Advertisement

Ecological Aspects of Neophobia and Neophilia in Birds

  • Russell Greenberg
  • Claudia Mettke-hofmann
Chapter
Part of the Current Ornithology book series (CUOR, volume 16)

Abstract

Nearly fifty years ago D. F. Berlyne (1950) wrote

Psychology has so far had surprisingly little to say about stimuli which influence behavior simply because they are new. Stimuli which owe their potency to the fact that they are not new ... have given rise to the vast corpus of observations and generalization that go to make up learning theory. But the everyday activity of both men and animals seem [sic] to attest to the importance of novelty as well as familiarity in features of the environment.

Keywords

Ecological Aspect Social Facilitation Object Exploration Domestic Chick Ecological Plasticity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, J. A., 1988, Frequency-dependent selection by predatorsPhil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. Ser. B. 319:485–503.Google Scholar
  2. Andrew, R. J., 1972, Changes in search behaviour in male and female chicks following different doses of testosteroneAnim. Behan 20:741–750.Google Scholar
  3. Andrew, R. J., and Rogers, L. J., 1972, Testosterone, search behaviour and persistenceNature 237:343–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Atwood, J. L., 1980, Social interactions in the Santa Cruz Island Scrub JayCondor 82:440–448.Google Scholar
  5. Baker-Gabb, D. J., 1986, Ecological release and behavioural and ecological flexibility in Marsh Harriers on islandsEmu 86:71–81.Google Scholar
  6. Barraud, E. M., 1961, The development of behaviour in some young passerinesBird Study 8:111–118.Google Scholar
  7. Barrows, E. M., 1995Animal Behaviour Desk ReferenceCRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  8. Barrows, E. M., Acquavella, A. P., Weinstein, P. J. S., and Nosal, R. E., 1980, Response to novel food in captive, juvenile MockingbirdsWilson Bull. 92:399–402.Google Scholar
  9. Bateson, P. G., 1971, Imprinting, in:Ontogeny of Vertebrate Behavior(H. Moltz, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 369–387.Google Scholar
  10. Beesher, J., Jensen, H. C., and Bevins, R. A., 1999, Dopamine antagonism in a novel-object preference and a novel-object place conditioning preparation with ratsBehay. Brain Res. 103:35–44.Google Scholar
  11. Beissinger, S. R., Donnay, T. J., and Walton, R., 1994, Experimental analysis of diet specialization in the Snail Kite: The role of behavioral conservatismOecologia 100:54–65.Google Scholar
  12. Benjamin, J L, Li, C., Patterson, B. D., Greenberg, D. L., Murphy, D., and Hammer, H., 1996, Population and familial association between the D4 dopamine receptor gene and measures of novelty seekingNature Genet. 12:81–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Berlyne, D. E., 1950, Novelty and curiosity as determinants of wild and laboratory ratsBr. J. Psych. 41:68–80.Google Scholar
  14. Berthold, P., 1976, Animalische and vegetabilische Ernährung omnivorer Singvogelarten: Nahrungsbevorzugung, Jahresperiodik der Nahrungswahl, physiologische and ökologische BedeutungJ. Ornith. 117:145–209.Google Scholar
  15. Bevins, R. A., and Bardo, M. T., 1999, Conditioned increase in place preference by access to novel objects: Antagonism by MK-801Behay. Brain Res. 99:53–60.Google Scholar
  16. Birke, L. I. A., and Archer, J., 1983, Some issues and problems in the study of animal exploration, in:Exploration in Animals and Humans(J. Archer and L. Birke, eds.), Workingham Press, Berkshire, England, pp. 1–21.Google Scholar
  17. Blazquez, M. C., Rodriguez-Estrella, R., and Delibes, M., 1997, Escape behaviour and predation risk of mainland and island Spiny-tailed Iguanas(Ctenosaura hemilopha) Ethology 103:990–998.Google Scholar
  18. Blondel, J., Chessel, D., and Frochot, B., 1988, Bird species impoverishment, niche expansion, and density inflation in Mediterranean island habitatsEcology 69:1899–1917.Google Scholar
  19. Boarman, W. I., and Barry, K., 1995, Common Ravens in the southwestern United States, 1968–92, in:Our Living Resources(E. T. LaRoe, ed.), National Biological Service. Washington, D.C., pp. 73–75.Google Scholar
  20. Boisy, A., 1995, Fear and fearfulness in animalsQuart. Rev. Biol. 70:165–191.Google Scholar
  21. Budaev, S. V., 1997, Personality in the Guppy(Poecilia reticulata):A correlational study of exploratory behavior and social tendencyJ. Comp. Psych. 111:399–411.Google Scholar
  22. Cadieu, J. C., Cadieu, N., and Medioni, J., 1995, Parental influence on food familiarization in the fledgling Canary(Serinus canarius)and its long-term effectEthol. Ecol. Evol. 7:265–270.Google Scholar
  23. Caldwell, G. S., and Rubinoff, R., 1983, Avoidance of venomous sea snakes by naïve herons and egretsAuk 100:195–198.Google Scholar
  24. Capretta, P. J., 1969, The establishment of food preferences in chicksGallus gallus Anim. Behay. 17:229–231.Google Scholar
  25. Chai, P., 1996, Butterfly visual characteristics and ontogeny of responses to butterflies by a specialized tropical birdBiol. J. Linn. Soc. 59:37–67.Google Scholar
  26. Chamove, A. S., 1983, Role of dominance on macaque response to novel objectsMotivation and Emotion 7:213–228.Google Scholar
  27. Chance, M. R. A., and Meade, A. P., 1955, Competition between feeding and exploration in the ratBehaviour 8:174–182.Google Scholar
  28. Clarke, A. S., and Boinski, S., 1995, Temperament in nonhuman primatesAm. J. Primat. 37:103–125.Google Scholar
  29. Clarke, A. S., and Linburg, D. G., 1993, Behavioral contrasts between male cynomlgus and Lion-tailed MacaquesAm. J. Primat. 29:49–59.Google Scholar
  30. Clarke, A. S., Mason, W. A., and Moberg, G. P., 1988, Differential behavioral and adreno-cortical responses to stress among three macaque speciesAm. J. Primat. 14:37–52.Google Scholar
  31. Coleman, K., and Wilson, D. S., 1998, Shyness and boldness in Pumpkinseed Sunfish:Individual differences are context-specificAnim. Behay. 56:927–936.Google Scholar
  32. Coleman, S. L., and Mellgren, R. L., 1994, Neophobia when feeding alone and in flocks in Zebra FinchesTaeniopygia guttata Anim. Behay. 48:903–907.Google Scholar
  33. Coppinger, R. P., 1969, The effect of experience and novelty on avian feeding behaviour with reference to the evolution of warning colouration in butterflies. Part I. Reactions of wild caught Blue Jays to novel insects.Behaviour 35:45–60.Google Scholar
  34. Coppinger, R. P., 1970, The effect of experience and novelty on avian feeding with reference to the warning coloration of butterflies. II. Reactions of naïve birds to novel insectsAm. Nat. 194:323–337.Google Scholar
  35. Corey, D. T., 1977, The determinants of exploration and neophobiaNeurosci. Biobehay. Rev. 2:235–253.Google Scholar
  36. Cowan, P. E., 1976, New object reaction of Battus rattus:the relative importance of different cuesBehay. Biol. 16:31–44.Google Scholar
  37. Cowan, P. E., and Barnett, S. A., 1975, The new object and new place reactions ofBattus rattus(L.)Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 56:219–234.Google Scholar
  38. Crowell, K. L., 1983, Islands—insight or artifact?: Population dynamics and habitat utilization in insular rodentsOikos 41:442–454.Google Scholar
  39. Daugherty, C. H., Gibbs, G. W., and Hitchmough, R. A., 1993, Mega-island or micro-continent? New Zealand and its faunaTrends Ecol. Evol. 8:437–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Deckert, G., and Deckert, K., 1982, Spielverhalten and Komfortbewegungen beim GrünflügelaraAra chloroptera Bonn. Zool. Beitr. 33:269–281.Google Scholar
  41. DesForges, M. F., and Wood-Gush, D. G. M., 1975, A behavioural comparison of domestic and Mallard ducksAnim. Behay. 23: 692–697.Google Scholar
  42. Diamond, J. M., 1970, Ecological consequences of island colonization by southwest pacific birds, I. Types of niche shiftsProc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 67:529–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Doherty, S., and Cowie, R. J., 1994, The effects of early feeding experience on long-term seed choice by Canaries(Serinus canaria) Ethology 97:177–189.Google Scholar
  44. Drent, P. J., 1997, Realised heritability of a behavioural syndrome in the Great TitProgress Report of the Netherlands Institute of Ecology44–47.Google Scholar
  45. Drent, P. J., and Marchetti, C., 1999, Individuality, exploration and foraging in hand raised juvenile Great tits.Proc. 22nd Intern. Ornith. Congr.(N. Adams, and R. Slowtow, eds.), University Natal, Durban, pp. 896–914.Google Scholar
  46. Duvall II, F., 1980, Social and object interactions of juvenile Rooks(Corvus frugilegus)and Hooded Crows(C. corone cornix) Verh. Dtsch. Zool. Ges.332.Google Scholar
  47. Ebstein, R. P., Novick, O., Umansky, R., Priel, B., Osher, Y., Blaine, D., Bennett, E. R., Nemanov, L., Katz, M., and Belmaker, R. H., 1996, Dopamine receptor (D4DR) exon III polymorphism associated with the human personality trait of novelty seekingNature Genet. 12:78–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Elner, R. W., and Hughes, R. N., 1978, Energy maximisation in the diet of the Shore CrabCarcinus maenas J. Anim. Ecol. 47:103–116.Google Scholar
  49. Franchina,J. J., Johnson, L. J., and Leynes, P. A., 1994, Roles of visual and taste cues in ingestional neophobia: Response latency effects in chicks(Gallus domesticus) Anim. Learn. Behay. 22:341–350.Google Scholar
  50. Galef, Jr., B. J., 1993, Functions of social learning about food: a causal analysis of effects of diet novelty on preference transmissionAnim. Behay. 46:257–265.Google Scholar
  51. Galef, Jr., B. J., and Clark, M. M., 1971, Social factors in the poison avoidance and feeding behavior of wild and domesticated rat pupsJ. Comp. Phys. Psych. 75:341–357.Google Scholar
  52. Glickman, S. E., and Sroges, R. W., 1966, Curiosity in zoo animalsBehaviour24:151–188. Glück, E., 1984, Habitat selection and the role of early experienceZ. Tierpsychol. 66:45–54.Google Scholar
  53. Glück, E., and Leisler, B.,1994, Ontogenetic aspects of habitat selectionJ. Ornith. 135 :480. Google Scholar
  54. Götmark, F., 1994, Does a novel bright color patch increase or decrease predation: red wings reduce predation risk in European BlackbirdsNature 256:83–87.Google Scholar
  55. Gould, J. P., 1974, Risk, stochastic preferences, and the value of informationJ. Econ.Theory 8:64–84.Google Scholar
  56. Grant, P. R., 1998, Patterns on islands and microevolution, in:Evolution on Islands(P. R. Grant, ed.), Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 1–17.Google Scholar
  57. Greenberg, R., 1979, Body size, breeding habitat, and winter exploitation systems inDendroica Auk 96:756–766.Google Scholar
  58. Greenberg, R., 1983, The role of neophobia in foraging specialization of some migrant warblersAm. Natur.123:444–453.Google Scholar
  59. Greenberg, R., 1984a, The winter exploitation systems of Bay-breasted and Chestnut-sided Warblers in PanamaUniv. Calif. Pub]. Zool. 117:1–124.Google Scholar
  60. Greenberg, R., 1984b, Differences in feeding neophobia between two species of tropical migrant warblers(Dendroica castaneaandD. pensylvanica) J. Comp. Psych. 98: 131–136.Google Scholar
  61. Greenberg, R., 1984c, Neophobia in the foraging site selection of a neotropical migrant bird: an experimental study.Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 81:3778–3780.Google Scholar
  62. Greenberg, R., 1987a, Social facilitation does not reduce neophobia in Chestnut-sided Warblers (Parulinae:Dendroica) J. Ethol. 5:7–11.Google Scholar
  63. Greenberg, R., 1987b, The development of dead leaf foraging in a Neotropical migrant warblerEcology 68:130–141.Google Scholar
  64. Greenberg, R., 1989, Neophobia, aversion to open space, and ecological plasticity in Song and Swamp SparrowsCan. J. Zool. 67:1194–1199.Google Scholar
  65. Greenberg, R., 1990a, Feeding neophobia and ecological plasticity: a test of the hypothesis with captive sparrowsAnim. Behay. 39:375–379.Google Scholar
  66. Greenberg, R., 1990b, Ecological plasticity, neophobia, and resource use in birdsStud. Avian Biol. 13:431–437.Google Scholar
  67. Greenberg, R., 1992, Differences in neophobia between naïve Song and Swamp SparrowsEthology 91:17–24.Google Scholar
  68. Greenberg, R., 1995, Novelty responses: the bridge between psychology, behavioral ecology, and community ecologyTrends Ecol. Evol. 10:165–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Greenberg, R., and Droege, S., 1999, On the decline of the Rusty Blackbird and the use of ornithological literature to document long-term population trendsConserv. Biol. 13:553–559.Google Scholar
  70. Greig-Smith, P. W., 1987a, Persistence in foraging: when do Bullfinches abandon unprofitable seeds?Behaviour 103:203–216.Google Scholar
  71. Greig-Smith, P. W., 1987b, Aversion of starlings and sparrows to unfamiliar, unexpected or unusual flavours and colours in foodEthology 4:155–163.Google Scholar
  72. Grünberger, S., and Leisler, B., 1990, Angeborene and erfahrungsbedingte Komponenten der Habitatwahl der Tannenmeise(Parus ater) J. Ornith. 131:460–464.Google Scholar
  73. Grünberger, S., and Leisler, B., 1993, Auswirkung der Umwelterfahrung auf die Neophobie der Tannenmeise(Parus ater). J. Ornith. 134:352–355.Google Scholar
  74. Gwinner, E., 1996, Circannual clocks in avian reproduction and migrationIbis138:47–63. Gwinner, E., Biebach, H., and Kries, I. V., 1985, Food availability affects migratory restless-ness in caged Garden Warbler(Sylvia borin) Naturwissenschaften 72:51–52.Google Scholar
  75. Haemig, P. D., 1989, A comparative experimental study of exploratory behavior in Santa Cruz Island and mainland Scrub JaysAphelocoma coerulescens Bird Behay. 8:38–42.Google Scholar
  76. Hegner, R. E., 1985, Dominance and anti-predator behaviour in Blue Tits(Parus cae-ruleus) Anim. Behay. 33:762–768.Google Scholar
  77. Heinrich, B., 1988, Why do ravens fear their food?Condor 90:950–952.Google Scholar
  78. Heinrich, B., 1995, Neophilia and exploration in juvenile Common RavensCorvus corax Anim. Behay. 50:675–704.Google Scholar
  79. Heinrich, B., Marzluff, J. M., and Adams, W., 1995, Fear and food recognition in naïve Common RavensAuk 112:499–503.Google Scholar
  80. Hogan, J. A., 1965, An experimental study of conflict and fear: An analysis of behavior of young chicks towards a mealworm. I. The behavior of chicks which do not eat the wormBehaviour 25:45–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Hughes, R. N., 1997, Intrinsic exploration in animals• motives and measurementBehay. Proc. 41:213–226.Google Scholar
  82. Immelmann, K., and Beer, C., 1989A Dictionary of EthologyHarvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  83. Inglis, I. R., and Shepherd, D. S., 1994, Rats work for food they then reject: support for the information-primacy approach to learned industriousnessEthology 98:154–164.Google Scholar
  84. Jämmrich, S., 1989, Quantitative Analyse des Verhaltens gegenüber unbekannten Objekten. Untersuchungen an Insectivore, Rodentia and PrimatesZool. Beitr. N.F. 32: 195–215.Google Scholar
  85. Johnston, T. D., 1981, Contrasting approaches to a theory of learningBrain Behay. Sci. 4:125–173.Google Scholar
  86. Jones, R. B., 1982, Effects of early environmental enrichment upon open-field behaviour and timidity in the domestic chickDevel. Psychobiol 15:105–111.Google Scholar
  87. Jones, R. B., 1986, Responses of domestic chicks to novel food as a function of sex, strain and previous experienceBehay. Proc. 12:261–271.Google Scholar
  88. Jones, R. B., and Andrew, R. J., 1992, Responses of adult domestic cocks and capons to novel and alarming stimuliBehay. Proc. 26:189–200.Google Scholar
  89. Jones, R. B., Larkins, C., and Hughes, B. 0., 1996, Approach/avoidance responses of domestic chicks to familiar and unfamiliar video images of biologically neutral stimuliAppl. Anim. Behay. Sci. 48:81–98.Google Scholar
  90. Kagan, J., Reznick, J. S., and Snidman, N, 1988, Biological basis of childhood shynessScience 240:167–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Kagan, J., Snidman, N., and Arcus, B., 1998, Childhood derivatives of low levels of reactivity in infancyChild Development 69:1483–1493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Kamil, A. C., and Yoerg, S., 1982, Learning and foraging behavior, in:Perspectives in Ethology Volume5 (P. Bateson and P. Klopfer, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 325–362.Google Scholar
  93. Katzir, G., 1982, The relationship between social structure and the response to novel spaceBehaviour 81:231–263.Google Scholar
  94. Katzir, G., 1983, Relationship between social structure and response to noveltyBehaviour 87:183–208.Google Scholar
  95. Kilham, L., 1974, Play in Hairy, Downy, and other woodpeckersWilson Bull. 86:35–42.Google Scholar
  96. Klopfer, P. H., 1963, Behavioral aspects of habitat selection: the role of early experienceWilson Bull. 75:15–22.Google Scholar
  97. Klopfer, P. H., 1967, Behavioral stereotypy in birdsWilson Bull. 79:290–300.Google Scholar
  98. Kothbauer-Hellmann, R., and Winkler, H., 1991, Aufenthaltsdauern explorierender Meisen: Habitat-und Artspezifität.J. Ornith. 132:329–331.Google Scholar
  99. Kubat, S., 1992, Die Rolle von Neuigkeit, Andersartigkeit und sozialer Struktur für die Exploration von Objekten beim Kea (Nestor notabilis), Ph.D. dissertation, Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria.Google Scholar
  100. Kuo, Z., 1967The Dynamics of Behaviour Development: An Epigenetic ViewRandom House, New York.Google Scholar
  101. Lahti, K., Koivula, K., and Orell, M., 1997, Dominance, daily activity, and winter survival in Willow Tits: Detrimental cost of long working hours?Behaviour 134:921–939.Google Scholar
  102. Lefebvre, L., Whittle, P., Lascaris, E., and Finkelstein, A., 1997, Feeding innovations and forebrain in birdsAnim. Behay.53:549–560.Google Scholar
  103. Levins, R., and Lewontin, R., 1985The Dialectical BiologistHarvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  104. Lima, S. L., and Dill, L. M., 1990, Behavioural decisions made under the risk of predation: a review and prospectusCan. J. Zool. 68:619–640.Google Scholar
  105. Löfgren, O., 1995, Niche expansion and increased maturation rate ofClethrionomys glareolusin the absence of competitorsJ. Mamm. 76:1100–1112.Google Scholar
  106. Lorenz, K., 1956, Plays and vacuum activities, in:L’Instinct dans le comportement de animaux et de L’hommeFondation Singer Polignac, Masson et Cie Editerus, Paris, pp. 633–638.Google Scholar
  107. Lowndes, M., and Davies, M. C., 1995, The effect of archistrial lesions on open field and fear avoidance behavior in the domestic chickBehay. Brain Res. 72:25–32.Google Scholar
  108. Lowndes, M., Davies, M. C., and Johnson, M. H., 1997, Archistrial lesions impair the acquisition of filial preferencesEur. J. Neurosci. 6:1143–1148.Google Scholar
  109. MacArthur, R. H., Diamond, J. M., and Karr, J. R., 1972, Density compensation in island faunasEcology 53:330–342.Google Scholar
  110. Mappes, J., and Alatalo, R. V., 1997, Effects of novelty and gregariousness in survival of aposematic preyBehay. Ecol. 8:174–177.Google Scholar
  111. Marchetti, K., and Price, T., 1989, Differences in the foraging of juvenile and adult birds: the importance of developmental constraintsBiol. Rev. Camb. Phil. Soc. 64:51–70.Google Scholar
  112. Marler, P., 1956, Behavior of the ChaffinchBehaviour(suppl.) 5:1–184.Google Scholar
  113. Marples, N. M., and Brakefield, P. M., 1995, Genetic variation for the rate of recruitment of novel insect prey into the diet of a birdBiol. J. Linn. Soc. 55:17–27.Google Scholar
  114. Marples, N. M., Roper, T., and Harper, D., 1998, Responses of wild birds to novel prey: evidence for dietary conservatismOikos 83:161–165.Google Scholar
  115. Marzluff, J. M., and Heinrich, B., 1991, Foraging by Common Ravens in the presence and absence of territory holders: an experimental analysis of social foragingAnim. Behay. 42:755–770.Google Scholar
  116. Mastota, F. N., and Mench, J. A., 1994, Avoidance of dyed foods by Northern BobwhiteAppl. Anim. Behay. Sci. 12:109–119.Google Scholar
  117. Mayeaux, D. J., and Mason, W. A., 1998, Development of responsiveness to novel objects in the Titi MonkeyCallicebus moloch Primates39:419–431.Google Scholar
  118. McLaughlin, J. F., and Roughgarden, J., 1989, Avian predation onAnolislizards in thenortheastern Caribbean: An inter-island contrastEcology 70:617–628.Google Scholar
  119. McNamara, J., and Houston, A., 1985, A simple model of information use in the exploita-tion of patchily distributed foodAnim. Behay. 33:553–560.Google Scholar
  120. Menzel, E. W., Davenport Jr., R. K., and Rogers, C. M., 1961, Some aspects of behavior toward novelty in young chimpanzeesJ. Comp. Physiol. Psych. 54:16–19.Google Scholar
  121. Mettke, C., 1993, Auftreten und Ausprägung von Explorationsverhalten bei Papageien im Ökologischen Kontext, Ph.D. dissertation, Freie Universität, Berlin.Google Scholar
  122. Mettke, C., 1995, Explorationsverhalten von Papageien—Adaptation an die Umwelt?J. Ornith. 136:468–471.Google Scholar
  123. Mettke-Hofmann, C., 1999, Niche expansion and exploratory behavior on islands: are they linked?Proc. 22nd Intern. Ornith. Congr.(N.Adams, and R. Slowtow, eds.), University Natal, Durban.Google Scholar
  124. Mettke-Hofmann, C., 2000a, Reactions of nomadic and resident parrot speciesPsittacidaeto environmental enrichment at the Max Planck InstitutInt. Zoo Yearbook 37: 244–256.Google Scholar
  125. Mettke-Hofmann, C., 2000b, Changes in exploration from courtship to the breeding state in Red-rumped Parrots(Psephotus haematonotus) Behay. Proc. 49:139–148.Google Scholar
  126. Miller, A. H., 1942, Habitat selection among higher vertebrates and its relation to intra-specific variationAm. Natur. 76:25–35.Google Scholar
  127. Milton, K., 1981, Distribution pattern of tropical plant foods as an evolutionary stimulus to mental developmentAmerican Anthropologist 83:534–548.Google Scholar
  128. Mitchell, D., 1976, Experiments on neophobia in wild and laboratory rats: a reevaluationJ. Comp. Phys. Psych. 90:190–197.Google Scholar
  129. Montgomery, K. C., 1955, The relation between fear induced by novel stimulation and exploratory behaviorComp. Phys. Psych. 48:254–260.Google Scholar
  130. Morse, D. H., 1971, The foraging of warblers isolated on small islandsEcology 52:216–228.Google Scholar
  131. Morse, D. H., 1977, The occupation of small islands by passerine birdsCondor 79: 399–412.Google Scholar
  132. Morse, D. H., 1980Behavioral Mechanisms in EcologyHarvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  133. Morton, E. S., 1980, Adaptations to seasonal changes by migrant land birds in the Panama Canal Zone, in:Migrant Birds in the Neotropics: Ecology Behavior Distribution and Conservation(A. Keast and E. S. Morton, eds.), Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 437–453.Google Scholar
  134. Morton, E. S., 1998, Pairing in Mallards and American Black Ducks: a new view on population decline in American Black DucksAnim. Cons. 1:239–244.Google Scholar
  135. Morton, M. L., Wakamati, M. L., Pereya, M. E., and Morton, G. A., 1991, Post-fledging dispersal, habitat imprinting, and philopatry in a migratory sparrowOmis Scand. 22:98–106.Google Scholar
  136. Murphy, L. B., 1977, Responses of domestic fowl to novel food and objectsAppl. Anim. Ethol. 3:335–349.Google Scholar
  137. Negro, J. J., Bustamante, J., Milward, J., and Bird, D. M., 1996, Captive fledgling American Kestrels prefer to play with objects resembling natural preyAnim. Behay. 52: 707–714.Google Scholar
  138. Nietsch, A., and Todt, D.,1985, Monopolisierung tragbarer Objekte durch juvenile Individuen bei halbfrei lebenden Berberaffen(Macaca sylvanus) Verh. Dtsch. Zool. Ges. 78:213.Google Scholar
  139. Ortega, J. C., and Bekoff, M., 1987, Avian play: evolutionary and developmental trendsAuk 104:338–341.Google Scholar
  140. Pellis, S. M., 1981, Exploration and play in the behavioural development of the Australian MagpieGymnorhina tibicen Bird Behay.3:37–49.Google Scholar
  141. Phillips, R. E., and Youngren, O. M.,1986, Unilateral kainic acid lesions reveal dominance of right archistriatum in avian fear behaviorBrain Res. 377:216–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Poucet, B., Durup, M., and Thinus-Blanc, C., 1988, Short-term and long-term habituation of exploration in rats, hamsters, and gerbilsBehay. Proc. 16:203–211.Google Scholar
  143. Raach, A., and Leisler, B., 1989, Auswirkung der Jugenderfahrung auf die Wahl von Habitatstrukturen und auf das Erkundungsverhalten des Mariskensängers (Acrocephalus melanopogon) J. Ornith. 130:256–259.Google Scholar
  144. Rabinowitch, V., 1968, The role of experience in the development of food preferences in gull ChicksAnim. Behay. 16:425–428.Google Scholar
  145. Rabinowitch, V., 1969, The role of experience in the development and retention of seed preferences in Zebra FinchesBehaviour 33:222–235.Google Scholar
  146. Rana, B. D., 1989, Some observations on neophobic behaviour among House SparrowsPasser domesticus Pavo 27:35–38.Google Scholar
  147. Rasmussen, D. R., and Rasmussen, K. L., 1979, Social ecology of adult males in a confined troop of Japanese Macaques(Macaca fuscata) Anim. Behay. 27:434–445.Google Scholar
  148. Raudensush, B., and Frank, R. A., 1999, Assessing food neophobia: The role of stimulus familiarityAppetite 32:261–271.Google Scholar
  149. Reed, J. M., Boulinier, T., Danchin, E., and Oring, L. W., 1999, Informed dispersal: prospecting by birds for breeding sites, in:Current Ornithologyvol.15(V. Nolan Jr., E. D.Ketterson, and C. F. Thompson, eds.), Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, pp. 189–259.Google Scholar
  150. Renner, M. J., 1987, Experience-dependent changes in exploratory behaviour in the adult rat (Rattus norvegicus): overall activity level and interactions with objectsJ. Comp. Psychol. 101 :94-100. Google Scholar
  151. Renner, M. J., 1988, Learning during exploration: The role of behavioural topography during exploration in determining subsequent adaptive behaviourInt. J. Comp. Psych. 2:43–56.Google Scholar
  152. Renner, M. J., and Seltzer, C. P., 1991, Molar characteristics of exploratory and investiga-tory behaviour in therat (Rattus norvegicus) J. Comp. Psychol. 105:326–339.Google Scholar
  153. Roper, T. J., 1990, Responses of domestic chicks to artificially coloured insect prey: effects of previous experience and background colorAnim. Behay. 39:466–473.Google Scholar
  154. Rosenzweig, M. L., 1985, Some theoretical aspects of habitat selection, in:Habitat Selec-tion in Birds(M. L. Cody, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 517–540.Google Scholar
  155. Russel, E. M., and Pearce, G. A., 1971, Exploration of novel objects by marsupialsBehav-iour 40:312–322.Google Scholar
  156. Russell, P. A., 1973, Relationship between exploratory behaviour and fear: a reviewBr. J. Psychology 64:417–433.Google Scholar
  157. Saegert, S., and Rajecki, D. W., 1973, Effects of prior exposure to animate object on approach tendency in chicksBehay. Biol. 8:749–754.Google Scholar
  158. Schaden, G., 1993, Exploration and neophobia in captive Barn Owls(Tyto alba guttata) Egretta 36:67–77.Google Scholar
  159. Schleidt, W. M.,1961, Reaktionen von T uthühnern auf fliegende Raubvögel and Versuche zur Analyse ihrer AAM’sZ. Tierpsychol. 18:534–560.Google Scholar
  160. Schuler, W., 1982, Zur Funktion von Warnfarben: Die Reaktion junger Stare auf wespenähnlich schwarz-gelbeAttrappe Z. Tierpsychol. 58:66–78.Google Scholar
  161. Schuler, W., and Hesse, E., 1985, On the function of warning coloration: A black and yellow pattern inhibits prey-attack by naive domestic chicksBehay. Ecol. Sociobiol. 16:249–255.Google Scholar
  162. Schuler, C., and Roper, T. J., 1992, Responses to warning coloration in avian predatorsAdvances in the Study of Behaviour 21:111–146.Google Scholar
  163. Seferta, A., 1998The Role of Intervening Variables in Learning Differences between Group foraging and Territorial ColumbidsMS thesis, McGill University, Montreal.Google Scholar
  164. Shettleworth, S. J., 1972, The role of novelty in learned avoidance of unpalatable “prey” by domestic chicksAnim. Behay. 20:29–35.Google Scholar
  165. Shettleworth, S. J., 1993, Where is the comparison in comparative cognition? Alternative research programsPsych. Sci. 4:179–184.Google Scholar
  166. Smith, S., 1973, Factors directing prey-attack behavior by the young of three passerine speciesLiving Bird 12:57–67.Google Scholar
  167. Smith, S., 1975, Innate recognition of coral snake pattern by a possible avian predatorScience 187:759–760.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Stamps, J. A., 1987, The effect of familiarity with a neighborhood on territory acquisitionBehay. Ecol. Sociobiol. 21:273–277.Google Scholar
  169. Stephens, D. W., and Krebs, J. R., 1986Foraging TheoryPrinceton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  170. Stolba, A., and Wood-Gush, D. G. M., 1980, Arousal and exploration in growing pigs in different environmentsAppl. Anim. Ethol. 6:382–383.Google Scholar
  171. Sullivan, P. F., Fifield, W., Kennedy, M., Mulder, R. T., Sellman, J. D., and Joyce, P. R., 1998, No association between novelty seeking and type 4 dopamine receptor gene (DRD4) in two New Zealand samplesAm. J. Psychiatry 155:98–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Tardiff, S., 1994, SensitiveSaguinusand courageousCallithrix:differences in adaptability and neophobia in two callitrichid generaProc. Am. Zoo Ass. Reg. Conf. 1994:408–412.Google Scholar
  173. Thorpe, W. H., 1945, The evolutionary significance of habitat selectionJ. Anim. Ecol. 14: 67–70.Google Scholar
  174. Thorpe, W. H., 1956Learning and Instincts in Animals.Methuen and Co., London.Google Scholar
  175. Todt, D., Hammerschmidt, K., and Hultsch, H., 1992, The behaviour of Barbary Macaques(Macaca sylvanus):perspective and projects of a long-term studyPrimate Report 32:19–27.Google Scholar
  176. Torigoe, T., 1985, Comparison of object manipulation among 74 species of nonhuman primatesPrimates 26:182–194.Google Scholar
  177. Turro-Vincent, I., Launey, F., Mills, A. D., Picard, M., and Faure, J. M., 1995, Experimental and genetic influence on learnt food aversions in Japanese Quail selected for high or low levels of fearfulnessBehay. Proc. 34:23–41.Google Scholar
  178. Vaughn, F. A., 1983, Startle responses of Blue Jays to visual stimuli presented during feedingAnim. Behay. 31:385–396.Google Scholar
  179. Verbeek, M. E. M., Drent, P. J., and Wiepkema, P. R., 1994, Consistent individual differences in early exploratory behaviour of male Great TitsAnim. Behay. 48:1113–1121.Google Scholar
  180. Verbeek, M. E. M., Boon, A., and Drent, P. J., 1996, Exploration, aggressive behaviour, and dominance in pair-wise confrontations of juvenile male Great TitsBehaviour 133: 945–963.Google Scholar
  181. Verbeek, M. E. M., De Geode, P., Drent, P. J., and Wiepkema, P. R., 1999, Individual behavioural characteristics and dominance in aviary groups of Great Tits.Behaviour 136:23–48.Google Scholar
  182. Vince, M. A., 1960, Developmental changes in responsiveness in the Great TitParus major Behaviour 15:219–242.Google Scholar
  183. Visalberghi, E., and Fragaszy, D., 1995, The behaviour of Capuchin MonkeysCebus apellawith novel foods: the role of social contextAnim. Behay. 49:1081–1097.Google Scholar
  184. Visalberghi, E., Valente, M., and Fragaszy, D., 1998, Social context and consumption of unfamiliar foods by Capuchin Monkeys(Cebus apella)over repeated encountersAm. J. Primat. 45:367–380.Google Scholar
  185. Webster, S. J., and Lefebvre, L., 2000, Neophobia by the Lesser-Antillean Bullfinch, a foraging generalist, and the Bananaquit, a nectar specialistWilsonBu11.112:424–427.Google Scholar
  186. Welker, W. I., 1956, Some determinants of play and exploration in ChimpanzeesJ. Comp. Physiol. Psycho). 49:84–89.Google Scholar
  187. Werner, T. K., and Sherry, T. W., 1987, Behavioral feeding specialization inPinaroloxias inornatathe “Darwin’s Finch” of Cocos Island, Costa RicaProc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 84:5506–5520.Google Scholar
  188. West, M., 1977, Exploration and play with objects in domestic kittensDev. Psychobiol. 10: 53–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Wilson, D. S., 1998, Adaptive individual differences within a single populationPhil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 353:199–205.Google Scholar
  190. Wilson, D. S., Clark, A. B., Colman, K., and Dearstyne, T., 1994, Shyness and boldness in humans and other animalsTrends Ecol. Evol. 9:442–446.Google Scholar
  191. Wood-Gush, D. G. M., Vestergaard, K., and Petersen, D. V., 1990, The significance of motivation and environment in the development of exploration in pigsBiol. Behay. 15:39–52.Google Scholar
  192. Wunschmann, A,1963, Quantitative Untersuchungen zum Neugierverhalten von WirbeltierenZ. Tierpsychol. 20:80–109.Google Scholar
  193. Wyles, S. J., Kunkel, J. G., and Wilson, A. C., 1983, Birds, behavior, and anatomical evolutionProc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 80:4394–4397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Yeaton, R., and Cody, M., 1973, Competitive release in island Song Sparrow populationsTheor. Pop. Biol. 4:42–58.Google Scholar
  195. Zach, R., and Falls, J. B., 1976, Foraging behaviour, learning, and exploration by captive Ovenbirds(Aves: Parulidae) Can. J. Zool. 54:1880–1893.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Russell Greenberg
    • 1
  • Claudia Mettke-hofmann
    • 2
  1. 1.Smithsonian Migratory Bird CenterWashington D.CUSA
  2. 2.Forschungsstelle für Ornithologie der Max-PlanckGesellschaftInstitut für Verhaltensbiologie der Freie Universität BerlinBerlinDeutschland

Personalised recommendations