Advertisement

The Five-Factor Model of Personality

Measurement and Correlates in the Indian Context
  • P. H. Lodhi
  • Savita Deo
  • Vivek M. Belhekar
Part of the International and Cultural Psychology Series book series (ICUP)

Abstract

Study I in this chapter reports an Indian (Marathi) adaptation of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), its psychometric evaluation, and gender differences based on data from 214 subjects. Factor analyses supported the Five-Factor Model and indicated factorial invariance across Indian and American cultures. The study also demonstrated the utility of oblique and orthogonal Procrustes rotations and multiple group factor analysis in evaluating the Five-Factor Model. Study II, employing 300 subjects, examined the Eysenckian correlates of the Indian (Marathi) NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). The obtained correlations provide validity evidence for the NEO-FFI and its parent instrument, the NEO-PI-R.

Key words

Indian adaptation EPQ-R factor analysis cross-cultural comparisons 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ameerjan, M. S., & Thimmappa, M. S. (1980). A study of Lie scores in Eysenck Personality Inventory. Psychological Studies, 25, 23–25.Google Scholar
  2. Angleitner, A., & Ostendorf, F. (2000, July). The FFM: A comparison of German speaking countries (Austria, Former East and West Germany, and Switzerland). Paper presented at the XXVIIth International Congress of Psychology, Stockholm, Sweden.Google Scholar
  3. Asthana, H. S. (1988). Personality. In J. Pande (Ed.), Psychology in India: The state-of-the-art, Vol. 1. Personality and mental processes (pp. 153–189). New Delhi: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  4. Banthia, J. K. (2001). Census of India 2001, Series-1, India, Provisional population totals, Paper -I of 2001. Delhi: Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India.Google Scholar
  5. Barlingay, S. S. (1998). Reunderstanding Indian philosophy. New Delhi: D. K. Printworld.Google Scholar
  6. Barrett, P., & Eysenck, S. (1984). The assessment of personality factors across 25 countries. Personality and Individual Differences, 5, 615–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barrett, P. T., Petrides, K. V., Eysenck, S. B. G., & Eysenck, H. J. (1998). The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire: An examination of the factorial similarity of P, E, N, and L across 34 countries. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 805–819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bayly, S. (1999). The new Cambridge history of India: IV. 3. Caste, society and politics in India from the eighteenth century to the modern age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Block, J. (1995). A contrarian view of the five-factor approach to personality description. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 187–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brand, C. R. (1997). Hans Eysenck’s personality dimensions: Their number and nature. In H. Nyborg (Ed.), The scientific study of human nature: Tribute to Hans J. Eysenck at eighty, (pp. 17–35). Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  11. Brislin, R. W. (1980). Translation and content analysis of oral and written material. In H. C. Triandis & J. W. Berry (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology: Methodology (Vol. 2, pp. 389–444). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  12. Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Bermúdez, J., Maslach, C., & Ruch, W. (2000). Multivariate methods for the comparison of factor structures in cross-cultural research: An illustration with the Big Five Questionnaire. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31, 437–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Church, A. T. (2000). Culture and personality: Toward an integrated cultural trait psychology. Journal of Personality, 68, 651–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  16. Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1995). Primary traits of Eysenck’s P-E-N system: Three- and five-factor solutions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 308–317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Costa, P. T., Jr., Terracciano, A., & McCrae, R. R. (2001). Gender differences in personality traits across cultures: Robust and surprising findings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 322–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Crowne, D. P., & Marlowe, D. (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24, 349–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dastane, S. (2000). Glimpses of Maharashtra (2nd ed.). Pune: Dastane Ramchandra.Google Scholar
  20. De Raad, B. (2000). The Big Five personality factors: The psycholexical approach to personality. Seattle: Hogrefe and H uber Publishers.Google Scholar
  21. Deshpande, K., & Rajadhyaksha, M. V. (1988). A history of Marathi literature. Delhi: Sahitya Akademy.Google Scholar
  22. Dicken, C. F. (1959). Simulated patterns on the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule. Journal of Applied Psychology, 43, 372–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Eysenck, H. J. (1969). Research findings with the M. P. I. In H. J. Eysenck & S. B. G. Eysenck (Eds.), Personality structure and measurement (pp. 84–96). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  24. Eysenck, H. J. (1991). Dimensions of personality: 16, 5 or 3?—Criteria for a taxonomic paradigm. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 773–790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Eysenck, H. J. (1997). Personality and experimental psychology: The unification of psychology and the possibility of a paradigm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1224–1237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. B. G. (1975). Manual of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Junior & Adult). London: Hodder & Stoughton.Google Scholar
  27. Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. B. G. (1976). Psychoticism as a dimension of personality. London: Hodder & Stoughton.Google Scholar
  28. Eysenck, H. J., & Wilson, G. D. (1991). The Eysenck Personality Profiler. London: Corporate Assessment Network.Google Scholar
  29. Eysenck, S. B. G., Barrett, P., Spielberger, C., Evans, F. J., & Eysenck, H. J. (1986). Cross-cultural comparisons of personality dimensions: England and America. Personality and Individual Differences, 7, 209–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Eysenck, S. B. G., Eysenck, H. J., & Barrett, P. (1985). A revised version of the psychoticism scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 6, 21–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ghurye, G. S. (1994). Caste and race in India (5th ed.). Mumbai: Popular Prakashan.Google Scholar
  32. Gorsuch, R. L. (1974). Factor analysis. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  33. Guttman, L. (1952). Multiple group methods for common factor analysis: Their basis, computation, and interpretation. Psychometrika, 17, 209–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Harman, H. H. (1970). Modern factor analysis (2nd ed.). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  35. Horn, J. L. (1967). On subjectivity in factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 27, 811–820.Google Scholar
  36. Huberty, C. J., & Petoskey, M. D. (2000). Multivariate analysis of variance and covariance. In H. A. Tinsley & S. D. Brown (Eds.), Handbook of applied multivariate statistics and mathematical modelling (pp. 183–208). San Diego: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jackson, C. J., & Francis, L. J. (1999). Interpreting the correlation between Neuroticism and Lie scale scores. Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 59–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. John, O. P., & Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement and theoretical perspectives. In L. A. Pervin & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (2nd ed., pp. 102–138). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  39. Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1986). LISREL VI: Analysis of linear structural relationships by maximum likelihood, instrumental variables, and least squares methods (4th ed.). Mooresville, IN: Scientific Software.Google Scholar
  40. Joshi, L. (Ed.). (1985). Marathi vishwakosh [Marathi Encyclopedia] (Vol. 12). Mumbai: Maharashtra Rajya Marathi Vishwakosha Nirmiti Mandal.Google Scholar
  41. Kapoor, S. D. (1965). Psychological research in India: A commemoration volume in honour of Prof S. S. Jalota. Varanasi: Jalota Commemoration Volume Committee.Google Scholar
  42. Katigbak, M. S., Church, A. T., Guanzon-Lapeña, M. A., Carlota, A. J. & del Pilar, G. J. (2000, July). Indigenous Philippine dimensions and the Five-Factor Model. Paper presented at the XXVIIth International Congress of Psychology, Stockholm, Sweden.Google Scholar
  43. Krishnan, B. (1961). A review of contributions of Indian psychologists. In T. K. N. Menon (Ed.), Recent trends in psychology (pp. 190–222). Kolkata: Orient Longmans.Google Scholar
  44. Kulkarni, S. S., & Puhan, B. N. (1988). Psychological assessment: Its present and future trends. In J. Pandey (Ed.), Psychology in India: The state-of-the-art, Vol. 1. Personality and mental processes (pp. 19–91), New Delhi: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  45. Laungani, P. (1985). National differences in personality: India and England. Personality and Individual Differences, 6, 217–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lodhi, P. H. (1985). Performance on Lie scale in relation to Extraversion, Neuroticism and anxiety: A correlational and factorial study. Bombay Psychologist, 7, 77–85.Google Scholar
  47. Lodhi, P. H., & Thakur, S. (1993). Personality of drug addicts: Eysenckian analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 15, 121–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lodhi, P. H., & Thomas, G. (1991). Effects of experimentally induced response sets in assessing Eysenckian dimensions of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 811–817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. MacDonald, K. (1998). Evolution, culture, and the Five-Factor Model. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 29, 119–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Manaster, G. J., & Havinghurst, R. J. (1972). Cross-national research: Social psychological methods and problems. Boston: Houghton Miffin Company.Google Scholar
  51. Marascuilo, L. A., & Levin, J. R. (1983). Multivariate statistics in the social sciences: A researcher’s guide. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  52. Martin, T. A., Oryol, V. E., Rukavishnikov, A. A., & Senin, I. G. (2000, July). Applications of the Russian NEO-PI-R. Paper presented at the XXVIIth International Congress of Psychology, Stockholm, Sweden.Google Scholar
  53. McCrae, R. R. (1998, August). Trait psychology and the revival of personality-and-culture studies. In P. T. Costa, Jr. (Chair), Personality traits and culture: New perspectives on some classic issues. Symposium presented at the 106th convention of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  54. McCrae, R. R. (2001). Trait psychology and culture: Exploring intercultural comparisons. Journal of Personality, 69, 819–846.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McCrae, R. R. (2002). NEO-PI-R data from 36 cultures: Further intercultural explorations. In R. R. McCrae & J. Allik (Eds.), The Five-Factor Model of personality across cultures (pp. 105–125). New York: Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T., Jr. (1983). Social desirability scales: More substance than style. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 882–888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. McCrae, R. R. & Costa, P. T., Jr. (1985). Comparison of EPI and Psychoticism scales with measures of the Five-Factor Model of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 6, 587–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T., Jr. (1996). Toward a new generation of personality theories: Theoretical contexts for the Five-Factor Model. In J. S. Wiggins (Ed.), The Five-Factor Model of personality: Theoretical perspectives (pp. 51–87). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  59. McCrae, R. R., Costa, P. T., Jr., del Pilar, G. H., Rolland, J. P., & Parker, W. D. (1998). Corss-cultural assessment of the Five-Factor Model: The Revised NEO Personality Inventory. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 29, 171–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. McCrae, R. R., Costa, P. T., Jr., Lima, M. P., Simões, A., Ostendorf, F., Angleitner, A., Marušić, I., Bratko, D., Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Chae, J. H., & Piedmont, R. L. (1999). Age differences in personality across the adult life span: Parallels in five cultures. Developmental Psychology, 35, 466–477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. McCrae, R. R., Costa, P. T., Jr., & Yik, M. S. M. (1996). Universal aspects of Chinese personality structure. In M. H. Bond (Ed.), The handbook of Chinese psychology. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  62. McCrae, R. R., Zonderman, A. B., Costa, P. T., Jr., Bond, M. H., & Paunonen, S. V. (1996). Evaluating replicability of factors in the Revised NEO Personality Inventory: Confirmatory factor analysis versus Procrustes rotation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 552–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mitra, S. C. (1955). Progress of psychology in India. Indian Journal of Psychology, 30, 1–21.Google Scholar
  64. Mitra, S. K. (Ed.) (1972a). A survey of research in psychology. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan.Google Scholar
  65. Mitra, S. K. (1972b). Psychological research in India. In S. K. Mitra (Ed.), A survey of research in psychology (pp. xvii–xxxiii). Mumbai: Popular Prakashan.Google Scholar
  66. Mulaik, S. A. (1972). The foundations of factor analysis. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  67. Mulaik, S. A. (1988). Confirmatory factor analysis. In J. R. Nesselroade & R. B. Cattell (Eds.), Handbook of multivariate experimental psychology (2nd ed., pp. 259–288). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Murty, K. S. (1985). Philosophy in India: Traditions, teaching and research. New Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass for Indian Council of Philosophical Research.Google Scholar
  69. Naidu, R. K. (2001). Personality, self and life events. In J. Pandey (Ed.), Psychology in India revisited: Developments in the discipline: Vol. 2. Personality and health psychology (pp. 228–299). New Delhi: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  70. Nandy, A., & Kakar, S. (1980). Culture and personality. In U. Pareek (Ed.), A survey of research in Psychology, 1971–76, Partly. I (pp. 136–167). Mumbai: Popular Prakashan.Google Scholar
  71. Narayanan, L., Menon, S., & Levine, E. L. (1995). Personality structure: A culture-specific examination of the Five-Factor Model. Journal of Personality Assessment, 64, 51–62.Google Scholar
  72. Nighojkar, R. D. (2000). A study of personality, attitude towards nuclearization and perceived challenges among military leaders. Unpublished M. Phil, dissertation, University of Pune, Pune.Google Scholar
  73. Norušis, M. J./SPSS Inc. (1990a). SPSS/PC+ Advanced statistics 4.0 for the IBM PC/XT/AT and PS/2 (Computer program manual). Chicago: SPSS Inc.Google Scholar
  74. Norušis, M. J./SPSS Inc. (1990b). SPSS/PC+ Statistics 4.0 for the IBM PC/XT/AT and PS/2 (Computer program manual). Chicago: SPSS Inc.Google Scholar
  75. Nunnally, J. C. (1981). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  76. Ortet, G., Ibáñez, M. I., Moro, M., Silva, F., & Boyle, G. J. (1999). Psychometric appraisal of Eysenck’s revised Psychoticism scale: A cross-cultural study. Personality and Individual Differences, 27, 1209–1219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Palsane, M. N., & Lodhi, P. H. (1979). Eysenck Personality Inventory scales and social desirability: A correlational and factorial study. Psychologia, 22, 236–240.Google Scholar
  78. Piedmont, R. L., & Chae, J. H. (1997). Cross-cultural generalizability of the Five-Factor Model of personality: Development and validation of the NEO-PI-R for Koreans. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 28, 131–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. (2001). India 2001: A reference annual. New Delhi: Author.Google Scholar
  80. Radhakrishnan, S., & Moore, C. A. (Eds.). (1957). A source book in Indian philosophy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Rolland, J.-P. (2000, July). Cross-cultural validity of the Five-Factor Model of personality. Paper presented at the XXVIIth International Congress of Psychology, Stockholm, Sweden.Google Scholar
  82. Saucier, G., & Goldberg, L. R. (1996). The language of personality: Lexical perspectives on the Five-Factor Model. In J. S. Wiggins (Ed.), The Five-Factor Model of personality: Theroretical perspectives (pp. 21–50). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  83. Saucier, G., & Goldberg, L. R. (2001). Lexical studies of indigenous personality factors: Permises, products and prospects. Journal of Personality, 69, 847–879.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Schönemann, P. H. (1966). A generalized solution of the orthogonal Procrustes problem. Psychometrika, 31, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Shanmugam, T. E. (1972). Personality: A trend report. In S. K. Mitra (Ed.), A survey of research in psychology (pp. 266–337). Mumbai: Popular Prakashan.Google Scholar
  86. Sharma, K. L. (Ed.). (1986). Social stratification in India. New Delhi: Manohar Publications.Google Scholar
  87. Sharma, S. (1981). Key concepts of social psychology in India. Psychologia, 24, 105–114.Google Scholar
  88. Silveira, D. M. (1998). D. M. Silveira’s India book. Goa: Classic Publishers.Google Scholar
  89. Sinha, J. B. P. (1982). The Hindu (Indian) identity. Dynamic Psychiatry, 15, 148–160.Google Scholar
  90. Sinha, S. (1963). Progress of psychology. In Fifty years of science in India. Kolkata: Indian Science Congress Association.Google Scholar
  91. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (1989). Using multivariate statistics (2nd ed.). New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  92. Tsaousis, I. (1999). The traits personality questionnaire (TPQue): A Greek measure for the five factor model. Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 271–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wolfe, R. N., & Johnson, S. D. (1995). Personality as a predictor of college performance. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 55, 177–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Yik, M. S. M., & Bond, M. H. (1993). Exploring the dimensions of Chinese person perception with indigenous and imported constructs: Creating a culturally balanced scale. International Journal of Psychology, 28, 75–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. H. Lodhi
    • 1
  • Savita Deo
    • 1
  • Vivek M. Belhekar
    • 1
  1. 1.University of PuneIndia

Personalised recommendations