Advertisement

Trace Gas Emissions from Rice Fields

  • Heinz-Ulrich Neue
  • Ronald L. Sass
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 48)

Abstract

Wetland rice cultivation is considered to be one of the larger sources of atmospheric methane, a gas which is an important potential driver of global warming. The atmospheric methane concentration is increasing at about 1% per year and it is an unanswered question as to how much of this increase is due to increased emissions from wetland ricefields. Objectives in current research are to reduce uncertainties concerning how much methane and other climatically active trace gases are annually emitted from irrigated, rainfed, and flood prone rice ecosystems at present, to predict future emissions for given management scenarios, and to develop feasible rice technologies that will reduce emissions and yet will meet the required increase in rice production.

Recent global estimates of methane emission from ricefields range from 20 to 100 Tg/yr corresponding to 6 to 30% of total anthropogenic methane emission. A part of the methane emitted from naturally flooded ricefields may not be considered anthropogenic. Because of the limited number and locations of comprehensive seasonal flux measurements, global extrapolations of emission rates from ricefields are still highly uncertain and tentative. They do not account for varying floodwater regimes, soil properties, organic amendments, cultural practices, and rice cultivars. Irrigated ricefields seem to be the major potential source for increased methane emission. Methane emissions are lower and highly variable in rainfed rice because of periodic droughts during the growing season. Flood prone rice may also emit less methane because of deep flooding or tidal influence. Upland rice is not a source of methane because it is grown like wheat on aerobic soils.

Flooding a ricefield cuts off the oxygen supply from the atmosphere causing an anaerobic fermentation of organic matter in the soil. Methane is a major end product of this process. Zero to over 90% of the methane produced may be oxidized in the soil depending on flood condition and time of growing season. Methane is released to the atmosphere by diffusion, ebullition, and through rice plants. A well developed vascular system, common to wetland plants, provides an effective vent to supply atmospheric oxygen to the rice roots for respiration and to release methane from the soil. Methane fluxes are influenced by: temperature; water regime; low molecular carbon supply from decomposing soil organic residues and root exudates; soil physical, chemical and biological properties; plant physiology; rice cultivars; and cultural practices. Methane emissions from ricefields show distinct diurnal and seasonal variations. Diurnal variation strongly correlates with soil temperature while seasonal variation seems to be more influenced by plant development.

The world’s annual rice production must increase by 65% in the next 30 years to feed the expected population. With present agronomic practices, such increased production will lead to further increases in methane emission. Promising mitigation candidates that are in accord with increased production are: shortening of flooding periods through direct seeding and multiple-drainage aeration, minimizing application of easily decomposable organic matter, use of sulfate-containing fertilizer, application of chemicals that inhibit nitrification and methane formation at the same time, breeding of rice cultivars with a lower methane emission potential, and cultural practices that cause less soil disturbance.

Keywords

Rice Straw Rice Field Methane Production Methane Emission Paddy Soil 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abram, J.W. and D.B. Nedwell, 1978, Inhibition of methanogenesis by sulfate reducing bacteria competing for transferred hydrogen, Arch. Microbiol, 117:89–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acharya, C.N., 1935, Studies on the anaerobic decomposition of plant materials. II. Some factors influencing the anaerobic decomposition, Biochem. J., 29:953–960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alperin, M.J. and W.S. Reeburgh, 1984, Geochemical observations supporting anaerobic methane oxidation, in: “Microbial growth on C-l compounds,” R.L. Crawford and R.S. Hanson (eds.), American Society of Microbiology, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  4. Anthony, C., 1982, “The Biochemistry of Methylotrophs,” Academic, San Diego California.Google Scholar
  5. Aselmann, I. and P.J. Crutzen, 1990, Global inventory of wetland distribution and seasonality of net primary production and estimated methane emission, in: “Soils and the Greenhouse Effect,” A.F. Bouwman (ed.), John Wiley & Sons, Chichester England.Google Scholar
  6. Bachelet, D. and H.U. Neue, 1993, Methane emission from wetland rice areas of Asia, Chemosphere, 26:219–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Balderston, W.L. and W.J. Payne, 1976, Inhibition of methanogenesis in salt marsh sediments and whole-cell suspensions of methanogenic bacteria by nitrogen oxides, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 32:264–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Blotevogel, K.H., U. Fischer, M. Mocha and S. Jansen, 1985, Methanobacterium thermoalcapiphilum sp. nov. A new moderately alkaliphilic and thermophilic autotrophic methanogen, Arch. Microbiol., 142:211–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bonneau, M., 1982, Soil temperature, in: “Constituents and properties of soils,” M. Bonneau and B. Souchier (eds.), Academic Press, London, pgs. 366–371.Google Scholar
  10. Bont, J.A.M. de, K.K. Lee and D.F. Bouldin, 1978, Bacterial oxidation of methane in rice paddy, Ecol. Bull., 26:91–96.Google Scholar
  11. Boone, D.R., 1993, Formation and consumption of atmospheric methane, in: “Global Atmospheric Methane,” M.A.K. Khalil and M. Shearer (eds.), NATO ASI/ARW series, in pressGoogle Scholar
  12. Bouwman, A.F., 1990, Exchange of greenhouse gases between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, in: “Soils and the Greenhouse Effect,” A.F. Bouwman (ed.), John Wiley, New York, pgs. 61–127.Google Scholar
  13. Bronson, K.F. and A.R. Mosier, 1991, Effect of encapsulated calcium carbide on dinitrogen, nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide emissions in flooded rice, Biology and Fertility of Soils, 3:116–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Butterbach-Bahl, K., 1992, “Mechanismen der Produktion und Emission von Methan in Reisfeldern: Abhängigkeit von Felddüngung und angebauter Varietät,” Diss. Techn. Univ. München. Schriftenreihe des Fraunhofer Instituts für Atmospherische Umweltforschung Bd. 14. Wiss. Verl. Mauraun, Frankfurt/M.Google Scholar
  15. Capistrano, R.F., 1988, “Decomposition of 14C-labeled rice straw in three submerged soils under controlled laboratory conditions,” MS thesis, University of the Philippines at Los Baños Laguna, Philippines.Google Scholar
  16. Cicerone, R.J. and J.D. Shetter, 1981, Sources of chemospheric methane: Measurements in rice paddies and a discussion, J. Geophys. Res., 86:7203–7209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cicerone, R.J. and R.S. Oremland, 1988, Biogeochemical aspects of atmospheric methane, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 2:299–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cicerone, R.J., C.C. Delwiche, S.C. Tyler and P.R. Zimmermann, 1992, Methane emissions from California rice paddies with varied treatments, Global Biogeochem Cycles, 6:233–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Conrad, R., 1989, Control of methane production in terrestrial ecosystems, in: “Exchange of trace gases between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere,” M.O. Andrae and D.S. Schimel (eds.), S. Bernhard Dahlem Konferenzen,Wiley, New York, pgs. 39–58.Google Scholar
  20. Conrad, R., H.P. Mayer and M. Wnst, 1989, Temporal change of gas metabolism by hydrogen-syntrophic methanogenic bacterial association in anoxic paddy soil, FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 62:265–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Conrad, R. and F. Rothfuss, 1991, Methane oxidation in the soil surface layer of a flooded rice field and the effect of ammonium, Biol. Fert. Soils, 12:28–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Crawford, R.L. and R.S. Hanson (eds.), 1984, “Microbial growth on C1 compounds,” Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  23. Crill, P.M., K.B. Bartlett, R.C. Harriss, E. Gorham, E.S. Verry, D.I. Sebacher, L. Madzar and W. Sanner, 1988, Methane flux from Minnesota peatlands, Global Biogechem. Cycles, 2:371–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Daniels, L., R. Sparling, and G.D. Sprott, 1984, The bioenergetics of methanogenesis, Biochim. Biophys. Acta., 768:113–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. De Datta, S.K., 1981, “Principles and Practices of Rice Production,” John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  26. De Datta, S.K., 1987, Advances in soil fertility research and nitrogen fertilizer management for lowland rice, in: “Efficiency of Nitrogen Fertilizer for Rice,” International Rice Research Institute, P.O. Box 933 Manila, Philippines, pgs. 27–41.Google Scholar
  27. De Datta, S.K. and W.H. Patrick (eds.), 1986, “Nitrogen Economy of Flooded Rice Soils: Development in Plant and Soil Sciences,” Martin Nijhoff Publication, Dodrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  28. De Laune, R.D., E.J. Smith and W.H. Patrick, 1983, Methane release from Gulf Coast wetlands, Tellus, 35B:8–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Denier van der Gon, H.A.C., H.U. Neue, R.S. Lantin, R. Wassmann, M.C.R. Alberto, J.B. Aduna and M.J.P. Tan, 1992, Controlling factors of methane emission from rice fields, in: “World Inventory of Soil Emission Potentials,” N.H. Batjes and E.M. Bridges (eds.), WISE Report 2, ISRIC, Wageningen, The Netherlands, pgs. 81–92.Google Scholar
  30. Dent, D., 1986, “Acid sulfate soils: a baseline for research and development,” ILRI Publication 39, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  31. Dickinson, R.E. and R.J. Cicerone, 1986, Future global warming from atmospheric trace gases, Nature, 319:109–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. FAO, 1988, United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Report, Rome.Google Scholar
  33. Fillery, I.R.P. and P.L.G. Vlek, 1986, Reappraisal of the significance of ammonia volatilization as a N loss mechanism in flooded rice fields, in: “Development in Plant and Soil Sciences,” S.K. De Datta and W.H. Patrick (eds.), Martin Nijhoff Publ., Dodrecht, The Netherlands, pgs. 79–98.Google Scholar
  34. Freney, J.R., V.A. Jacq and J.F. Baldensperger, 1982, The significance of the biological sulfur cycle in rice production, Dev. Plant Soil Sci., 5:271–317.Google Scholar
  35. Frenzel, P., F. Rothfuss and R. Conrad, 1992, Oxygen profiles and methane turnover in a flooded microcosm, Biol. Fertil. Soils, 14:84–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Garcia, J.L., 1990, Taxonomy and ecology of methanogens, FEMS Microbiol. Rev., 87:297–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Garcia, J.L., M. Raimbault, V. Jacq, G. Rinaudo and P. Roger, 1974, Activities microbiennes dans les sols de rizieres du Senegal: relations avec les proprietes physicochimiques et influence de la rhizosphere, Rev. Ecol. Biol., 11:169–185.Google Scholar
  38. Hackman, C.W., 1979, Rice field ecology in Northeastern Thailand: The effect of wet and dry season on a cultivated aquatic ecosystem, Monogr. Biol., 34, J. lilies (ed.), W. Junk Publisher.Google Scholar
  39. Hanson, R.S., 1980, Ecology and diversity of methylotrophic organisms, Adv. Appl. Microbiology, 26:3–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Higgins, I.J., D.J. Best, R.C. Hammond and D.C. Scott, 1981, Methane-oxidizing microorganisms, Microbiol. Rev., 45:556–590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Holzapfel-Pschorn, A., R. Conrad and W. Seiler, 1986, Effects of vegetation on the emission of methane from submerged paddy soil, Plant and Soil, 92:223–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Holzapfel-Pschorn, A., R. Conrad and W. Seiler, 1985, Production oxidation and emission of methane in rice paddies, FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 31:343–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Holzapfel-Pschorn, A. and W. Seiler, 1986, Methane emission during a cultivation period from an Italian rice paddy, J. Geophys. Res., 91:11,803–811,814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Inubushi, K., Y. Muramatsu and M. Umebayashi, 1992, Influence of percolation on methane emission from flooded paddy soil, Jpn. J. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr., 63:184–189Google Scholar
  45. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), 1992, “Climate Change: The supplementary report to the IPCC scientific assessment,” J.T. Houghton, B.A. Callender and S.K.Varney (eds.), Cambridge University Press, UK.Google Scholar
  46. IRRI: International Rice Research Institute, 1964, “Annual report for 1963,” P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines.Google Scholar
  47. IRRI: International Rice Research Institute, 1989, “IRRI Toward 2000 and Beyond,” P. O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines.Google Scholar
  48. IRRI: International Rice Research Institute, 1991, “World Rice Statistics 1990,” P. O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines.Google Scholar
  49. IRRI: International Rice Research Institute, 1992, “Wet Season & Dry Season Reports,” P. O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines.Google Scholar
  50. Iversen, N., R.S. Oremland and M.J. Klug, 1987, Big Soda Lake (Nevada) 3 pelagic methanogenesis and anaerobic METHANE oxidation, Limnol. Oceanogr., 32:804–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kanda, K., H. Tsuruta and K. Minami, 1992, Emission of dimethyl sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, and carbon disulfide from paddy fields, Plant Nutr., 38(4):709–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kawaguchi, K. and K. Kyuma, 1977, “Paddy Soils in Tropical Asia: Their Material Nature and Fertility,” The University Press of Hawaii Honolulu Hawaii, U.S.Google Scholar
  53. Khalil, M.A.K. and R.A. Rasmussen, 1987, Atmospheric methane: trends over the last 10000 years, Atmos. Environ., 21: 2445–2452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Khalil, M.A.K. and R.A. Rasmussen, 1989, Climate induced feedback for the global cycles of methane and nitrous oxide, Tellus, 41B:554–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Khalil M.A.K. and R.A. Rasmussen, 1990, Constraints on the global sources of methane and an analyses of recent budgets, Tellus, 42B:229–236.Google Scholar
  56. Kiene, R.P. and P.T. Visscher, 1987, Production and fate of methylated sulfur compounds from methionine and dimethylsulfoniopropionate in anoxic marine sediments, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 53:2426–2434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kimura, M., 1992, Methane emission from paddy soils in Japan and Thailand, in: “World inventory of soil emission potentials,” N.H. Batjes and E.M. Bridges (eds.), WISE Report 2, ISRIC, Wageningen, pgs. 43–79.Google Scholar
  58. Knowles, R., 1993, Methane: Processes of production and consumption, in: “Agricultural Ecosystem Effects on Trace Gases and Global Climate Change,” ASA Special Publication No. 55, pgs. 145-156.Google Scholar
  59. Kristjansson, J.K., P. Schonheit and R.K. Thauer, 1982, Different Ks values for hydrogen and methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria: An explanation for the apparent inhibition of methanogenesis by sulfate, Arch. Microbiol., 131:278–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Koyama, T., 1963, Gaseous metabolism in lake sediments and paddy soils and the production of atmospheric methane and hydrogen, J. Geophys. Res., 68:3971–3973.Google Scholar
  61. Krumböck, M. and R. Conrad, 1991, Metabolism of position-labeled glucose in anoxic methanogenic paddy soil and lake sediment, FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 85:247–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kundu, D.K., 1987, “Chemical kinetics of aerobic soils and rice growth,” PhD thesis, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India.Google Scholar
  63. Lindau, C.W., P.K. Bollich, R.D. DeLaune, W.H. Patrick Jr. and V.J. Law, 1991, Effect of urea fertilizer and environmental factors on methane emissions from a Louisiana rice field, Plant and Soil, 136:195–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lindau, C.W., P.K. Bollich, R.D. Delaune, A.R. Moisier and K.F. Bronson, 1993, Methane mitigation in flooded Louisiana rice fields, Biol. Fert. Soils, 15:174–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lovley, D.R. and M.J. Klug, 1983, Methanogenesis from methanol and from hydrogen and carbon dioxide in the sediments of a eutrophic lake, Appl. Environ. Microbiol, 45:1310–1315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Maesschalck, G., H. Verplancke and M. De Boodt, 1985, Water use and wateruse efficiency under different management systems for upland crops, in: “Soil Physics and Rice,” International Rice Research Institute, P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines, pgs. 397–408.Google Scholar
  67. Manning, M.R., D.C. Lowe, W. Melhuish, R. Spaarks, G. Wallace, C.A.M. Brenninkmeijer and R.C. McGill, 1990, The use of radiocarbons measurements in atmospheric studies, Radiocarbons, 32:37–58.Google Scholar
  68. Mariko, S., Y. Harazono, N. Owa and I. Nouchi, 1991, Methane in flooded soil, water and the emission through rice plants to the atmosphere, Environm. Experim. Botany, 31:343–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Martin, U., H.U. Neue, H.W. Scharpenseel and P.M. Becker, 1983, Anaerobe Zersetzung von Reisstroh in einem gefluteten Reisboden auf den Philippinen, Mitt. Dtsch. Bodenkdl. Gesellsch., 38:245–250.Google Scholar
  70. Mathrani, I.M., D.R. Boone, R.A. Man, G.E. Fox and P.P. Lau, 1988, Methanohalophilus zhilinae sp.nov. an alkaliphilic halophilic methylotrophic methanogen, Inst. J. Sys. Bacteriol., 38:139–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. McBride, B.Cand R.S. Wolfe, 1971, Inhibition of methanogenesis by DDT, Nature, 234:551–552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Minami, K. and H.U. Neue, 1993, Rice paddies as methane source, Cimate Change, in press.Google Scholar
  73. Neue, H.U., 1985, Organic matter dynamics in wetland soils, in: “Wetland Soils: Characterization Classification and Utilization,” International Rice Research Institute, P.O. Box 933 Manila Philippines, pgs. 109–122.Google Scholar
  74. Neue, H.U., 1989, Rice growing soils: constraints utilization and research needs, in: “Classification and Management of Rice Growing Soils,” FFFTC Book Series No. 39, Food and Fertilizer Technology Center for the ASPAC Region Taiwan R.O.C., pgs. 1-14Google Scholar
  75. Neue, H.U., 1991, Holistic view of chemistry of flooded soil, in: “,” International Board for Soil Research and Management, IBSRAM Monograph No. 2, Bangkok, pgs. 5-32.Google Scholar
  76. Neue, H.U., 1992, Agronomic practices affecting methane fluxes from rice cultivation, Ecol. Bull, 42:174–182.Google Scholar
  77. Neue, H.U. and H.W. Scharpenseel, 1984, Gaseous products of the decomposition of organic matter in submerged soils, in: “Organic Matter and Rice,” International Rice Research Institute, P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines, pgs. 311–328.Google Scholar
  78. Neue, H.U. and H.W. Scharpenseel, 1987, Decomposition pattern of 14C-labeled rice straw in aerobic and submerged rice soils of the Philippines, Science Total Environ., 62:431–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Neue, H.U. and P.R. Bloom, 1989, Nutrient kinetics and availability in flooded soils, in: “Progress in Irrigated Rice Research,” International Rice Research Institute, P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines, pgs. 173–190.Google Scholar
  80. Neue, H.U., P. Becker-Heidmann and H.W. Scharpenseel, 1990, Organic matter dynamics soil properties and cultural practices in ricelands and their relationship to methane production, in: “Soils and the Greenhouse Effect,” A.F. Bouwman (ed.), John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England, pgs. 457–466.Google Scholar
  81. Neue, H.U. and P.A. Roger, 1993, Rice agriculture: factors controlling emission, in: “Global Atmospheric Methane,” M.A.K. Khalil and M. Shearer (eds.), NATO ASI/ARW series, in press.Google Scholar
  82. Neue, H.U., R.S. Lantin, R. Wassmann, J.B. Aduna, M.C.R. Alberto and MJ.F. Andales, 1993, Methane emission from rice soils of the Philippines, in: “Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission from Natural and Anthropogenic Sources,” NIAES, Japan, in press.Google Scholar
  83. Oremland, R.S., 1988, The biogeochemistry of methanogenic bacteria, in: “Biology of anaerobic microorganism,” A.J.B. Zehnder (ed.), J. Wiley, New York, pgs. 641–702.Google Scholar
  84. Oremland, R.S. and D.G. Capone, 1988, Use of specific inhibitors in biogeochemistry and microbial ecology, Adv. Microbiol. Ecol., 10:285–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Oremland, R.S., L.M. Marsh and S. Polcin, 1982, Methane production and simultaneous sulfate reduction in anoxic salt marsh sediments, Nature, 296:143–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Oremland, R.S. and S. Polcin, 1982, Methanogenesis and sulfate-reduction: competitive and noncompetitive substrate in estuarine sediments, Appl. Environ. Microbiol, 44:1270–1276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Panganiban, A.T., T.E. Patt, W. Hart and R.S. Hanson, 1979, Oxidation of methane in the absence of oxygen in lake water samples, Appl Environ. Microbiol., 37:303–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Parashar, D., C.J. Rai, P.K. Gupta and N. Singh, 1990, Parameters affecting methane emission from paddy fields, Indian J. Radio Space Physics, 20:12–17.Google Scholar
  89. Patel, G.B. and L.A. Roth, 1977, Effect of sodium chloride on growth and methane production of methanogens, Can. J. Microbiol, 6:893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Patra, P.K., 1987, “Influence of water regime on the chemical kinetics of soils and rice growth,” PhD thesis, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India.Google Scholar
  91. Patrick, W.H., Jr, D.S. Mikkelsen and B.R. Wells, 1985, Plant nutrient behavior in flooded soil, in: “Fertilizer Technology and Use,” Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, 3rd edition.Google Scholar
  92. Patrick, W.H., Jr. and C.N. Reddy, 1978, Chemical changes in rice soils, in: “Soils and Rice,” International Rice Research Institute, P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines, pgs. 361–380.Google Scholar
  93. Ponnamperuma, F.N., 1972, The chemistry of submerged soils, Adv. Agron., 24:29–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Ponnamperuma, F.N., 1981, Some aspects of the physical chemistry of paddy soils, in: “Proceedings of the Symposium on Paddy Soils,” Science Press, Beijing People’s Republic of China, pgs. 59–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Ponnamperuma, F.N., 1984a, Effects of flooding on soils, in: “Flooding and Plant Growth,” T.T. Kozlowski (ed.), Academic Press, New York, pgs. 9–45.Google Scholar
  96. Ponnamperuma, F.N., 1984b, Straw as a source of nutrients for wetland rice, in: “Organic Matter and Rice,” International Rice Research Institute, P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines, pgs. 117–136.Google Scholar
  97. Ponnamperuma, F.N., 1985, Chemical kinetics of wetland rice soils relative to soil fertility, in: “Wetland Soils: Characterization Classification and Utilization,” International Rice Research Institute, P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines, pgs. 71–89.Google Scholar
  98. Quay, P.D., S.L. King, J. Stutsman, D.O. Wilbur, L.P. Steele, I. Fung, R.H. Gammon, T.A. Brown, G.W. Farewell, P.M. Grootes and F.H. Schmidt, 1991, Carbon isotopic composition of atmospheric methane: Fossil and biomass burning strength, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 5:25–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Raimbault, M., 1975, Étude de I’influence inhibitrice de l’acétylene sur la formation biologique du méthane dans un sol de riziére, Ann. Microbiol (Inst. Pasteur), 126a:217–258.Google Scholar
  100. Raimbault, M., G. Rinaudo, J.L. Garcia and M. Boureau, 1977, A device to study metabolic gases in the rice rhizosphere, Biol. Biochem., 9:193–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Rajagopal, B.S., N. Belay and L. Daniels, 1988, Isolation and characterization of methanogenic bacteria from rice paddies, FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 53:153–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Reddy, K.R. and W.H. Patrick Jr., 1986, Denitrification losses in flooded rice fields, in: “Nitrogen Economy of Flooded Rice Soils: Development in Plant and Soil Sciences,” S.K. DeDatta and W.H. Patrick Jr. (eds.), M. Nijhoff Publ., pgs. 99-116.Google Scholar
  103. Roger, P.A., I.F. Grant, P.N. Reddy and I. Watanabe, 1987, The photosynthetic aquatic biomass in wetland rice fields and its effect on nitrogen dynamics, in: “Efficiency of N Fertilizers for Rice, International Rice Research Institute, P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines, pgs. 43–68.Google Scholar
  104. Salvas, P.L. and B.F. Taylor, 1980, Blockage of methanogenesis in marine sediments by the nitrification inhibitor 2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl) pyridine (Nitrapin or N-serve), Curr. Microbiol., 4:305–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Sass, R.L., F.M. Fisher, P.A. Harcombe and F.T. Turner, 1990, Methane production and emission in a Texas rice field, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 4:47–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sass, R.L., F.M. Fisher, F.T. Turner and M.F. Jund, 1991a, Methane emission from rice fields as influenced by solar radiation, temperature, and straw incorporation, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 5:335–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sass, R.L., F.M. Fisher, P.A. Harcombe and F.T. Turner, 1991b, Mitigation of methane emissions from rice fields: possible adverse effects of incorporated rice straw, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 5:275–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sass, R.L., F.M. Fisher, Y.B. Wang, F.T. Turner and M.F. Jund, 1992, Methane emission from rice fields: the effect of floodwater management, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 6:249–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Schntz, H., A. Holzapfel-Pschorn, R. Conrad, H. Rennenberg and W. Seiler, 1989, A three-year continuous record on the influence of daytime season and fertilizer treatment on methane emission rates from an Italian rice paddy field, J. Geophys. Res., 94:16,405–16,416.Google Scholar
  110. Schntz, H., W. Seiler and R. Conrad, 1990, Influence of soil temperature on methane emission from rice paddy fields, Biogeochemistry, 11:77–95.Google Scholar
  111. Seiler, W., 1984, Contribution of biological processes to the global budget of methane in the atmosphere, in: “Current Perspectives in Microbial Ecology,” M. J. Kleig and C.A. Reddy (eds.), American Society of Microbiology, Washington DC, pgs. 468–477.Google Scholar
  112. Sextone, A.J. and C.N. Mains, 1990, Production of methane and ethylene in organic horizons of spruce forest soils, Soil Biol. Biochem., 22:135–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Strayer, R.F. and J.M. Tiedje, 1978, Kinetic parameters of the conversion of methane precursors to methane in hypereutrophic lake sediment, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 36:330–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Svensson, B.H., 1984, Different temperature optima for methane formation when enrichments from acid peat are supplemented with acetate or hydrogen, Appl. Environ.Microbiol., 48:389–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Takai, Y., 1970, The mechanism of methane fermentation in flooded soils, Soil Sci. Plant Nutr., 16:238–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Takai, Y., T. Koyama and T. Kamura, 1956, Microbial metabolism in reduction process of paddy soil (Part I), Soil Plant Food, 2:63–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Tsutsuki, K. and F.N. Ponnamperuma, 1987, Behavior of anaerobic decomposition products in submerged soils: Effects of organic material amendment soil properties and temperature, Soil Sci. Plant Nutr., 33:13–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. US-EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency), 1990, “Greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture,” Vol.1, Office of Policy Analysis, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  119. Vermoesen, A., H. Ramon and O. van Cleemput, 1991, Composition of the soil gas phase: Permanent gases and hydrocarbons, Pedology, 41:119–132.Google Scholar
  120. Vogels, G.D., J.T. Keltjens and C. Van der Drift, 1988, Biochemistry of methane production, in: “Biology of Anaerobic Microorganisms,” A.J.B. Zehnder (ed.), Wiley, New York, pgs. 707–770.Google Scholar
  121. Wagatsuma, T., T. Nakashima, K. Tawaraya, S. Watanabe, A. Kamio and A. Ueki, 1990, Role of plant aerenchyma in wet tolerance and methane emission from plants, in: “Plant Nutrition — Plant Physiology and Application,” M.L. van Beusichem (ed), Kluwer Acad. Publ., pgs. 455-461.Google Scholar
  122. Wahlen, M., N. Takata, R. Henry, B. Deck, J. Zeglen, J.S. Vogel, J. Southon, A. Shemesh, R. Fairbanks and W. Broecker, 1989, Carbon-14 in methane sources and in atmospheric methane: The contribution from fossil carbon, Science, 245:286–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Wang Z.P., C.W. Lindau, R.D. Delaune and W.H. Patrick Jr., 1992, Methane production from anaerobic soil amended with rice straw and nitrogen fertilizers, Fertilizer Research, 33:115–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Wang, Z.P., R.D. Delaune, P.H. Masscheleyn and W.H. Patrick Jr., 1993a, Soil redox and pH effects on methane production in a flooded rice soil, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 57:382–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Wang, Z.P., C.W. Lindau, R.D. Delaune and W.H. Patrick Jr., 1993b, Methane emission and entrapment in flooded soils as affected by soil properties, Biology and Fertility of Soils, in press.Google Scholar
  126. Wang, M.X., A. Dai, RX. Shen, H.B. Wu, H. Schntz, H. Rennenberg and W. Seiler, 1990, Methane emission from a Chinese paddy field, Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 43:265–275.Google Scholar
  127. Wang, Z., 1986, Rice-based systems in subtropical China, in: “Wetlands and Rice in Subsaharan Africa,” A.S.R. Juo and J.A. Lowe (eds.), UTA Ibadan Nigeria, pgs. 195-206.Google Scholar
  128. Ward, D.M. M.R. Winfrey, 1985, Interactions between methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria in sediments, Adv. Aquatic Microbiol., 3:141–179.Google Scholar
  129. Watanabe, I. and P.A. Roger, 1985, Ecology of flooded rice fields, in: “Wetland Soils: Characterization Classification and Utilization,” International Rice Research Institute, P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines, pgs. 229–246.Google Scholar
  130. Whittenbury, R., K.C. Phillips and J.K. Wilkinson, 1970a, Enrichment isolation and some properties of methane-utilizing bacteria, J. Gen. Microbiol., 61:205–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Whittenbury, R., S.L. Davies, J.F. Davey, 1970b, Exospores and cysts formed by methane-utilizing bacteria, J. Gen. Microbiol., 61:219–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Whitton, B.A. and J.A. Rother, 1988, Environmental features of deepwater rice fields in Bangladesh during the flood season, in: “1987 International Deepwater Rice Workshop,” International Rice Research Institute, P. O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines, pgs. 47–54.Google Scholar
  133. Winfrey, M.R., 1984, Microbial production of methane, in: “Petroleum Microbiology,” R.M. Atlas (ed.), Macmillan, N.Y., pgs. 153–219.Google Scholar
  134. Winfrey, M.R. and J.G. Zeikus, 1977, Effect of sulfate on carbon and electron flow during microbial methanogenesis in freshwater sediments, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 33:275–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Worakit, S., D.R. Boone, R.A. Man, M.E. Abdel-Samie and M.M. El-Halwagi, 1986, Methanobacterium alcaliphilum sp. nov. an H2-utilizing methanogen that grows at high pH values, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 36:380–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Yagi, K. and K. Minami, 1990, Effects of organic matter application on methane emission from some Japanese paddy fields, Soil Sci. Plant Nutr., 36:599–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Yoshida, S., 1981, “Fundamentals of Rice Crop Science, International Rice Research Institute,” P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines, 269 pp.Google Scholar
  138. Yu, T., 1985, “Physical Chemistry of Paddy Soils,” Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  139. Zeikus, J.G., 1977, The biology of methanogenic bacteria, Bacteriol. Review, 41:514–541.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heinz-Ulrich Neue
    • 1
  • Ronald L. Sass
    • 2
  1. 1.Soil and Water Sciences DivisionInternational Rice Research InstituteLos BañosPhilippines
  2. 2.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyRice UniversityHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations