Advertisement

Mechanism of Methane Transport by Rice Plants

  • Isamu Nouchi
  • Shigeru Mariko

Abstract

To clarify the mechanism of CH4 transport through rice plants, CH4 formation in flooded soil and emission through rice plants were examined by pot culture (soil and hydroponic culture) experiments. Methane concentration in surface water above soil was extremely low as compared to that in soil water. Methane concentration in vegetated soil was about one-third of that in unvegetated pots. The emission rate was 20 times higher in vegetated than in unvegetated pots. In addition, there was a linear relationship between CH4 emission rate from rice plants and CH4 concentration in the culture solution with a high CH4 concentration. Methane transport capacity of rice plants depended mainly on plant size. These results indicate that rice plants have a large capacity for CH4 transport and that rice plants play a primary role for CH4 flux from paddy fields.

Methane was not emitted from stomata. Air bubbles or droplets of cupric sulfate were observed on leaf sheaths at the lower leaf position by injection of air or cupric sulfate solution into the medullary cavity of rice plants. Micropores which are different from stomata were observed at the abaxial epidermis of leaf sheath by scanning electron microscopy. These results indicate that the micro-pores are the main site of CH4 release from rice plants. The present results indicate that the seasonal peak of CH4 flux from paddy fields results from a combination of CH4 concentration in flooded soil and rice plant growth since CH4 formed in the rhizosphere was transported to the atmosphere through the rice body by a physical process.

Keywords

Soil Water Rice Plant Emission Rate Paddy Field Rice Straw 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Baba, I., and Y. Takahashi. 1956. Water and Sand Culture Methods. In Y. Togari et al. (eds.), Experimental Methods in Crop Science, Association of Agricultural Techniques, Tokyo, pp. 157–185 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Blake, D.R., and F.S. Rowland. 1988. Continuing worldwide increase in tropospheric methane, 1978 to 1987. Science 239:1129–1131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cicerone, R.J., and J.D. Sheffer. 1981. Sources of atmospheric methane: Measurements in rice paddies and a discussion. J. Geophys. Res. 86C:7203–7209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Higuchi, T., K. Yoda, and K. Tensho. 1984. Further evidence for gaseous CO2 transport in relation to root uptake of CO2 in rice plant. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 30:125–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Holzapfel-Pschorn, A., R. Conrad, and W. Seiler. 1985. Production, oxidation and emission of methane in rice paddies. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 31:345–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Holzapfel-Pschorn, A., and W. Seiler. 1986. Methane emission during a cultivation period from an Italian rice paddy. J. Geophys. Res. 91D:11803–11814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Holzapfel-Pschorn, A., R. Conrad, and W. Seiler. 1986. Effects of vegetation on the emission of methane from submerged paddy soil. Plant and Soil 92:223–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hori, K., K. Inubushi, S. Matsumoto, and H. Wada. 1990. Competition for acetic acid between methane formation and sulfate reduction in the paddy soil. Nippon Dojo-Hiryo gaku 72sshi (Japan. J. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr.) 61:572–578 (in Japanese with English summary).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Manko, S., Y. Harazono, N. Owa, and I. Nouchi. 1991. Methane in flooded soil water and the emission through rice plants to the atmosphere. Environ. Exp. Bot. 31:343–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mitchell, J.F.B. 1989. The “greenhouse” effect and climate change. Rev. Geophys. 27:115–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nouchi, I., S. Manko, and K. Aoki. 1990. Mechanism of methane transport from the rhizosphere to the atmosphere through rice plants. Plant Physiol. 94:59–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Suzuki, D. 1982. Improvement of highly permeable sintered polyethylene filter cup for soil water and soil air. Nippon Dojo-Hiryo gaku Zasshi (Japan. J. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr.) 54:253–254 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tauer, R., K. Jungerman, and K. Decker. 1977. Energy conservation in chemotrophic anaerobic bacteria. Bacteriol. Rev. 41:100–180.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yagi, K., and K. Minami. 1990. Effects of organic matter application on methane emission from some Japanese paddy fields. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 36:599–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Watoson, R.T., H. Rodhe, H. Oeschger, and U. Siegenthaler. 1990. Greenhouse gases and aerosols. In J.T. Houghton, G.J. Jenkins, and J.J. Ephraums (eds.), Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment, Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 1–40.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isamu Nouchi
    • 1
  • Shigeru Mariko
    • 2
  1. 1.National Institute of Agro-Environmental SciencesKannondai, Tsukuba, IbarakiJapan
  2. 2.National Institute for Environmental StudiesOnogawa, Tsukuba, IbarakiJapan

Personalised recommendations