichogramma spp. of abdominal tips, excretions and a synthetic sex pheromone blend of Heliothis zea (Boddie) moths. J. Chem. Ecol. 8:1323–1331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lewis, W.J., and Tumlinson, J.H. 1988. Host detection by chemically mediated associative learning in a parasitic wasp. Nature 331:257–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lewis, W.J., and Martin, W.R., Jr. 1990. Semiochemicals for use with parasitoids: Status and future. J. Chem. Ecol. 16:3067–3089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lewis, W.J., and Takasu, K. 1990. Use of learned odors by a parasitic wasp in accordance with host and food needs. Nature 348:635–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lewis, W.J., Vet, L.E.M., Tumlinson, J.H., van Lenteren, J.C., and Papaj, D.R. 1990. Variations in parasitoid foraging behavior: Essential element of a sound biological control theory. Environ. Entomol. 19:1183–1193.Google Scholar
  72. Loke, W.H., Ashley, T.R., and Sailer, R.I. 1983. Influence of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae, and corn plant damage on host finding in Apanteles marginiventris. Environ. Entomol. 12:911–915.Google Scholar
  73. Maldonado, H., Jaffe, K., and Balderrama, N. 1979. The dynamics of learning in the praying mantis (Stagmatoptera biocellata). J. Insect Physiol. 25:525–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mallet, J., Longino, J.T., Murawski, D., Murawski, A., and Gamoa, A.S. 1987. Handling effects in Heliconius: Where do all the butterflies go? J. Anim Ecol. 56:377–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Marler, P., and Terrace, H.S. 1984. The Biology of Learning. Dahlem Konf. Life Sci. Res. Rept. 29, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  76. Mattson, W.J., and Scriber, J.M. 1987. Feeding ecology of insect folivores of woody plants: water, nitrogen, fiber, and mineral considerations. In F. Slanksy and J.G. Rodriguez (eds.), The Nutritional Ecology of Insects, Mites and Spiders. John Wiley, New York, pp. 105–146.Google Scholar
  77. McInnis, D.O. 1989. Artificial oviposition sphere for Mediterranean fruit flies in field cages. J. Econ. Entomol. 82:1382–1385.Google Scholar
  78. Miller, J.R., and Strickler, K.S. 1984. Finding and accepting host plants. In W.J. Bell and R.T. Cardé (eds.), Chemical Ecology of Insects. Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 127–157.Google Scholar
  79. Miller, J.R., and Cowles, R.S. 1990. Stimulo-deterrent diversion: A concept and its possible application to onion maggot control. J. Chem. Ecol. 16:3197–3212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Minkenberg, O.P.J.M., and Fredrix, M.J.J. 1989. Preference and performance of an herbivorous fly, Liriomyza trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae), on tomato plants differing in leaf nitrogen. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 82:350–354.Google Scholar
  81. Murdoch, W.W. 1969. Switching in general predators: Experiments on predator specificity and stability of prey populations. Ecol. Monogr. 39:335–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Murdoch, W.W., and Oaten, A. 1975. Predation and population stability. Adv. Ecol. Res. 9:2–131.Google Scholar
  83. Nakagawa, S., Prokopy, R.J., Wong, T.T.Y., Ziegler, J.R., Mitchell, S.M., Urago, T., and Harris, E.J. 1978. Visual orientation of Ceratitis capitata flies to fruit models. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 24:193–198.Google Scholar
  84. Noldus, L.P.J.J. 1989. Semiochemicals and quality of beneficial arthropods: general considerations with special reference to Trichogramma spp. J. Appl. Entomol. 108:425–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Nottingham, S.F. 1988. Host plant finding for oviposition by adult cabbage root fly, Delia radicum. J. Insect Physiol. 34:227–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Olkowski, W. 1987. Update: neem-a new era in pest control products? IPM Pract. 9(10):1–8.Google Scholar
  87. Painter, R.H. 1951. Insect Resistance in Crop Plants. Macmillan, New York, 520 PPGoogle Scholar
  88. Papaj, D.R. 1984. Causes of variation of host discrimination behavior in the but-terfly, Battus philenor. Ph.D. dissertation, Duke University, Durham, NC.Google Scholar
  89. Papaj, D.R. 1986. Shifts in foraging behavior by a Battus philenor population: Field evidence for switching by individual butterflies. Behay. Ecol. Sociobiol. 19:31–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Papaj, D.R., and Prokopy, R.J. 1986. Phytochemical basis of learning in Rhagoletis pomonella and other herbivorous insects. J. Chem. Ecol. 12:1125–1143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Papaj, D.R., and Prokopy, R.J. 1988. The effect of prior adult experience on components of habitat preference in the apple maggot fly (Rhagoletis pomonella). Oecologia 76:538–543.Google Scholar
  92. Papaj, D.R., and Prokopy, R.J. 1989. Ecological and evolutionary aspects of learning in phytophagous insects. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 34:315–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Papaj, D.R., Prokopy, R.J., McDonald, P.T., and Wong, T.T.Y. 1987. Differences in learning between wild and laboratory Ceratitis capitata flies. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 45:65–72.Google Scholar
  94. Papaj, D.R., Opp, S.B., Prokopy, R.J., and Wong, T.T.Y. 1988. Cross-induction of fruit acceptance by the medfly Ceratitis capitata: The role of fruit size and chemistry. J. Insect Behay. 2:241–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Papaj, D.R., and Rausher, M. 1983. Individual variation in host location by phytophagous insects. In S. Ahmad (ed.), Herbivorous Insects: Host-Seeking Behavior and Mechanisms. Academic Press, New York, pp. 77–124.Google Scholar
  96. Papaj, D.R., and Vet, L.E.M. 1990. Odor learning and foraging success in the parasitoid, Leptopilina heterotoma. J. Chem. Ecol. 16:3137–3150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Pasteels, J.M., and Gregoire, J.C. 1984. Selective predation on chemically defended chrysomelid larvae: a conditioning process. J. Chem. Ecol. 10:1693–1700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Pearson, D.L. 1985. The function of multiple anti-predator mechanisms in adult tiger beetles. Ecol. Entomol. 10:65–72.Google Scholar
  99. Penman, D.R., and Chapman, R.B. 1988. Pesticide-induced mite outbreaks: pyrethroids and spider mites. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 4:265–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Plotkin, H.C. 1979. Learning in a carabid beetle (Pterostichus melanerius). Anim. Behay. 27:567–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Pluthero, F.G., and Singh, R.S. 1984. Insect behavioral responses to toxins: practical and evolutionary considerations. Can. Entomol. 116:57–68.Google Scholar
  102. Prokopy, R.J. 1968. Visual responses of apple maggot flies, Rhagoletis pomonella: Orchard studies. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 11:403–422.Google Scholar
  103. Prokopy, R.J. 1972. Evidence for a marking pheromone deterring repeated oviposition in apple maggot flies. Environ. Entomol. 1:326–332.Google Scholar
  104. Prokopy, R.J. 1986. Toward a world of less pesticide. Mass. Agr. Exp. Sta. Res. Bull. 710:1–22.Google Scholar
  105. Prokopy, R.J., and Hendrichs, J. 1979. Mating behavior of Ceratitis capitata on a field-caged host tree. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 72:642–648.Google Scholar
  106. Prokopy, R.J., and Owens, E.D. 1983. Visual detection of plants by herbivorous insects. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 28:337–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Prokopy, R.J., and Papaj, D.R. 1988. Learning of apple fruit biotypes by apple maggot flies. J. Insect Behay. 1:67–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Prokopy, R.J., Moericke, V., and Bush, G.L. 1973. Attraction of apple maggot flies to odor of apples. Environ. Entomol. 2:743–749.Google Scholar
  109. Prokopy, R.J., Papaj, D.R., Cooley, S.S., and Kallet, C. 1986. On the nature of learning in oviposition site acceptance by apple maggot flies. Anim Behay. 34:98–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Prokopy, R.J., Green, T.A., and Wong, T.T.Y. 1989a. Learning to find fruit in Ceratitis capitata flies. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 53:65–72.Google Scholar
  111. Prokopy, R.J., Aluja, M., and Wong, T.T.Y. 1989b. Foraging behavior of laboratory cultured Mediterranean fruit flies on field-caged host trees. Proc. Hawaiian Entomol. Soc. 29:103–109.Google Scholar
  112. Prokopy, R.J., Cooley, S.S., and Opp, S.B. 1989c. Prior experience influences the fruit residence of male apple maggot flies, Rhagoletis pomonella. J. Insect Behay. 2:39–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Prokopy, R.J., Green, T., Wong, T.T.Y., and McInnis, D.O. 1990a. Influence of experience on acceptance of artificial oviposition substrates in Ceratitis capitata. Proc. Hawaiian Entomol. Soc. 30:91–95.Google Scholar
  114. Prokopy, R.J., Johnson, S.A., and O’Brien, M.T. 1990b. Second-stage integrated management of apple arthropod pests. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 54:9–19.Google Scholar
  115. Raffa, K.F. 1987. Maintenance of innate feeding preferences by a polyphagous insect despite ingestion of applied deleterious chemicals. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 44:221–227.Google Scholar
  116. Raffa, K.F., and Frazier, J.L. 1988. A generalized model for quantifying behavioral de-sensitization to antifeedants. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 46:93–100.Google Scholar
  117. Reissig, W.H., Stanely, B.H., Valla, M.E., Seem, R.C., and Bourke, J.B. 1983. Effects of surface residues of azinphosmethyl on apple maggot behavior, oviposition and mortality. Environ. Entomol. 12:815–822.Google Scholar
  118. Risch, S.J., Andow, D.A., and Altieri, M.A. 1983. Agroecosystem diversity and pest control: Data, tentative conclusions, and new research directions. Environ. Entomol. 12:625–629.Google Scholar
  119. Roitberg, B.D., and Prokopy, R.J. 1981. Experience required for pheromone recognition by the apple maggot fly. Nature 292:540–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Root, R.B. 1973. Organization of plant-arthropod association in simple and diverse habitats: the fauna of collards (Brassica oleracea). Ecol. Monogr. 43:95–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Root, R.B., and Kareiva, P.M. 1984. The search for resources by cabbage butterflies (Pieris rapae): Ecological consequences and adaptive significance of Markovian movements in a patchy environment. Ecology 65:147–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Schmutterer, H., and Ascher, K.R.S. (eds.). 1987. Natural pesticides from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) and other tropical plants. Proceedings of the 3rd International Neem Conference, Nairobi (1986). GTZ Grub H., Eschborn, 703 PPGoogle Scholar
  123. Scribner, J. 1983. The medfly in California: Organization of the eradication program and public policy. Hortscience 18:47–52.Google Scholar
  124. Sheehan, W., and Shelton, A.M. 1989. The role of experience in plant foraging by the aphid parasitoid Diaretiella rapae. J. Insect Behay. 2:743–759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Slansky, F. 1990. Insect nutritional ecology as a basis for studying host plant resistance. Florida Entomol. 73:359–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Southwood, T.R.E. 1978. Ecological Methods, 2nd ed. Chapman and Hall, London, 524 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Sparks, T.C., Lockwood, J.A., Byford, R.L., Graves, J.B., and Leonard, B.R. 1989. The role of behavior in insecticide resistance. Pestic. Sci. 26:383–399.Google Scholar
  128. Srygley, R.B., and Chai, P. 1990. Flight morphology of neotropical butterflies: Palatability and distribution of mass to the thorax and abdomen. Oecologia 84:491–499.Google Scholar
  129. Stanton, M.L. 1983. Spatial patterns in the plant community and their effects upon insect search. In S. Ahmad (ed.), Herbivorous Insects: Host-Seeking Behavior and Mechanisms. Academic Press, New York, pp. 125–157.Google Scholar
  130. Stanton, M.L. 1984. Short-term learning and the searching accuracy of egglaying butterflies. Anim. Behay. 32:33–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Steiner, A.L. 1981. Anti-predator strategies. II. Grasshoppers attacked by Prionyx parkeri and some Tachysphex wasps. Psyche 88:1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Szentesi, A., and Bernays, E.A. 1984. A study of behavioral habituation to a feeding deterrent in nymphs of Schistocerca gregaria. Physiol. Entomol. 9:329–349.Google Scholar
  133. Szentesi, A., and Jermy, T. 1990. The role of experience in host plant choice by phytophagus insects. In E.A. Bernays (ed.), Insect/Plant Interactions, Vol. II. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 39–74.Google Scholar
  134. Tabashnik, B. 1989. Managing resistance with multiple pesticide tactics: theory, evidence and recommendations. J. Econ. Entomol. 82:1263–1269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Thorpe, W.H., and Jones, F.G.W. 1937. Olfactory conditioning and its relation to the problem of host selection. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 134:56–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Traynier, R.M.M. 1987. Learning without neurosis in host finding and oviposition by the cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae. In V. Labeyrie, G. Fabres, and D. Lachaise (eds.), Insects-Plants. Junk Dordrecht, Netherlands, pp. 243–247.Google Scholar
  137. Trimble, R.M., Pree, D.J., and Vickers, D.M. 1990. Survey for insecticide resistance in some Ontario populations of the apple leafminer parasite Pholetesor ornigis. Can. Entomol. 122:969–973.Google Scholar
  138. Turlings, T.C.J., Tumlinson, J.H., Lewis, W.J., and Vet, L.E.M. 1989. Beneficial arthropod behavior mediated by airborne semiochemicals. VII. Learning of host-related odors induced by a brief contact experience with host by-products in Cotesia marginiventris, (Cresson), a generalist larval parasitoid. J. Insect Behay. 2:217–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Turlings, T.C., Tumlinson, J.H., and Lewis, W.J. 1990. Exploitation of herbivore-induced plant odors by host-seeking parasitoid wasps. Science 250:1251–1253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Vet, L.E.M., and Groenewold, A.W. 1990. Semiochemicals and learning in parasitoids. J. Chem. Ecol. 16:3119–3135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Vet, L., Lewis, W.J., Papaj, D.R., and van Lenteren, J.C. 1990. A variable-response model for parasitoid foraging behavior. J. Insect Behay. 3:471–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Vinson, S.B. 1984. The behavior of parasitoids. In G.A. Kerkut and L.I. Gilbert (eds.), Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology. Pergamon, New York, pp. 417–469.Google Scholar
  143. Vinson, S.B., Barfield, C.S., and Henson, R.D. 1977. Ovioposition behavior of Bracon melitor, a parasitoid of the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis). II. Associative learning. Physiol. Entomol. 2:157–164.Google Scholar
  144. Visser, J.H., and Thiery, D. 1986. Effects of feeding experience on the odour-conditioned anemotaxes of Colorado potato beetles. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 42:198–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Vité, J.P., and Baader, E. 1990. Present and future use of semiochemicals in pest management of bark beetles. J. Chem. Ecol. 16:3031–3041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Waldbauer, G.P., and Friedman, S. 1991. Self-selection of optimal diets by insects. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 36:43–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Wardle, A.R. 1990. Learning of host microhabitat colour by Exeristes roborator (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Anim. Behay. 39:914–923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Wardle, A.R., and Borden, J.H. 1985. Age-dependent associative learning by Exeristes roborator (F.) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Can. Entomol. 117:605–616.Google Scholar
  149. Wardle, A.R., and Borden, J.H. 1986. Detrimental effect of prior conditioning on host habitat location by Exeristes roborator. Naturwissenschaften 73:509–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Wardle, A.R., and Borden, J.H. 1991. Effect of prior experience on the response of Exeristes roborator to a natural host and microhabitat in a seminatural environment. Environ. Entomol. 20:889–898.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ronald J. Prokopy
  • W. Joseph Lewis

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations