Worldwide urbanization and its effects on birds

  • John M. Marzluff


Human populations are increasing and becoming predominantly urban. Resulting land cover changes reduce, perforate, isolate, and degrade bird habitat on local and global scales. I review: 1) urbanization of the Earth, and 2) published studies of bird responses to human settlement, and then: 3) suggest how and why birds respond to settlement. In a slight majority of studies, bird density increased, but richness and evenness decreased in response to urbanization. The most consistent effects of increasing settlement were increases in non-native species of birds, increases in birds able to nest on buildings (esp. swifts and swallows), increases in nest predation, and decreases in interior- and ground-nesting species. Effects of urbanization on hawks, owls, and cavity nesters were less consistent, in part being dependent on the surrounding habitat. The factors favoring species in urbanizing areas appear simpler than those reducing species. Increased availability of food was primary among factors benefiting species; predator reduction, reduced human persecution, and habitat enhancement were less important. Decreased habitat availability, reduced patch size, increased edge, increased non-native vegetation, decreased vegetative complexity, and increased nest predation were commonly associated with bird declines in response to human settlement. Urban planners and policy makers can profoundly affect how and where cities grow. Avian ecologists can help inform these important decisions by: 1) quantifying how the pattern of settlement affects birds and 2) understanding how bird populations and resulting communities change along entire gradients of urbanization.

Key words

Conservation density demography evenness food supplementation habitat fragmentation and loss human population land cover land use nest predation richness urbanization urban sprawl 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alberti, M., E. Botsford, and A. Cohen. 2001. Quantifying the urban gradient: linking urban planning and ecology, p. 89–115. In J. M. Marzluff, R. Bowman, and R. Donnelly [EDS.], Avian ecology and conservation in an urbanizing world. Kluwer Academic, Norwell,MA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aldrich, J. W., and R. W. Cofin. 1980. Breeding bird populations from forest to suburbia after thirty-seven years. American Birds 34:3–7.Google Scholar
  3. Arendt, R. G. 1996. Conservation design for subdivisions. Island Press. Washington,D.C.Google Scholar
  4. Askins, R. A., and M. J. Philbrick. 1987. Effect of changes in regional forest abundance on the decline and recovery of a forest bird community. Wilson Bull. 99:7–21.Google Scholar
  5. Batten, L. A. 1972. Breeding bird species diversity in relation to increasing urbanisation. Bird Study 19:157–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Batten, L. A. 1973. Population dynamics of suburban blackbirds. Bird Study 20:251–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beissinger, S. R., and D. R. Osborne. 1982. Effects of urbanization on avian community organization. Condor 84:75–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berry, B. J. L. 1990. Urbanization, p. 103–119. In B. L. Turner II, W. C Clark, R. W. Kates, J. F. Richards, J. T. Mathews, and W. B. Meyers [EDS.], The earth as transformed by human action. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,UK.Google Scholar
  9. Berry, M. E., C. E. Bock, and S. G. Haire. 1998. Abundance of diurnal raptors on open space grasslands in an urbanized landscape. Condor 100:601–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bezzel, E. 1985. Birdlife in intensively used rural and urban environments. Ornis Fenn. 62:90–95.Google Scholar
  11. Bird, D. M., D. E. Varland, and J. J. Negro [EDS.]. 1996. Raptors in human landscapes. Academic Press, London,UK.Google Scholar
  12. Blair, R. B. 1996. Land use and avian species diversity along an urban gradient. Ecol. Appl. 6:506–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blair, R. B. 2001. Creating a homogeneous avifauna, p. 461–488. In J. M. Marzluff, R. Bowman, and R. Donnelly [EDS], Avian ecology and conservation in and Urbanizing World. Kluwer Academic Press, Norwell,MA.Google Scholar
