Natural antimicrobials from plants

  • G. J. E. Nychas


Food preservation is becoming more complex. New food products are being introduced onto the market. Generally these require longer shelf-lives and greater assurance of freedom from foodborne pathogenic organisms. The search for new substances to be used in food preservation is hampered by regulatory restrictions. Consequently a great deal of time and money may be required to develop a new chemical preservative and to get it approved especially in view of the public pressure against chemical additives in general. Such obstacles provide new opportunities for those seeking alternative routes in the search for new food preservatives. The excessive use of chemical preservatives, some of which are suspect because of their supposed or potential toxicity, has resulted in increasing pressure on food manufacturers to either completely remove chemical preservatives from their food products or to adopt more ‘natural’ alternatives for the maintenance or extension of a product’s shelf life. There is considerable interest in the possible use of such natural alternatives as food additives either to prevent the growth of foodborne pathogens or to delay the onset of food spoilage. Many naturally occurring compounds, such as phenols (phenolic acid, polyphenols, tannins), and organic acids (acetic, lactic, citric) have been considered in this context. Many spices and herbs and extracts possess antimicrobial activity, almost invariably due to the essential oil fraction (Deans and Ritchie, 1987). Thus the essential oils of citrus fruits exhibit antibacterial activity to foodborne bacteria (Dabbah et al., 1970) and moulds (Akgul and Kivanc, 1989) so too have the essential oils of many other plants such as oregano, thyme (Salmeron et al., 1990;Paster et al., 1990), sage, rosemary, clove, coriander etc. (Farag et al., 1989; Aureli et al., 1992; Stecchini et al., 1993). The antibacterial and antimycotic effects of garlic and onion have been well documented also (Mantis et al., 1978; Sharma et al., 1979; Saleem and Al-Delaimy, 1982; Conner and Beuchat, 1984a,b).


Phenolic Compound Lactic Acid Bacterium Food Preservation Butylate Hydroxyanisole Garlic Extract 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Akgul, A. and Kivanc, M. (1989) Sensitivity of four foodbome moulds to essential oils from turkish spices, herbs and citrus peel. J. Sci. Food Agric., 47, 129–132.Google Scholar
  2. Aktug, S.E. and Karapinar, M. (1987) Inhibition of foodbome pathogens by thymol, eugenol, menthol and anethole. Inter. J. Food Microbiol., 4, 161–166.Google Scholar
  3. Al-Khayat, M.A. and Blank, G. (1985) Phenolic spice components sporostatic to Bacillus subtilis. J. Food Sci., 50 971–980.Google Scholar
  4. Amiot, M.J., Fleuriet, A. and Macheix, J.J. (1986) Importance and evolution of phenolic compounds in olive during growth and maturation. J. Agr. Food Chem., 34(5), 823–826.Google Scholar
  5. Aureli, P., Constantini, A. and Zolea, S. (1992) Antimicrobial activity of some plant essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes. J. Food Protect.,55, 344–348.Google Scholar
  6. Ayaz, M., Luedecke, L.O. and Branen, A.L. (1980) Antimicrobial effect of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene on Staphylococcus aureus. J. Food Protect., 43(1) 4–6.Google Scholar
  7. Azzouz, M.A. and Bullerman, L.B. (1982) Comparative antimycotic effects of selected herbs, spices, plant components and commercial antifugal agents. J. Food Protect., 45 1298–1301.Google Scholar
  8. Babic, I., Amiot, M.J., Nguyen-The, C. and Aubert, S. (1993) Changes in phenolic content in fresh ready-to-use shredded carrots during storage. J. Food Sci.,58 351–355.Google Scholar
  9. Bailey, R.G., McDowell, I. and Nursten, H.E. (1990) Use of an HPLC photodiode-Array detector in a study of the nature of a black tea liquor. J. Sci. Food Agric., 552 509–525.Google Scholar
  10. Bernheim, F. (1972) The effect of chloroform, phenols, alcohols and cyanogen iodide on the swelling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in various salts. Microbios.,5, 143.Google Scholar
  11. Bernheim, F. (1974) Effect of aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones and aliphatic alcohols on cell swelling and potassium efflux in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cytobios.,11 9.Google Scholar
  12. Beuchat, L.R. and Golden, D.A. (1989) Antimicrobials occurring naturally in foods. Food Technol., 43 134–142.Google Scholar
  13. Blank, G., Al-Khayat, M. and Ismond, M.A.H. (1987) Germination and heat resistance of Bacillus subtilis spores produced on clove and eugenol based media. Food Microbiol., 4, 35–42.Google Scholar
  14. Bongi, G. (1986) Oleuropein: an Olea europaea secoiridoid biologically active on growth regulation. Acta Horticult., 179 245–249.Google Scholar
  15. Branen, A.L., Davidson, P.M. and Katz, B. (1980) Antimicrobial properties of phenolic antioxidants and lipids. Food Technol.,34 42–53.Google Scholar
  16. Brenes Balbuena, M., Garcia Garcia, P. and Garrido Fernandez, A. (1992) Phenolic compounds related to the black color formed during the processing of ripe olives. J. Agric. Food Chem., 40 1192–1196.Google Scholar
  17. Briozzo, J., Nunez, L., Chirife, J. and Herszage, L. (1989) Antimicrobial activity of clove oil dispersed in a concentrated sugar solution. J. Appl. Bacteriol., 66 69–75.Google Scholar
  18. Cilliers, J.J.L. and Singleton, V.L. (1990) Autoxidative phenolic ring opening under alkaline conditions as a model for natural polyphenols in food. J. Agric. Food Chem., 38 1797–1798.Google Scholar
  19. Collins, M.A. (1985) Effect of pH and acidulant type on the survival of some food poisoning bacteria in mayonnaise. Microbiol. Aliments Nutr., 3, 215–221.Google Scholar
  20. Conner, D.E. and Beuchat, L.R. (1984a) Sensitivity of heat-stressed yeasts to essential oils of plants. Appl. Environ. Microbio!., 47 229–233.Google Scholar
  21. Conner, D.E. and Beuchat, L.R. (1984b) Effects of essential oils from plants on growth of food spoilage yeasts. J. Food Sci.,49 429–434.Google Scholar
  22. Cook, F.K. and Pierson, M.D. (1983) Inhibition of bacterial spores by antimicrobials. Food Technol., 36 115–126.Google Scholar
  23. Cornell, D.G. (1979) Distribution of some antioxidants in dairy products. J. Dairy Sci.,62 861–868.Google Scholar
  24. Cornell, D.G., Devilbiss, E.D. and Pallansch, M.J. (1971) Binding of antioxidants by milk proteins. J. Dairy Sci., 54 634–639.Google Scholar
  25. Cruess, W.V. and Alsberg, C.L. (1934) The bitter glucoside of the olive. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 56,2115–2117.Google Scholar
  26. Dabbah, R., Edwards, V.M. and Moats, W.A. (1970) Antimicrobial action of some citrus fruit oils on selected food-borne bacteria. Appl. Microbiol., 19 27–31.Google Scholar
  27. Darvill, A.G. and Albersheim, P. (1984) Phytoalexins and their elicitors: a defence against microbial infection in plants. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol., 35, 243–275.Google Scholar
  28. Davidson, M.P. (1983) Phenolic compounds. In Antimicrobial in Foods. Eds A.L. Branen and P.M. Davidson, pp. 37–74; Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  29. Davidson, P.M. and Branen, A.L. (1981) Antimicrobial activity of non-halogenated phenolic compounds. J. Food Prot.,44(8) 623–632.Google Scholar
  30. Davidson, P.M. and Branen, A.L. (1980) Antimicrobial mechanisms of BHA against two Pseudomonas species. J. Food Sci., 45 1607–1613.Google Scholar
  31. Deans, S.G. and Ritchie, G. (1987) Antibacterial properties of plant essential oils. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 5, 165–180.Google Scholar
  32. Degre, R. and Sylvestre, M. (1983) Effect of butylated hydroxyanisole on the cytoplasmic membrane of Staphylococcus aureus Wood 46. J. Food Prot., 46(3) 206–209.Google Scholar
  33. Degre, R., Ishaque, M. and Sylvestre, M. (1983) Effect of butylated hydroxyanisole on the electron transport system of Staphylococcus aureus Wood 46. Microbios., 37 7–13.Google Scholar
  34. De Medici, D., Pieretti, S. and Salvatore, G. (1992) Chemical analysis of essential oils of malagasy medicinal plants by gas chromatography and nmr spectroscopy. Flavour and Fragrance J., 7, 275–281.Google Scholar
  35. Denyer, S.P. and Hugo, W.B. (1991) Biocide induced damage to the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. In Mechanisms of Action of Chemical Biocides; Their Study and Exploitation. Eds Denyer, S.P. and Hugo, W.B. The Society for Applied Bacteriology, Technical Series No. 27. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications.Google Scholar
  36. DeWit, J.C., Notermans, S., Gorin, N. and Kampelmacher, E.H. (1979) Effect of garlicoil or onion oil on toxin production by Clostridium botulinum in meat slurry. J. Food Protect., 42 222–224.Google Scholar
  37. Diker, K.S., Akan, M., Hascelik, G. and Yaradkok, M. (1991) The bactericidal activity of tea against Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Ltr Appl. Microbiol., 12 34–35.Google Scholar
  38. Dixon, R.A., Dey, P.M. and Lamb, C.-J. (1983) Phytoalexins: enzymology and molecular biology. Adv. Enzym., 55, 1–136.Google Scholar
  39. Doores, S. (1983) Organic acids. In Antimicrobials in Food, Eds A.L. Branen and P.M. Davidson, Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 75–108.Google Scholar
  40. Dziezak, J.D. (1989) Spices. Food Technol.,43 102–116.Google Scholar
  41. Eklund, T. (1980) Inhibition of growth and uptake processes in bacteria by some chemical food preservatives. J. Appl. Bacteriol., 48 423–432.Google Scholar
  42. Eklund, T. (1989) In Mechanisms of Action of Food Preservation Procedures, Ed G.W. Gould, Elsevier, London.Google Scholar
  43. Eklund, T. and Nes, I.F. (1991) Effect of biocides on DNA, RNA and Protein synthesis. In Mechanisms of Action of Chemical Biocides,Their Study and Exploitation, pp. 225–234.Eds Denyer, S.P. and Hugo, W.B. Technical Series No. 27, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.Google Scholar
  44. Elnima, N.I., Syed, A.A., Mekkawi, A.G. and Mossa, J.S. (1983) Antimicrobial activity of garlic and onion extracts. Pharmazie, 38 743–748.Google Scholar
  45. Farag, R.S., Daw, Z.Y., Hewedi, F.M. and El-Baroty, G.S.A. (1989) Antimicrobial activity of some egyptian spice essential oils. J. Food Protect., 52 665–667.Google Scholar
  46. Farell, K.T. (1985) Spices,Condiments and Seasonings. AVI, Westport, Conn.Google Scholar
  47. Fedeli, E. (1977) Lipids of olives. Prog. Chem. Fats and other Lipids, 15 57.Google Scholar
  48. Fedeli, E. and Camurati, F. (1974) 12th World Congress,ISF, Paper 75, Milan, Sept. 2–7.Google Scholar
  49. Federici, F. and Bongi, G. (1983) Improved method for isolation of bacterial inhibitors from oleuropein hydrolysis. App!. Environ. Microbio!., 46(3) 509–510.Google Scholar
  50. Fisher, C. (1992) Phenolic compounds in spices. In Phenolic Compounds in Food and their Effect on Health I,Analysis,Occurrence,and Chemistry (eds Chi-Tang Ho, Chang Y. Lee, Mou-Tuan Huang). ACS symposium (No. 506) Series, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  51. Fleming, H.P. and Etchells, J.L. (1967) Occurrence of an inhibitor of lactic acid bacteria in green olives. Appl. Microbiol., 15 1178–1184.Google Scholar
  52. Fleming, H.P., Walter, W.M. and Etchells, J.L. (1973) Antimicrobial properties of oleuropein and products of its hydrolysis from green olives. Appl. Microbiol., 26 777–782.Google Scholar
  53. Fleuriet, A., Macheix, J.J., Andary, C. and Villemur, P. (1984) Identification and quantita-tive determination of verbascoside by HPLC in the fruit of six cultivars of Olea europaea L. C.R. Acad. Sci. Ser. III, 299 253–256.Google Scholar
  54. Fogg, A.H. and Lodge, R.M. (1945) The mode of antibacterial action of phenols in relation to drug-fastness. Trans. Faraday Soc., 41 359–365.Google Scholar
  55. Friend, J. (1979) Phenolic substances and plant disease. In Biochemistry of Plant Phenolics, pp. 557–588, Eds Swain, T., Harbome, J.B. and Van Sumere, C.F., New York, Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  56. Fu, H-Y., Huang, T-C. and Ho, C-T. (1992) Changes in phenolic compounds during plum processing. In Phenolic Compounds in Food and their Effect on Health I,Analysis,Occurrence,and Chemistry (eds Chi-Tang Ho, Chang Y. Lee, Mou-Tuan Huang) pp. 287–295. ACS symposium (No. 506) Series, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  57. Galli, A., Franzetti, L. and Briguglio, D. (1985) Antimicrobial properties in vitro of essential oils and extract of spices used for food. Industr. Aliment., 24 463–466.Google Scholar
  58. Gariboldi, P., Jommi, G. and Verotta, L. (1986) Secoiridoids from Olea europaea. Phytochem., 25(4) 865–869.Google Scholar
  59. Garrido-Fernandez, A. and Vaughn, R.H. (1978) Utilization of oleuropein by microorganisms associated with olive fermentations. Can. J. Microbiol., 24 680–684.Google Scholar
  60. Girolami, V., Pellizzari, G., Ragazzi, E. and Veronese, G. (1975) Prospects of increased egg production in the rearing of Dacus oleae Gmelin by the use of chemical stimuli. Meeting on Sterility Principle for Insect Control, 1974, Vienna, pp. 209–217.Google Scholar
  61. Girolami, V., Vianello, A., Strapazzon, A., Ragazzi, E. and Veronese, G. (1981) Ovipositional deterrents in Dacus oleae. Ent. Exp. Appl., 29 177–188.Google Scholar
  62. Gonul, S.E. and Karapinar, M. (1987) Inhibitory effect of linden flower (Tilia flower) on the growth of foodborne pathogens. Food Microbiol., 4 97–100.Google Scholar
  63. Gonzalez, M.D., Moreno, E., Quevedo Sarmiento, J. and Ramos Cormezana, A. (1990) Studies on antibacterial activity of waste waters from olive oil mills: Inhibitory activity of phenolic and fatty acids. Chemosphere, 20(3/4) 423–432.Google Scholar
  64. Gourama, H. and Bullerman, L.B. (1987) Effect of oleuropein on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus. Lebensm.-Wiss.u.-Technol., 20 226–228.Google Scholar
  65. Gourama, H., Letutour, B., Tantaoui-Elaraki, A., Benbya, M. and Bullerman, L.B. (1989) Effects of oleuropein, tyrosol and caffeic acid on the growth of mold isolated from olives. J. Food Protect., 52(4) 264–266.Google Scholar
  66. Gutierrez, F., Albi, M.A., Palma, R., Rios, J.J. and Olias, J.M. (1989) Bitter taste of virgin olive oil: Correlation of sensory evaluation and instrumental HPLC analysis. J. Food Sci.,54(1) 68–70.Google Scholar
  67. Haenen (1985) Phytoalexins: antibiotic substances from higher plants. Pharm. Int.,Aug. 194–196.Google Scholar
  68. Hagerman, A.E. (1992) Tannin—Protein Interactions. In Phenolic Compounds in Food and their Effect on Health I,Analysis,Occurrence,and Chemistry, pp. 236–247 (eds Chi-Tang Ho, Chang Y. Lee, Mou-Tuan Huang) ACS symposium Series No. 506, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  69. Hall, M.A. and Maurer, A.J. (1986) Spice extracts and propylene Glycols as inhibitors of Clostridium botulinum in turkey frankfurter slurries. Poult. Sci.,65 1167–1171.Google Scholar
  70. Harborne, J.B. (1980) Plant phenolics. In Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology. New series V.8 (eds E.A. Bell and B.V. Chartwood), pp. 329–402.Google Scholar
  71. Hargreaves, L.L., Jarvis, B., Rawlinson, A.P. and Wood, J.M. (1975) The Antimicrobial Effects of Spices,Herbs and Extracts from these and Other Food Plants. The British Food Manufacturing Industries Research Association Scientific and Technical Surveys No. 88.Google Scholar
  72. Heisy, R.M. and Gorham, B.K. (1992) Antimicrobial effects of plant extracts on Streptococcus mutans,Candida albicans,Trichophyton subrum and other microorganisms. Ltr Appl. Microbiol., 14 136–139.Google Scholar
  73. Ho, C-T. (1992) Phenolic compounds in Food. In Phenolic Compounds in Food and their Effect on Health I,Analysis,Occurrence,and Chemistry (eds Chi-Tang Ho, Chang Y. Lee, Mou-Tuan Huang). ACS symposium Series, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  74. Hugo, W.B. (1991) A review: A brief history of heat and chemical preservation and disinfection. J. Appl. Bacteriol., 71 9–18.Google Scholar
  75. Inouye, H., Nishioka, T. and Kaniwa, M. (1975) Glucosides of Fraxinus japonica. Phytochemistry, 4 304.Google Scholar
  76. Ismaiel, A.A. and Pierson, M.D. (1990) Inhibition of germination, outgrowth and vegetative growth of Clostridium botulinum 67B by spice oils. J. Food Protect., 53 755–758.Google Scholar
  77. Judis, J. (1963) Studies on the mechanism of action of phenolic disinfectants II. J. Pharm. Sci., 52(2) 126–131.Google Scholar
  78. Julius-Bijlsma, J.A. (1961) A review of the investigations of hypotensive substances from the leaves of the olive tree, Olea europaea L. Pharm. Weekblad, 96 417–434.Google Scholar
  79. Juven, B. and Henis, Y. (1970) Studies on the antimicrobial activity of olive phenolic compounds. J. App. Bacteriol., 33, 721–732.Google Scholar
  80. Juven, B., Samish, Z. and Henis, Y. (1968a) Identification of oleuropein as a natural inhibitor of lactic fermentation of green olives. Isr. J. Agric. Res., 18 137–138.Google Scholar
  81. Juven, B., Samish, Z., Henis, Y. and Jacoby, B. (1968b) Mechanism of enhancement of lactic acid fermentation of green olives by alkali and heat treatments. J. Appl. Bacteriol., 31 200–207.Google Scholar
  82. Juven, B., Henis, Y. and Jacoby, B. (1972) Studies on the mechanism of antimicrobial action of oleuropein. J. Appl. Bacteriol., 35 559–567.Google Scholar
  83. Kabara, J.J. (1991) Phenols and chelators. In Food Preservatives, Eds Russell, N.J. and Gould, G.W., pp. 200–214. Blackie, Glasgow.Google Scholar
  84. Kabara, J.J. and Eklund, T. (1991) Organic acids and esters. In Food Preservatives, Eds Russell, N.J. and Gould, G.W., pp. 44–71. Blackie, Glasgow.Google Scholar
  85. Karaioannoglou, P.G., Mantis, A.J. and Panetsos, A.G. (1977) The effect of garlic extract on lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum) in culture media. Lebensm.-Wiss.u.Technol., 10 148–150.Google Scholar
  86. Karapinar, M. (1985) The effect of citrus oils and some spices on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999. Inter. J. Food Microbiol., 2, 239–245.Google Scholar
  87. Katayama, T. and Nagai, I. (1960) Chemical significance of the volatile components of spices in the food preservative viewpoint. VI. Structure and antibacterial activity of terpenes. Bull. Japanese Soc. Scient. Fisher., 26 29–32.Google Scholar
  88. Khurana, A.L. (1992) High-Performance Liquid chromatographic analysis of phenolic compounds in foods. In Phenolic Compounds in Food and their Effect on Health I,Analysis,Occurrence,and Chemistry (eds Chi-Tang Ho, Chang Y. Lee, Mou-Tuan Huang), pp. 77–84, ACS symposium Series, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  89. Kiritsakis, A. and Markakis, P. (1987) Olive oil: A review. In Advances in Food Research Vol. 31, eds Chichester, C.O., Mrak, E.M. and Schweigert, B.S. Academic Press.Google Scholar
  90. Kivanc, M. and Akgul, A. (1990) Mould growth on black table olives and prevention by sorbic acid, methyl-eugenol and spice essential oil. Die Nahrung,34 369–373.Google Scholar
  91. Kubo, I. and Matsumoto, A. (1984a) Secreted oleanolic acid on the cuticle of Olea europaea; a chemical barrier to fungus attack. Experientia, 40 937–938.Google Scholar
  92. Kubo, I. and Matsumoto, A. (1984b) Molluscicides from Olea europaea and their efficient isolation by countercurrent chromatographies. J. Agric. Food Chem., 32 687–688.Google Scholar
  93. Kubo, I.,Matsumoto, A. and Takase, I. (1985) A multichemical defense mechanism of bitter olive Olea europaea (Oleaceae). Is oleuropein a phytoalexin precursor? J. Chem. Ecol., 11(2) 251–263.Google Scholar
  94. Kubo, I., Muroi, H. and Himejima, M. (1992) Antimicrobial activity of green tea flavour components and their combination effects. J. Agric. Food Chem., 40 245–248.Google Scholar
  95. Kubo, I. and Himejima, M. (1991) Anethole, a synergist of polygodial against filamentous microorganisms. J. Agric. Food Chem., 39 2290–2292.Google Scholar
  96. Kuwajima, H., Uemura, T., Takaishi, K., Inoue, K. and Inouye, H. (1988) A secoiridoid glucoside from Olea europaea. Phytochemistry, 27(6) 1757–1759.Google Scholar
  97. Liang, Y.R., Liu, Z.S., Xu, Y.R. and Hu, Y.L. (1990) A study on chemical composition of two special green teas (Camellia sinensis). J. Sci. Food Agric.,53 541–548.Google Scholar
  98. Llewellyn, G.C., Burkett, M.L. and Eadie, T. (1981) Potential mold growth, aflatoxin production and antimycotic activity of selected natural spices and herbs. J. Assoc. Off Anal. Chem., 64 955–960.Google Scholar
  99. Mansfield, J.W. (1986) Induced antimicrobial systems in plants. In Natural Antimicrobial Systems. Eds G.W. Gould, M.E. Rhodes-Roberts, A.K. Charnley, R.M. Cooper and R.G. Board. Bath University Press, Bath, pp. 191–205.Google Scholar
  100. Mantis, A.J., Karaioannoglou, P.G., Spanos. G.P. and Panetsos, A.G. (1978) The effect of garlic extract on Food Poisoning bacteria in culture media I. Staphylococcus aureus. Lebensm. -Wins. u. -Technol., 11 26–29.Google Scholar
  101. Mantis, A.J., Koidis, P.A., Karaioannoglou, P.G. and Panetsos, A.G. (1979) Effect of garlic extract on food poisoning bacteria. Lebensm.-Wiss.u.-Technol., 12 330–332.Google Scholar
  102. Martin, S.A. (1992) Effects of extracellular pH and phenolic monomers on glucose uptake by Fibrobacter succinogenes S85. Ltr Appl. Microbiol., 15 26–28.Google Scholar
  103. Mas, M. and Peinado, J.M. (1984) Phenol effect on the growth of yeasts isolated from ‘alpechin’. Cienc. Biolog.,9 205–209.Google Scholar
  104. Mazet, G. (1941) Gaz. Med. de France 1 Jan. 1938, door Rev. Phytotherap., 5 27.Google Scholar
  105. Mitcher, L.A. (1975) Antimicrobial agents from higher plants. In Recent Advances in Phytochemistry,Vol. 9. Ed. V.C. Runeckles. Plenum Press, London, pp. 243–282.Google Scholar
  106. Moreno, E., Perez, J., Ramos Cormezana, A. and Martinez, J. (1987) Antimicrobial effect of waste waters from olive oil extraction plants selecting soil bacteria by incubation with diluted wastes. Microbios., 51 169–174.Google Scholar
  107. Movsumov, I.S., Aliev, A.M. and Tagieva, Z.D. (1987) Pharmacochemical studies of the Olea in the Azerbaijan S.S.R. Farmatsiya Mosc., 36(2) 32–34.Google Scholar
  108. Nagy, J.G. and Tengerdy, R.P. (1967) Antibacterial action of essential oils of Artemisis as an ecological factor. App!. Microbiol., 15 819–821.Google Scholar
  109. Newmark, H.L. (1992) Plant phenolic compounds as inhibitors of mutagenesis and carcino-genesis. In Phenolic Compounds in Food and their Effect on Health II,Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention (eds Mou-Than Huang, Chi-Tang Ho, Chang Y. Lee), pp. 48–52. ACS symposium Series No. 507, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  110. Nychas, G.J.E., Tassou, C.C. and Board, R.G. (1990) Phenolic extract from olives: inhibition of Staphylococcus aureuß. Ltr Appl. Microbiol., 10 217–220.Google Scholar
  111. Okuda, Y., Yoshida, T. and Hatano, T. (1992) Polyphenols from Asian plants. In Phenolic Compounds in Food and their Effect on Health II,Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention (eds Mou-Than Huang, Chi-Tang Ho, Chang Y. Lee), pp. 160–183. ACS symposium Series No. 507, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  112. Omar, M.M. (1992) Phenolic compounds in botanical extracts used in foods, flavors, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. In Phenolic Compounds in Food and their Effect on Health I,Analysis,Occurrence,and Chemistry (eds Chi-Tang Ho, Chang Y. Lee, Mou-Tuan Huang). ACS symposium Series, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  113. Panizzi, L.M., Scarpati, J.M. and Oriente, E.G (1960) Constituzione della oleuropeina, glucoside amaro e ad azione ipotensiva dell’olivo. Nota Il Gazz. Chim. Ital., 90 1449–1485.Google Scholar
  114. Paredes, M.J., Moreno, E., Ramos-Cormezana, A. and Martinez, J. (1987) Characteristics of soil after pollution with waste waters from olive oil extraction plants. Chemosphere,16 1557–1564.Google Scholar
  115. Paredes, M.J., Monteoliva Sanchez, M., Moreno, E., Perez, J. Ramos Cormezana, A. and Martinez, J. (1986) Effect of wastewaters from olive oil extraction plants on the bacterial population of soil. Chemosphere, 15 659–664.Google Scholar
  116. Parker, M.S. and Bradley, T.J. (1968) A reversible inhibition of the germination of bacterial spores. Can. J. Microbiol., 14 745–746.Google Scholar
  117. Paster, N., Juven, B.J. and Harshemesh, H. (1988) Antimicrobial activity and inhibition of aflatoxin Bl formation by olive plant tissue constituents. J. Appl. Bacteriol., 64 293–297.Google Scholar
  118. Paster, N., Juven, B.J., Shaaya, E., Menasherov, M., Nitzan, R., Weisslowicz, H. and Ravid, U. (1990) Inhibitory effect of oregano and thyme essential oils on moulds and foodbome bacteria. Ltr Appl. Microbiol., 11 33–37.Google Scholar
  119. Payne, K., Rico Munoz, E. and Davidson, P.M. (1989) The antimicrobial activity of phenolic compounds against Listeria monocytogenes and their effectiveness in a model milk system. J. Food Protect., 52(3) 151–153.Google Scholar
  120. Perez, J., De la Rubia, T., Moreno, J. and Martinez, J. (1992) Phenolic content and antibacterial activity of olive oil waste waters. Envir. Toxicol. Chem., 11 489–495.Google Scholar
  121. Pierson, M.D., Smoot, L.A. and Vantassell, K.R. (1980) Inhibition of Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus by butylated hydroxyanisole and the propyl ester of phydroxybenzoic acid. J. Food Protect., 43(3) 191–194.Google Scholar
  122. Prindle, R.F. and Wright, E.S. (1977) Phenolic compounds. In Disinfection,Sterilisation and Preservation, ed. Block, S.S., pp. 219–251. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger.Google Scholar
  123. Prochaska, H.J. and Talalay, P. (1992) Phenolic antioxidants as inducers of anticarcinogenic enzymes. In Phenolic Compounds in Food and their Effect on Health I,Analysis,Occurrence,and Chemistry (eds Chi-Tang Ho, Chang Y. Lee, Mou-Tuan Huang). ACS symposium Series, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  124. Radford, S.A., Tassou, C.C., Nychas, G.J.E. and Board, R.G. (1991) The effect of different oils on the death rate of Salmonella enteritidis in homemade mayonnaise. Ltr Appl. Microbiol., 12 125–128.Google Scholar
  125. Ragazzi, E. and Veronese, G. (1967) Richerche sui constituenti idrosolubili delle olive. Nota I. Zuccheri e fenoli. Ann. Chim., 57 1396–1397.Google Scholar
  126. Rico Munoz, E. and Davidson, P.M. (1983) Effect of corn oil and casein on the antimicrobial activity of phenolic antioxidants. J. Food Sci., 48 1284–1288.Google Scholar
  127. Rico Munoz, E., Bargiota, E. and Davidson, P.M. (1987) Effect of selected phenolic compounds on the membrane-bound adenosine triphosphate of Staphylococcus aureus. Food Microbiol., 4 239–249.Google Scholar
  128. Robach, M.C., Smoot, L.A. and Pierson, M.D. (1977) Inhibition of Vibrio parahaemoliticus 04:K11 by BHA. J. Food Protect., 40 549–551.Google Scholar
  129. Robach, M.C. and Pierson, M.D. (1979) Inhibition of Clostrodium botulinum Types A and B by phenolic antioxidants. J. Food Protect., 42 858–861.Google Scholar
  130. Robach, M.C. and Stateler, C.L. (1980) Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by potassium sorbate in combination with sodium chloride, tertiary butylhydroquinone, butylated hydroxyanisole or EDTA. J. Food Protect., 43 208–211.Google Scholar
  131. Robishaud, J.L. and Noble, A.C. (1990) Astrigency and bitterness of selected phenolics in wine. J. Sci. Food Agric., 53 343–353.Google Scholar
  132. Rodriguez, M.M., Perez, J., Ramos Cormenzana, A. and Martinez, J. (1988) Effect of extracts obtained from olive oil mill wastewaters on Bacillus megaterium ATCC 33085. J. Appl. Bacteriol., 64 219–226.Google Scholar
  133. Ruiz-Barba, J.L. and Jimenez-Diaz, R. (1989) Actividad antibacteriana de las salmueras de aceitunas verdes sobre Lactobacillus plantarum. Grasas y Aceites, 40 102–108.Google Scholar
  134. Ruiz-Barba, J.L., Garrido-Fernandez, A.G. and Jimenez-Diaz, R. (1991) Bactericidal action of oleuropein extracted from green olives against Lactobacillus plantarum. Ltr Appl. Microbiol., 12 65–68.Google Scholar
  135. Ruiz Barba, J.L., Brenes Balbuena, R., Jimenez Diaz, R., Garcia Garcia, P. and Garrido Fernandez, A. (1993) Inhibition of Lactobacillus plantarum by polyphenols extracted from two different kinds of olive brine. J. Appl. Bacte,74 15–19.Google Scholar
  136. Ruiz-Barba, J.L., Rios-Sanchez, R.M., Fedriani Triso, C., Olias, J.M., Rios, J.L. and Jimenez-Diaz, R. (1990) Bactericidal effect of phenolic compounds from green olives against L. plantarum. System. Appl. Microbiol. s 13 199–205.Google Scholar
  137. Sakanaka, S., Kim, M., Taniguchi, M. and Yamamoto, T. (1989) Antibacterial substances in Japanese green tea extract against Streptococcus mutans, a Cariogenic Bacterium. Agric. Biol. Chem., 53 2307–2311.Google Scholar
  138. Sakanaka, S., Sato, T., Kim, M. and Yamamoto, T. (1990) Inhibitory effects of green tea polyphenols on glucan synthesis and cellular adherence of cariogenic Streptococci. Agric. Biol. Chem., 54 2925–2929.Google Scholar
  139. Saleem, Z.M. and Al-Delaimy, K.S. (1982) Inhibition of Bacillus ceresu by garlic extracts. J. Food Protect., 45 1007–1010.Google Scholar
  140. Salmeron, J., Jordano, R. and Pozo, R. (1990) Antimycotic and antiaflatoxigenic activity of oregano (Origanum vulgare, L.) and Thyme (Thymus vulgaris, L.). J. Food Protect., 53 697–700.Google Scholar
  141. Sankaran, R. (1976) Comparative antimicrobial action of certain antioxidants and preservatives. J. Food Sci. Technol., 13 203–204.Google Scholar
  142. Shahidi, F. (1992) Phenolic compounds of Brassica oilseeds. In Phenolic Compounds in Food and their Effect on Health I,Analysis,Occurrence,and Chemistry, pp. 130–142 (eds Chi-Tang Ho, Chang Y. Lee, Mou-Tuan Huang). ACS symposi!cm Series No. 506, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  143. Sharma, A.A., Tewari, G.M., Shrikhande, A.J., Padwal-Desai, S.R. and Bandyopadhyay, C. (1979) Inhibition of aflatoxin-producing fungi by onion extracts. J. Food Sci., 44 1545–1547.Google Scholar
  144. Shelef, L.A. (1983) Antimicrobial effects of spices. J. Food Safety, 6 29–44.Google Scholar
  145. Shelef, L.A., Naglik, O.A., Bogen, D.W. (1980) Sensitivity of some common food-borne bacteria to the spices sage, rosemary and allspice. J. Food Sci., 45 1042–1044.Google Scholar
  146. Sierra, G. (1970) Inhibition of the amino acid induced initiation of germination of bacterial spores by chlorocresol. Can. J. Microbiol., 16 51–52.Google Scholar
  147. Spanos, G.A. and Wrolstad, R.E. (1992) Phenolics of apple, pear, and white grape juices and their changes with processing and storage. J. Agric. Food Chem., 40 1478–1487.Google Scholar
  148. Spanos, G.A., Wrolstad, R.E. and Heatherbell, D.A. (1990) Influence of processing and storage on the phenolic composition of apple juice. J. Agric. Food Chem., 38 1572–1579.Google Scholar
  149. Stecchini, M.L., Sarais, I. and Giavedoni, P. (1993) Effect of essential oils on Aeromonas hydrophila in a culture medium and in cooked pork. J. Food Protect., 56 406–409.Google Scholar
  150. Stern, N.J., Smoot, L.A. and Pierson, M.D. (1979) Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus growth by combinations of butylated hydroxyanisole, sodium chloride and pH. J. Food Sci.,44 710–712.Google Scholar
  151. Tassou, C.C. (1993) Microbiology of olives with emphasis on the antimicrobial activity of phenolic compounds. Ph.D Thesis, Univ. of Bath, Bath, UK.Google Scholar
  152. Tassou, C.C. and Nychas, G.J.E. (1994) Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by olive phenolics in broth and in a model food system. J. Food Protect., 56. Google Scholar
  153. Tassou, C.C., Nychas, G.J.E. and Board, R.G. (1991) Effect of phenolic compounds and oleuropein on germination of Bacillus cereus T spores. Biotech. Appl. Biochem., 13 231–237.Google Scholar
  154. Terazawa, M. (1986) Phenolic compounds in living tissues of woods. VI. Ligstroside and oleuropein in Fraxinus mandshurica var. japonica and Syringa vulgaris L. and their seasonal variation in them. Res. Bull. of Coll. Exper. Forests, 43 109–126.Google Scholar
  155. Thompson, D.P. (1991) Effect of butylated hydroxyanisole on conidial germination of toxigenic species of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. J. Food Protect., 54 375–377.Google Scholar
  156. Ting, E.W.T. and Deibel, K.E. (1992) Sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes to spices at two temperatures. J. Food Safety, 12 129–137.Google Scholar
  157. Toda, M., Okubo, S., Hiyoshi, R. and Shimamura, T. (1989) The bactericidal activity of tea and coffee. Ltr Appl. Microbiol., 8 123–125.Google Scholar
  158. Toda, M., Okubo, S., Ikigai, H., Suzuki, T., Suzuki, Y. and Shimamura, T. (1991) The protective activity of tea against infection by Vibrio cholerae 01. J. Appl. Bacteriol., 70 109–112.Google Scholar
  159. Tokutake, N., Miyoshi, H. and Iwamura, H. (1992) Effects of phenolic respiration inhibitors on cytochrome bel complex of rat-liver mitochondria. Biosc. Biotech. Biochem., 56 919–923.Google Scholar
  160. Torres, A.M., Mau-Lastovicka, T. and Rezaaiyan, R. (1987) Total phenolics and HPLC of phenolic acids of avocado. J. Agric. Food Chem., 35 921–925.Google Scholar
  161. Tranter, H.S., Tassou, C.C. and Nychas, G.J. (1993) The effect of the olive phenolic compound, oleuropein, on growth and enterotoxin B production by Staphylococcus aureus. J. Appl. Bacteriol., 74 253–260.Google Scholar
  162. Tsukamoto, H., Hisada, S. and Nishibe, S. (1985) Coumarin and secoiridoid glucosides from bark of Olea africana and Olea capensis. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 33 396–399.Google Scholar
  163. Vas, K. (1953) Mechanism of antimicrobial action. Interference with the cytoplasmic mem-brane. Agrokemia es Talajtan, 2, 1–16 (Chem. Abstr., 1954, 48, 794d).Google Scholar
  164. Vazquez Roncero, A., Graciani-Constante, E. and Maestro-Duran, R. (1974) Phenolic compounds in olive fruits. I. Poliphenols in pulpe. Grasas y Aceites, 25 269–279.Google Scholar
  165. Vinter, V. (1970) Germination and outgrowth: Effect of inhibitors. J. Appl. Bacteriol., 33 50–59.Google Scholar
  166. Walter, W.M., Fleming, H.P. and Etchells, J.L. (1973) Preparation of antimicrobial compounds by hydrolysis of oleuropein from green olives. Appl. Microbiol., 26 773–776.Google Scholar
  167. Wanda, P., Cupp, J., Snipes, W., Keith, A., Rucinsky, T., Polish, L. and Sands, J. (1976) Inactivation of the enveloped bacteriophage o6 by butylated hydro-xytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 10 96.Google Scholar
  168. Weinstein, L.I. and Albersheirm, P. (1983) Host pathogen interactions. XXIII. The mechanism of antimicrobial action of glycinol, a plerocarpan phytoalexin synthesized by soybeans. Plant Physiol.,72 557–560.Google Scholar
  169. Weisburger, J.H. (1992) Mutagenic, Carcinogenic and Chemopreventine effects of phenols and catechols. In Phenolic Compounds in Food and their Effect on Health II,Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention (eds Mou-Than Huang, Chi-Tang Ho, Chang Y. Lee), pp. 35–48. ACS symposium Series No. 507, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  170. Wilkins, K.M. and Board, R.G. (1989) Natural antimicrobial systems. In Mechanisms of Action and Food Preservation Procedures, ed. G.W. Gould, pp. 285–362. Elsevier, London.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. J. E. Nychas

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations