Structure and Encapsidation of Transmissible Gastroenteritis Coronavirus (TGEV) Defective Interfering Genomes
Serial undiluted passages were performed with the PUR46 strain of TGEV in swine testis (ST) cells. Total cellular RNA was analyzed at different passages after orthophosphate metabolic labeling. Three new defective RNA species of 24, 10.5, and 9.5 kb (DI-A, DI-B, and DI-C respectively) were detected at passage 30, which were highly stable and significantly interfered with helper mRNA synthesis in subsequent passages. By Northern hybridization DIs A, B, and C were detected in purified virions at amounts similar to those of helper RNA. Standard and defective TGEV virions could be sorted in sucrose gradients, indicating that defective and full-length genomes are independently packaged. cDNA synthesis of DI-B and DI-C RNAs was performed by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to give four fragments in each case. Cloning and sequencing of the DI-C PCR products showed that the smallest DI particle comprises 9.5 kb and has 4 discontinuous regions of the genome. It contains 2.1 kb from the 5′-end of the genome, about 7 kb from gene lb, the first 24 nucleotides of the S gene, 12 nucleotides of ORF 7, and the 0.4 kb of theUTR at the 3′-end.
KeywordsInfectious Bronchitis Virus Mouse Hepatitis Virus Sucrose Cushion Roller Bottle Discontinuous Region