  14. Blanco, G., and T. Velasco. 1996. Bird-habitat relationships in an urban park during winter. Folia Zool. 451:35–42.Google Scholar
  15. Bloom, P. H., and M. D. McCrary. 1996. The urban buteo: red-shouldered hawks in southern California, p. 31–39. In Bird, D. M., D. E. Varland, and J. J. Negro [EDS.]. Raptors in human landscapes. Academic Press, London, UK.Google Scholar
  16. Bolger, D. T., T. A. Scott, and J. T. Rotenberry 1997. Breeding bird abundance in an urbanizing landscape in coastal southern California. Conserv. Biol. 11:406–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bosakowski, T., R. Speiser, D. G. Smith, and L. J. Niles. 1993. Loss of Cooper’s Hawk nesting habitat to suburban development Inadequate protection for a state-endangered species. J. Raptor Res. 27:26–30.Google Scholar
  18. Botelho, E. S., and P. C. Arrowood. 1996. Nesting success of western burrowing owls in natural and human-altered environments, p. 61–68. In Bird, D. M., D. E. Varland, and J. J. Negro [EDS.]. Raptors in human landscapes. Academic Press, London, UK.Google Scholar
  19. Brinkhoff, T. 2001. The principle agglomerations of the world. Google Scholar
  20. Brittingham, M. C.,and S. A. Temple. 1992. Use of winter bird feeders by Black-capped Chickadees. J. Wildlife Manage. 56:103–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brousseau, P., J. Lefebvre, and J. F. Giroux. 1996. Diet of Ring-billed Gull chicks in urban and non-urban colonies in Quebec. Colon. Waterbirds 19:22–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brown, L. R., Gardner, G., and B. Halweil. 1998. Beyond Malthus: sixteen dimensions of the population problem. Worldwatch Paper 143. Worldwatch Institute, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  23. Bullard, R. D. 2000. Anatomy of sprawl. p. 1–19 In R. D. Bullard, G. S. Johnson, and A. O Torres. [EDS.]. Sprawl City. Island Press. Washington, D.C..Google Scholar
  24. Buzbee, W. W. 2000. Urban sprawl and legal reform, p. 161–186. In R. D. Bullard, G. S. Johnson, and A. O Torres. [EDS.]. Sprawl City. Island Press. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  25. Butcher, G. S., W. A. Niering, W. J. Berry, and R. H. Goodwin. 1981. Equilibrium biogeography and the size of nature preserves: an avian case study. Oecologia 49:29–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Caccamise, D. F., L. M. Reed, L. S. DeLay, K. A. Bennett, and J. J. Dosch. 1996. The avian communities of a suburban grassland reugium: population studies at an airport in Northeastern United States. Acta Ornith. 31:3–13.Google Scholar
  27. Cicero, C. 1989. Avian community structure in a large urban park: controls of local richness and diversity. Land. Urban Plann 17:221–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Connell, J. H. Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs. Science 199:1302–1010.Google Scholar
  29. Cramp, S. 1980. Changes in the breeding birds of Inner London since 1900. Symposium on Urbanization.Google Scholar
  30. Cramp, S., and A. D. Tomlins. 1966. The birds of Inner London 1951-65. British Birds 59:209–233.Google Scholar
  31. Crooks, K. R. and M. E. Soulé. 1999. Mesopredator release and avifaunal extinctions in a fragmented system. Nature 400:563–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dabert, J. 1987. Breeding ecology of the feral pigeon Columbia livia f. domestica in Poznan, Poland. Acta Ornith. 23:177–195.Google Scholar
  33. Danielson, W. R., R. M. DeGraaf, and T. K. Fuller. 1997. Rural and suburban forest edges: effects on egg predators and nest predation rates. Landscape Urban Plann. 38:25–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Davis, A. M. and T. F. Glick. 1978. Urban ecosystems and island biogeography. Environ. Conserv 3:299–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. DeGraaf, R. M. 1991. Winter foraging guild structure and habitat associations in suburban bird communities. Land. Urban Plann. 21:173–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. DeGraaf, R. M, and J. M. Wentworth. 1986. Avian guild structure and habitat associations in suburban bird communities. Urban Ecology 9:399–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dowd, C. 1992. Effect of development on bird species composition of two urban forested wetlands in Staten Island, New York. J. Field Ornith. 63:455–461.Google Scholar
  38. Dulisz, B., and J. J. Nowakowski. 1996. The species diversity of the avifauna in built-up areas in the city of Olsztyn (NE Plonad). Acta Ornith. 31:33–38.Google Scholar
  39. Earlé, R. A. 1988. Reproductive isolation between urban and rural populations of cape sparrows and house sparrows. Acta Congressus Internationalis 19:1778–1786.Google Scholar
  40. Eden, S. F. 1985. The comparative breeding biology of magpies Pica pica in an urban and a rural habitat (Aves:Corvidae). J. Zool. 205:325–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Edgar, D. R., and G. P. Kershaw. 1994. The density and diversity of the bird populations in three residential communities in Edmonton, Alberta. Can. Field Nat. 108:156–161.Google Scholar
  42. Elvidge, CD., K. E. Baugh, E. A. Kihn, H. W. Kroehl, and E. R. Davis. 1997. Mapping city lights wit nighttime data from the DMSP Operational Linescan System. Photogramm. Eng. Rem. S. 63:727–734.Google Scholar
  43. Emlen, J. 1974. An urban bird community in Tucson, Arizona: Derivation, structure, regulation. Condor 76:184–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Emlen, J. T. 1974. An urban bird community in Tucson, Arizona: derivation, structure, regulation. Condor 76:184–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Engels, T. M., and C W. Sexton. 1994. Negative correlation of Blue Jays and Golden-cheeked Warblers near an urbanizing area. Conserv. Biol. 8:286–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. England, A. S., J. A. Estep, and W. R. Holt. 1995. Nest-site selection and reproductive performance of urban-nesting Swainson’s Hawks in the central valley of California. J. Raptor Res. 29:179–186.Google Scholar
  47. Erskine, A. J. 1992. A ten-year urban winter bird count in Sackville, New Brunswick. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 106:499–506.Google Scholar
  48. Erz, W. 1966. Ecological principles in the urbanization of birds. Ostrich Suppl. 6:357–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fonaroff, L. S. 1974. Urbanization, birds, and ecological change in Northwestern Trinidad. Biol. Conserv. 6:258–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fraissinet, M. 1989. Espansione della taccola, Corvus monedula, nei capoluoghi Italiani. Rivista Italiana Ornithologia 59:33–42.Google Scholar
  51. Friesen, L. E., P. F. Eagles, and R. J. MacKay. 1995. Effects of residental development on forest-dwelling neotropical migrant songbirds. Conserv. Biol 9:1408–1414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gavareski, C A. 1976. Relation of park size and vegetation to urban bird populations in Seattle, Washington. Condor 78:375–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gehlbach, F. R. 1988. Population and environmental features that promote adaptation to urban ecosystems: the case of Eastern Screech-owls (Otus asio) in Texas. Proceedings Congressus Internationalis Ornithologica 19:1809–1813.Google Scholar
  54. Gehlbach, F. R. 1994. The eastern screech owl: life history, ecology, and behavior in the suburbs and countryside. Texas A & M University Press, College Station,TX.Google Scholar
  55. Gehlbach, F. R. 1996. Eastern screech owls in suburbia: a model of raptor urbanization, p. 69–74. In Bird, D. M., D. E. Varland, and J. J. Negro [EDS.]. Raptors in human landscapes. Academic Press, London,UK.Google Scholar
  56. Germaine, S. S., S. S. Rosenstock, R. E. Schweinsburg, and W. S. Richardson. 1998. Relationships among breeding birds, habitat, and residential development in greater Tucson, Arizona. Ecol. Appl. 8:680–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gersh, J. 1996. Subdivide and conquer: concrete, condos, and the second conquest of the American West. Amicus Journal 18:14–20.Google Scholar
  58. Goszczynski, J., P. Jablonski, G. Lesinski, and J. Romanowski. 1993. Variation in diet of Tawny Owl Strix aluco L. along an urbanization gradient. Acta Ornith. 27:113–123.Google Scholar
  59. Gotfryd, A., and R. I. C. Hansell. Prediction of bird-community metrics in urban woodlots. p. 321–326 In J. Verner, M. L. Morrison, and C. J. Ralph [EDS.] Wildlife 2000: Modeling Habitat Relationships of Terrestrial Vertebrates. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  60. Green, R. J., C. P. Catterall, and D. N. Jones. 1989. Foraging and other behaviour of birds in subtropical and temperate suburban habitats. Emu 89:216–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Guthrie, D. A. 1974. Suburban bird populations in Southern California. Am. Midl. Nat. 92: 461–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hogrefe, T. C, R. H. Yahner, and N. H. Piergallini. 1998. Depredation of artificial ground nests in a suburban versus a rural landscape. J. Penn. Acad. Science 72:3–6.Google Scholar
  63. Hohtola, E. 1978. Diferential changes in bird community structure with urbanisation: A study in Central Finland. Ornis Scand. 9:94–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hooper, R. G., E. F. Smith, H. S. Crawford, B. S. McGinnes, and V. J. Walker. 1975. Nesting bird populations in a new town. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 3:111–118.Google Scholar
  65. Hõrak, P. and J.-D. Lebreton 1998. Survival of adult Great Tits Parus major in relation to sex and habitat: a comparison of urban and rural populations. Ibis 140:205–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Horn, D. J. 1985. Breeding birds of a central Ohio woodlot in response to succession and urbanization. Ohio J. Science 85:34–40.Google Scholar
  67. Houghton, R. A. 1994. The worldwide extent of land-use change. BioScience 44:305–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Huhtalo, H., and O. Järvinen. 1977. Quantitative composition of the urban bird community in Tornio, Northern Finland. Bird Study 24:179–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hunt, G. L., Jr. 1972. Influence of food distribution and human disturbance on the reproductive success of Herring Gulls. Ecology 53:1051–1061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Johnston, R. F. 2001. Synanthropic birds of North America, p. 49–67. In J. M. Marzluff, R. Bowman, and R. Donnelly [EDS], Avian ecology and conservation in and Urbanizing World. Kluwer Academic Press, Norwell, MA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Jokimäki, J., and J. Suhonen. 1993. Effects of urbanization on the breeding bird species richness in Finland A biogeographical comparison. Ornis Fenn. 70:71–77.Google Scholar
  72. Jokimäki, J., J. Suhonen, K. Inki, and S. Jokinen. 1996. Biogeographical comparison of winter bird assemblages in urban environments in Finland. J. Biogeogr. 23:379–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Jones, D. N. 1981. Temporal changes in the suburban avifauna of an inland city. Aust. Wildl. Res. 8:109–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Józkowicz, A. and Górska-Klek. 1996. Activity patterns of the mute swans Cygnus olor wintering in rural and urban areas: a comparison. Acta Ornithologica 31: 45–51.Google Scholar
  75. Kentish, B. J., P. Dann, K. W. Lowe. 1995. Breeding biology of the Common Blackbird Turdus merula in Australia. Emu 95:233–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kerpez, T. A., and N. S. Smith. 1990. Competition between European Starlings and native woodpeckers for nest cavities in saguaros. Auk 107:367–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Knight, R. L. 1990. Ecological principles applicable to the management of urban ecosystems, p. 24–34. In E. A. Webb, and S. Q. Foster [EDS], Perspectives in urban ecology. Denver Museum of Natural History and Thorne Ecological Institute,Denver,CO.Google Scholar
  78. Konstantinov, V. M. 1996. Antropogenic transformations of bird communities in the forest zone of the Russian Plain. Acta Ornith. 31:53–58.Google Scholar
  79. Konstantinov, V. M., V. G. Babenko,and I. K. Barysheva. 1982. Numbers and some ecological features of synanthropic populations of the corvidae under the conditions of intensive urbanization. Zoologichesky Zhurnal 61:1837–1845.Google Scholar
  80. Konstantinov, V. M., W. Nowicki, and A. G. Pichurin. 1996. Birds in urban and suburban areas. Acta Ornithol. 31:59–66.Google Scholar
  81. Lancaster, R. K., and W. E. Rees. 1979. Bird communities and the structure of urban habitats. Can. J. Zool. 57:2358–2368.Google Scholar
  82. Landmann, A. 1991. Habitatpräferenzen, dynamik der raumnutzung und bestandsstruktur bei dorfamseln. J. Orn. 132:303–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Langen, T. A., D. T. Bolger, and T. J. Case. 1991. Predation on artificial bird nests in chaparral fragments. Oecologia 86:395–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Linehan, J. T. 1967. Breeding-bird populations in Delaware’s urban wodlots. Audubon Field Notes 21:641–647.Google Scholar
  85. Lo Valvo, M., T. La Mantia, and B. Massa. 1985. Bird population of Palermo’s urban and suburban areas. Boll. Zool. 52:347–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Luniak, M. and R. Mulsow. 1988. Ecological parameters in urbanization of the European Blackbird. Proceedings Congressus International is Ornithologica 19:1787–1793.Google Scholar
  87. Major, R. E., G. Gowing, and C. E. Kendal. 1996. Nest predation in Australian urban environments and the role of the Pied Currawong, Strepera graculina. Aust. J. Ecol 21:399–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Marzluff, J. M. 1997. Effects of urbanization and recreation on songbirds, p. 89–102. In W. M. Block and D. M. Finch [EDS.], Songbird ecology in southwestern ponderosa pine forests: a literature review. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RM-GTR-292. USDA Forest Service, Fort Collins, CO.Google Scholar
  89. Marzluff, J. M., and K. Ewing. 2001. Restoration of fragmented landscapes for the conservation of birds: a general framework and specific recommendations for urbanizing landscapes. Restoration Ecology.Google Scholar
  90. Marzluff, J. M., and N. Hamel. 2001. Land use issues, p. 659–673. In S. A. Levin [ED.], Encyclopedia of biodiversity. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Marzluff, J. M., K. J. McGowan, R. Donnelly, and R. L. Knight. 2001. Causes and consequences of expanding American Crow populations, p. 333–365. In J. M. Marzluff, R. Bowman, and R. Donnelly [EDS], Avian ecology and conservation in and Urbanizing World. Kluwer Academic Press, Norwell, MA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Marzluff, J. M., and M. Restani. 1999. The effects of forest fragmentation on avian nest predation, p. 155–169. In J. A. Rochelle, L. A. Lehmann, and J. Wisniewski, [EDS.], Forest wildlife and fragmentation: management and implications. Brill, Leiden, Netherlands.Google Scholar
  93. Marzluff, J. M., F. R. Gehlbach, and D. A. Manuwal. 1998. Urban environments: Influences on avifauna and challenges for the avian conservationist, p. 283–299. In J. M. Marzluff and R. Sallabanks [EDS.], Avian conservation: Research and management. Island Press, Washington,DC.Google Scholar
  94. Marzluff, J. M., M. G. Raphael, and R. Sallabanks. 2000. Understanding the effects of forest management on avian species. Wild. Soc. Bull. 28:1132–1143.Google Scholar
  95. Matthews, E. 1983. Global vegetation and land use: New high resolution data bases for climate studies. J. Climate Applications and Meterology 22:474–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Meyer, W. B., and B. L. Turner, II. 1992. Human population growth and global landuse/cover change. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 23:39–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Middleton, A. L. A. 1988. The urban environment and its potential as a refuge from brood parasitism by the brown-headed cowbird. Proceedings Congressus Internationalis Ornithologica 19:1802–1808.Google Scholar
  98. Mills, G. S., J. B. J. Dunning, and J. M. Bates. 1989. Effects of urbanization on breeding bird community structure in southwestern desert habitats. Condor 91:416–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Milone, M., and M. Grotta. 1983. Year-to-year variation in numbers of Herring Gulls nesting in Campania. Boll. Zool. 50:25–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mirabella, P., M. Fraissinet, and M. Milone. 1996. Breeding birds and territorial heterogeneity in Naples city (Italy). Acta Ornith. 31:25–31.Google Scholar
  101. Munyenyembe, F., J. Harris, and J. Hone. 1989. Determinants of bird populations in an urban area. Aust. J. Ecol. 14:549–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Natuhara, Y. and C. Imai. 1996. Spatial structure of avifauna along urban rural gradients. Ecological Research 11:1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Nilon, C. H., C. N. Long, and W. C. Zipperer. 1995. Effects of wildland development on forest bird communities. Landscape Urban Plann. 32:81–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Nowakowski, J. J. 1996. Changes in the breeding avifauna of Olsztyn (NE Poland) in the years 1968–1993. Acta Ornith. 31:39–44.Google Scholar
  105. Nuorteva, P. 1971. The synanthropy of birds as an expression of the ecological cycle disorder caused by urbanization. Ann. Zool. Fennici 8:547–553.Google Scholar
  106. O’Meara, M. 1999. Reinventing cities for people and the planet. Worldwatch Paper 147. Worldwatch Institute, Washington,D.C.Google Scholar
  107. Parker, J. W. 1996. Urban ecology of the Mississippi Kite. p. 45–52. In Bird, D. M., D. E. Varland, and J. J. Negro [EDS.]. Raptors in human landscapes. Academic Press, London,UK.Google Scholar
  108. Pitelka, F. A. 1942. High population of breeding birds within an artifical habitat. Condor 44:172–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Plesnik, J. 1990. Long-term study of some urban and extra-urban populations of the Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus L.). Bird Census and Atlas Studies. Proceedings XIth International Conference on bird census and atlas work. K. Stastiny and V. Bejcek. Prague:453–458.Google Scholar
  110. Richards, J. F. 1990. Land transformation, p. 163–178. In B. L. Turner II, W. C. Clark, W. R. Kates, J. F. Richards, J. T. Matthews, and W. B. Meyer [EDS.], The earth as transformed by human action. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,UK.Google Scholar
  111. Rolando, A., G. Maffei, C. Pulcher, and A. Giuso. 1997. Avian community structure along an urbanization gradient. Ital. J. Zool. 64:341–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Rosenberg, K. V., S. B. Terrill, and G. H. Rosenberg. 1987. Value of suburban habitats to desert riparian birds. Wilson Bull. 99:642–654.Google Scholar
  113. Rosenfield, R. N., J. Bielefeldt, J. L. Affeldt, and D. J. Beckman. 1996. Urban nesting biology of Cooper’s hawks in Wisconsin, p. 41–44. In Bird, D. M., D. E. Varland, and J. J. Negro [EDS.]. Raptors in human landscapes. Academic Press, London,UK.Google Scholar
  114. Rottenborn, S. C. 1999. Predicting the impacts of urbanization on riparian bird communities. Biol. Conserv. 88:289–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Rudzitis, G. and H. Johansen. 1989. Migration into western wilderness counties: causes and consequences. Western Wildlands 3:19–23Google Scholar
  116. Russo, C., and T. P. Young. 1997. Egg and seed removal at urban and suburban forest edges. Urban Ecosystems 1:171–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Ruszczyk, A., J. J. S. Rodrigues, T. M. T. Roberts, M. M. A. Bendati, R. S. del Pino, J. C. V Marques, and M. T. Q. Melo. 1987. Distribution patterns of eight bird species in the urbanization gradient of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Ciéncia e Cultura 39:14–19.Google Scholar
  118. Schmidt, K. H. 1988. Site fidelity and isolation of great tits (Parus major) in urban habitats. Proceedings International Ornithological Congress 19:1794–1801.Google Scholar
  119. Senra, A. and E. E. Alés. 1992. The decline of the white stork Ciconia ciconia population of western Andalusia between 1976 and 1988: causes and proposals for conservation. Biological conservation 61: 51–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Sewell, S. R., and C. P. Catterall. 1998. Bushland modification and styles of urban development: Their effects on birds in southeast. Wild. Res. 25:41–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Snow, D. W. 1969. An analysis of breeding success in the blackbird, Turdus merula. Ardea 57:163–171.Google Scholar
  122. Sodhi, N. S. 1992. Comparison between urban and rural bird communities in prairie Saskatchewan Urbanization and short-term population trends. Can. Field Nat. 106:210–215.Google Scholar
  123. Soulé, M. E. 1991. Land use planning and wildlife maintenance. J. Amer. Plann. Assoc. 57:313–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Soulé, M. E., D. T. Bolger, A. C. Alberts, J. Wright, M. Sorice, and S. Hill. 1988. Reconstructed dynamics of rapid extinctions of chaparral-requiring birds in urban habitat islands. Conserv. Biol. 2:75–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Tatner, P. 1982. The breeding biology of magpies Pica pica in an urban environment. J. Zool. 197:559–581.Google Scholar
  126. Tella, J. L., F. Hiraldo, J. A. Donázar-Sancho, and J. J. Negro. 1996. p. 53–60. In Bird, D. M, D. E. Varland, and J. J. Negro [EDS.]. Raptors in human landscapes. Academic Press, London,UK.Google Scholar
  127. Theobald, D. M, H. Gosnell, and W. E. Riebsame. 1996. Land use and landscape change in the Colorado Mountains II: A case study of the East River Valley. Mountain Research and Development 7:101–107.Google Scholar
  128. Tilghman, N. G. 1987a. Characteristics of urban woodlands affecting breeding bird diversity and abundance. Landscape Urban Plann. 14:481–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Tilghman, N. G. 1987b. Characteristics of urban woodlands affecting winter bird diversity and abundance. Forest Ecol. Manag. 21:163–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Tomialojc, L. 1979. The impact of predation on urban and rural Woodpigeon (Columba palumbus L.) populations. Polish Ecological Studies 5:141–220.Google Scholar
  131. U. S. Census Bureau. 2001. Urbanized areas in the United States. Scholar
  132. United Nations. 1996. World urbanization prospects: the 1996 revision. United Nations, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  133. Vale, T. R. and G. R. Vale. 1976. Suburban bird populations in west-central California. J. Biogeogr. 3:157–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Vitousek, P. M., H. A. Mooney, J. Lubchenco, and J. M. Melillo. 1997. Human domination of the earth’s ecosystems. Science 277:494–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Vitousek, P. M., P.R. Ehrlich, A. H. Ehrlich, and P. A. Matson. 1986. Human appropriation of the products of photosynthesis. Bioscience 36:368–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Wackernagel, M. and W. E. Rees. 1996. Our ecological footprint: reducing human impact on the earth. New Society Publishers, Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
  137. Walcott, C. F. 1974. Changes in bird life in Cambridge, Massachussetts from 1860 to 1964. Auk 91:151–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Wesolowski, T. 1983. The breeding ecology and behaviour of Wrens Troglodytes troglodytes under primeval and secondary conditions. Ibis 125:499–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Whitcomb, R. F., J. F. Lynch, M. K. Klimkiewicz, C. S. Robbins, B. L. Whitcomb, and D. Bystak. 1981. Effects of forest fragmentation on avifauna of eastern deciduous forest, p. 125–205. In R. L. Burgeos and D. M. Sharpe [EDS.], Forest island dynamics in man-dominated landscapes. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Wilcove, D. S. 1985. Nest predation in forest tracts and the decline of migratory songbirds. Ecology 66:1211–1214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Woolfenden, G. E. and S. A. Rohwer 1969. Breeding birds in a Florida suburb. Bull. Florida State Museum 13:1–83.Google Scholar
  142. WRI (World Resources Institute). 1996. World resources: a guide to the global environment: the urban environment. Oxford University Press. Oxford,UK.Google Scholar
  143. Yaukey, P. H. 1996. Patterns of avian population density, habitat use, and flocking behavior in urban and rural habitats during winter. Prof. Geogr. 48:70–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Zalewski, A. 1994. Diet of urban and suburban tawny owls (Strix aluco) in the breeding season. J. Raptor Research 28:246–252.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • John M. Marzluff
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Forest ResourcesUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations