Advertisement

Efficacy of an Inactivated Vaccine against Clinical Disease Caused by Canine Coronavirus

  • R. Fulker
  • T. Wasmoen
  • R. Atchison
  • H-J. Chu
  • W. Acree
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 380)

Abstract

Canine Coronavirus (CCV) is a causative agent of diarrhea in dogs. The reproduction of severe clinical disease with experimental CCV infection has been difficult. We have recently developed a CCV challenge model which reproduced clinical signs of disease in susceptible dogs. The following study was designed to determine whether immunization with an inactivated CCV vaccine would protect dogs from clinical disease induced using this model. Dogs (n=13) were vaccinated with an inactivated CCV vaccine. Vaccinates and controls (n=5) were orally inoculated with virulent CCV virus and treated with dexamethasone on days 0,2,4, and 6 after virus challenge. Control dogs developed clinical signs including diarrhea, dehydration, anorexia, depression, and nasal and ocular discharge. Diarrhea was noted in 80% of the controls and 60% progressed to a severe watery or bloody diarrhea that persisted for multiple days. Conversely, only 2/13 (15%) vaccinates developed mild diarrhea and none developed bloody diarrhea. The control dogs averaged 10.8 days of diarrhea compared to 1.4 days for vaccinates over the 21 day observation period. In addition to reduced clinical signs, the number of days of virus shedding and the level of CCV in feces was different for controls (100% shed virus) and vaccinates (38% shed virus). This study demonstrates that vaccination with an inactivated CCV vaccine can significantly reduce not only viral replication, but the occurrence of clinical disease following a virulent CCV infection.

Keywords

Nasal Discharge Bloody Diarrhea Patent CooperatIOn Treaty Severe Clinical Disease CRFK Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Binn, LN., Lazar E.C., Keenan K.P., Huxsoll D.L., Marchwicki R.H., Strano A.J. 1974. Recovery and characterization of a coronavirus from military dogs with diarrhea. Proceedings of the 78th Meeting of the U.S. Animal Health Association, pp359–366.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Appel M., Meunier P., Pollock R., et al. 1980. Canine Viral Enteritis. Canine Pract. 7:22–36.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Miller J., Evermann J., Ott, R. 1980. Immunofluorescence test for canine coronavirus and parvovirus. West Vet. 18: 14–19.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tuchiya, K., Horimoto, T., Azetka, M., Takahashi, E., Konishi, S. 1991. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of canine coronavirus and its antibody in dogs. Vet. Microbiol. 26: 41–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Herbst, W., Zhang, X.M., and Schliesser, T. 1988. The seroprevalence of coronavirus infections in the dog in West Germany. Berl. Munch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr. 101: 381–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rimmelzwann, G.F., Groen, J., Egberink, H., Borst, G.H., UtydeHaag, F.G., Osterhaus, A.D. 1991. The use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay systems for serology and antigen detection in parvovirus, coronavirus and rotavirus infections in dogs in the Netherlands. Vet. Microbiol. 26: 25–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Appel M. 1987. Canine coronavirus. In: Virus Infections of Carnivores. Ed. M. Appel, Elsevier, New York, pp 115–122.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tennant, B.J., Gaskell, R.M., Kelly, D.F., Carter, S.D. 1991. Canine coronavirus infection in the dog following oronasal inoculation. Res. Vet. Sci. 51: 11–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wasmoen, T.L., Sebring, R.W., Blumer, B.M., Chavez, L.G., Chu, H-J., Acree, W.M. 1992. Examination of Koch’s postulates for Borrelia burgdorferi as the causative agent of limb/joint dysfunction in dogs with borreliosis. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 201: 412–418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Appel, M.J.G. 1988. Does canine coronavirus augment the effects of subsequent parvovirus infection? Vet. Med. 83:360–366 .Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Acree, W.M., Edwards, B., Black, J.W. Canine Coronavirus Vaccine. International Application Published under the Patent Cooperation Treaty, International publication date 3rd January 1985, number WO 85/00014, World Intellectual Property Organisation.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Fulker
    • 1
  • T. Wasmoen
    • 1
  • R. Atchison
    • 1
  • H-J. Chu
    • 1
  • W. Acree
    • 1
  1. 1.Fort Dodge LaboratoriesFort DodgeUSA

Personalised recommendations