Advertisement

Kidney Cancer pp 173-182 | Cite as

The Role of Systemic Chemotherapy in the Treatment of Kidney Cancer

  • Christopher M. George
  • Walter M. Stadler
Part of the Cancer Treatment and Research book series (CTAR, volume 116)

Abstract

The prognosis for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is poor. The median overall survival time of patients with advanced disease is approximately 10 months with a 3-year survival rate of about 10%1. RCC is typically described as chemotherapy (and radiation therapy) resistant. Most authors agree that biologic response modifiers (i e immunotherapy) represent standard first-line treatment for advanced RCC.

Keywords

Renal Cell Carcinoma Clin Oncol Objective Response Rate Renal Cell Cancer Kidney Cancer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Reference

  1. 1.
    Motzer RJ, Mazumdar M, Bacik J, et al. Survival and prognostic stratification of 670 patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 17: 2530–2540,1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vogelzang NJ, Priest ER, Borden L Spontaneous regression of histologically proved pulmonary metastases from renal cell carcinoma: a case with 5-year followup. J Urol 148: 1247–1248,1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Motzer RJ, Russo P Systemic therapy for renal cell carcinoma. J Urol 163: 408–417,2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Oliver RT, Nethersell AB, Bottomley N. Unexplained spontaneous regression and alpha-interferon as treatment for metastatic renal carcinoma. Br J Urol 63: 128–131,1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gleave ME, Elhilali M, Fradet Y, et al. Interferon gamma-lb compared with placebo in metastatic renal-cell carcinoma. Canadian Urologic Oncology Group. N Engl J Med 338: 1265–1271,1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hrushesky WJ, Murphy GP. Current status of the therapy of advanced renal carcinoma. J Surg Oncol 9: 277–288,1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Henriksson R, Nilsson G, Colleen S. Survival in renal cell carcinoma—a randomized evaluation of tamoxifen vs. interleukin-2, alpha-interferon (leucocyte) and tamoxifen. Br J Cancer 77: 1211,1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gershanovich MM, Gorelov AI, Hajba A, et al. High-dose toremifene (HDT) for the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Proc Amer Soc of Clin Oncol 21:19a (abstract 757): 757, 2002.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Amato RJ. Chemotherapy for renal cell carcinoma. Semin Oncol 27: 177–186, 2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Harris DT. Hormonal therapy and chemotherapy of renal-cell carcinoma. Semin Oncol 10: 422–430, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yagoda A, Abi-Rached B, Petrylak D. Chemotherapy for advanced renal-cell carcinoma: 1983–1993. Semin Oncol 22: 42–60, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yagoda A, Petrylak D, Thompson S. Cytotoxic chemotherapy for advanced renal cell carcinoma. Urol Clin North Am 20: 303–321, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kuebler JP, Hogan TF, Trump DL, et al. Phase II study of continuous 5-day vinblastine infusion in renal adenocarcinoma. Cancer Treat Rep 68: 925–926, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fossa SD, Droz JP, Pavone-Macaluso MM, et al. Vinblastine in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: EORTC phase II trial 30882. The EORTC Genitourinary Group. Eur J Cancer: 878–880, 1992.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zeffren J, Yagoda A, Kelsen D, et al. Phase I-II trial of a 5-day continuous infusion of vinblastine sulfate. Anticancer Res 4: 411–413, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tannock IF, Evans WK. Failure of 5-day vinblastine infusion in the treatment of patients with renal cell carcinoma. Cancer Treat Rep 69: 227–228, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Crivellari D, Tumolo S, Frustaci S, et al. Phase II study of five-day continuous infusion of vinblastine in patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma. Am j Clin Oncol 10: 231–233, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Elson PJ, Kvols LK, Vogl SE, et al. Phase II trials of 5-day vinblastine infusion (NSC 49842), Lalanosine (NSC 153353), acivicin (NSC 163501), and aminothiadiazole (NSC 4728) in patients with recurrent or metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Invest New Drugs 6: 97–103, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pyrhonen S, Salminen E, Ruutu M, et al. Prospective randomized trial of interferon alfa-2a plus vinblastine versus vinblastine alone in patients with advanced renal cell cancer. J Clin Oncol 17: 2859–2867, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kish JA, Wolf M, Crawford ED, et al. Evaluation of low dose continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil in patients with advanced and recurrent renal cell carcinoma. A Southwest Oncology Group Study. Cancer 74: 916–919, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hrushesky WI von Roemeling R, Lanning RM, et al. Circadian-shaped infusions of floxuridine for progressive metastatic renal cell carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 8: 1504–1513, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dexeus FH, Logothetis CJ, Sella A, et al Circadian infusion of floxuridine in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. j Urol 146: 709–713, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Damascelli B, Marchiano A, Spreafico C, et al Circadian continuous chemotherapy of renal cell carcinoma with an implantable, programmable infusion pump. Cancer 66: 237–241, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Merrouche Y, Negrier S, FL, et al. Phase II study of continous circadian infusion FUDR in metastatic renal cell cancer (RCC). Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 27: 1991.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dimopoulous MA, Dexeus FH, Jones E, et al. Evidence for additive anti-tumor activity and toxicity for the combination of FUDR and interferon alpha2B in patients (pts) with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 32: 186, 1991.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Richards F, Cooper MR, Jackson DV, et al. Continuous 5-day (D) intravenous (IV) FUDR infusion for renal cell carcinoma (RCC): A phase I-II trial of the Piedmont Oncology Association. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 10: 170, 1991.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Budd GT, Murthy S, Klein E, et al. Time-modified infusion of floxuridine in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 33: 220, 1992.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Conroy T, Geoffrois L, Guillemin F, et al. Simplified chronomodulated continuous infusion of floxuridine in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Cancer 72: 2190–2197, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Weissbach L, de Mulder P, Osieka R, et al. Phase II study of gemcitabine in renal cancer. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 11: 219, 1992.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mertens WC, Eisenhauer EA, Moore M, et al. Gemcitabine in advanced renal cell carcinoma. A phase II study of the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. Ann Oncol 4: 331–332, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Moore MJ, CM K, Ernst S. A phase II study of troxacitabine in patients with advanced and/or metastatic renal cell carcinoma. NCIC CTG IND.119. Proc Am Soc of Clin Oncol 20:193a (abstract 768): 2001.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dana BW, Alberts DS. Combination chemoimmunotherapy for advanced renal carcinoma with Adriamycin, bleomycin, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, plus BCG. Cancer Clin Trials 4: 205–207, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Droz.Th Theodore C, Ghosn M, et al. Twelve-year experience with chemotherapy in adult metastatic renal cell carcinoma at the Institut Gustave-Roussy. Semin Surg Oncol 4: 97–99,1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wada T, Houjou T, Kubo R, et al. A combined chemo-endocrine treatment with tegafur, adriamycin, methotrexate and tamoxifen for advanced renal cell carcinoma. Anticancer Res 13: 2465— 2467,1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Katakkar SB, Franks CR. Chemo-hormonal therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma with adriamycin, hydroxyurea, vinblastine, and medroxyprogesterone acetate. Cancer Treat Rep 62: 1379— 1380,1978.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jekunen A, Stengard J, Pyrhonen S. Phase II study of vinblastine and doxorubicin in advanced renal cell carcinoma. Eur J Cancer 2: 245,1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sommer HH Fossa SD, Lien HH. Combination chemotherapy of advanced renal cell cancer with CCNU and vinblastine. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 14: 277–278,1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Merrin C, Mittelman A, Fanous N, et al. Chemotherapy of advanced renal cell carcinoma with vinblastine and CCNU. J Urol 113: 21–23,1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hahn RG, Temkin NR, Savlov ED, et al. Phase II study of vinblastine, methyl-CCNU, and medroxyprogesterone in advanced renal cell cancer. Cancer Treat Rep 62: 1093–1095,1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rini BI, Vogelzang NJ, Dumas MC, et al. Phase II trial of weekly intravenous gemcitabine with continuous infusion fluorouracil in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer. J Clin Oncol 18: 2419–2426,2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    George GM, Dezheng H, Vogelzang NJ, et al. Pooled analysis of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients (pts) treated with gemcitabine (G) and 5-fluorouracil (F). Proc Amer Soc Clin Oncol 21:191 a (abstract 762): 2002.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wirth MR Immunotherapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Urol Clin North Am 20: 283–295, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Neidhart JA, Anderson SA, Harris JE, et al.Vinblastine fails to improve response of enal cancer to interferon alfa-nl: high response rate in patients with pulmonary metastases. J Clin Oncol 9: 832–836,1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fojo AT, Ueda K, Slamon DJ, et al. Expression of a multidrug-resistance gene in human tumors and tissues. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84: 265–269,1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fojo AT, Shen DW, Mickley LA, et al. Intrinsic drug resistance in human kidney cancer is associated with expression of a human multidrug-resistance gene. J Clin Oncol 5: 1922–1927,1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Duensing S, Dal mann I, Grosse J, et al. Immunocytochemical detection of P-glycoprotein: initial expression correlates with survival in renal cell carcinoma patients. Oncology 51: 309–313,1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Mickisch GH, Roehrich K, Koessig J, et al. Mechanisms and modulation of multidrug resistance in primary human renal cell carcinoma. J Urol 144: 755–759,1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Samuels BL, Hollis DR, Rosner GL, et al. Modulation of vinblastine resistance in metastatic renal cell carcinoma with cyclosporine A or tamoxifen: a cancer and leukemia group B study. Clin Cancer Res 3: 1977–1984,1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Warner E, Tobe SW, Andrulis IL, et al. Phase I-II study of vinblastine and oral cyclosporin A in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Am J Clin Oncol 18: 251–256,1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Schwartsmann G, Medina de Cunha F, Silveira LA, et al. Phase II trial of vinblastine plus nifedipine (VN) in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Brazilian Oncology Trials Group. Ann Oncol 2: 443,1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Murphy BR, Rynard SM, Pennington KL, et al. A phase II trial of vinblastine plus dipyridamole in advanced renal cell carcinoma. A Hoosier Oncology Group Study. Am J Clin Oncol 17: 10–13, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Motzer RJ, Lyn P, Fischer P, et al. Phase I/II trial of dexverapamil plus vinblastine for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 13: 1958–1965,1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Agarwala SS, Bahnson RR, Wilson JW, et al. Evaluation of the combination of vinblastine and quinidine in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. A phase I study. Am J Clin Oncol 18: 211–215,1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Chico I, Kang MH, Bergan R, et al. Phase I study of infusional paclitaxel in combination with the P-glycoprotein antagonist PSC 833. J Clin Oncol 19: 832–842,2001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Yang JC, Haworth L, Steinberg SM, et al. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of bevacizumab (anti-VEGF antibody) demonstrating a prolongation in time to progression in patients with metastatic renal cancer. Proc Amer Soc Clin Oncol 21:19a (abstract 15): 2002.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Motzer RJ, Bacik J, Mariani T, et al. Treatment outcome and survival associated with metastatic renal cell carcinoma of non-clear-cell histology. J Clin Oncol 20: 2376–2381,2002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Eisen T Thalidomide in solid malignancies. J Clin Oncol 20: 2607–2609,2002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Dinney CP, Bielenberg DR, Perrotte P, et al. Inhibition of basic fibroblast growth factor expression, angiogenesis, and growth of human bladder carcinoma in mice by systemic interferon-alpha administration. Cancer Res 58: 808–814, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Atkins MB, Hidalgo M, Stadler W, et al. A randomized double-blinded phase 2 study of intravenous CCI-779 administered weekly to patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. Proc Amer Soc Clin Oncol 21:10a (abstract 36): 2002.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Neshat MS, Mellinghoff IK, Tran C, et al. Enhanced sensitivity of PTEN-deficient tumors to inhibition of FRAP/mTOR. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98: 10314–10319, 2001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kondo K, Yao M, Kobayashi K, et al. PTEN/MMAC1/TEP1 mutations in human primary renal-cell carcinomas and renal carcinoma cell lines. Int J Cancer 91: 219–224, 2001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Stadler WM, Ratain MJ. Development of target-based antineoplastic agents. Invest New Drugs 18: 7–16, 2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Venner P, Eisenhauer EA, Wierzbicki R, et al. Phase II study of 2’-deoxycoformycin in patients with renal cell carcinoma. A National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group study. Invest New Drugs 9: 273–275, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Witte RS, Walsh C, Fisher H, et al Evaluation of deoxycoformycin in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. An ECOG pilot study. Invest New Drugs 10: 49–50, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Zaniboni A, Simoncini E, Marpicati P, et al. Phase II trial of 5-fluorouracil and high-dose folinic acid in advanced renal cell cancer. J Chemother 1: 350–351, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Schulof R, Lokich j,Wampler G, et al. Phase II trial of protracted infusional 5-FU (PIF) for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 10: 170, 1991.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ahlgren JD, Lokich J, Auerbach M, et al. Protracted infusional 5FU (PIF): a well tolerated regimen in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (MRC): A Mid-Atlantic Oncology Program (MOAP) study. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 12: 244, 1993.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Johnson DE, Chalbaud RA, Holoye PY, et al. Clinical trial of bleomycin (NSC-125066) in the treatment of metastatic renal carcinoma. Cancer Chemother Rep 59: 433–435, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Haas CD, Coltman CA, Jr, Gottlieb JA, et al. Phase II evaluation of bleomycin. A Southwest oncology Group study. Cancer 38: 8–12, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hahn DM, Schimpff SC, Ruckdeschel JC, et al. Single-agent therapy for renal cell carcinoma: CCNU, vinblastine, thioTEPA, or bleomycin. Cancer Treat Rep 61: 1585–1587, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Tait M, Abrams J, Egorin MJ, et al. Phase II carboplatin (CBDCA) for metastatic renal cell cancer with a standard dose (SD) and a calculated dose (CD) according to renal function. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 7: 125, 1988.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Trump DL, Elson P. Evaluation of carboplatin (NSC 241240) in patients with recurrent or metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Invest New Drugs 8: 201–203, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Rodriguez LH, Johnson DE. Clinical trial of cisplatinum (NSC 119875) in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Urology 11: 344–346, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Merrin CE. Treatment of genitourinary tumours with cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II): experience in 250 patients. Cancer Treat Rep 63: 1579–1584, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kiruluta G, Morales A, Lott S. Response of renal adenocarcinoma to cyclophosphamide. Urology 6: 557–558, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Hahn RG, Bauer M, Wolter J, et al. Phase II study of single-agent therapy with megestrol acetate, VP-16–213, cyclophosphamide, and dianhydrogalactitol in advanced renal cell cancer. Cancer Treat Rep 63: 513–515, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Wajsman Z, Beckley S, Madajewicz S. High dose cyclophosphamide in metastatic renal cell cancer. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 21: 423, 1980.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hahn RG, Begg CB, Davis T. Phase II study of vinblastine-CCNU, triazinate, and dactinomycin in advanced renal cell cancer. Cancer Treat Rep 65: 711–713, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Mertens WC, Eisenhauer EA, Jolivet J, et al. Docetaxel in advanced renal carcinoma. A phase II trial of the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. Ann Oncol 5: 185–187, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    O’Bryan RM, Baker LH, Gottlieb JE, et al. Dose response evaluation of adriamycin in human neoplasia. Cancer 39: 1940–1948, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Fossa SD, Wik B, Bae E, et al. Phase II study of 4’-epi-doxorubicin in metastatic renal cancer. Cancer Treat Rep 66: 1219–1221, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Benedetto P, Ahmed T, Needles B, et al. Phase II trial of 4’epi-adriamycin for advanced hypernephroma. Am J Clin Oncol 6: 553–554, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Swanson DA, Johnson DE. Estramustine phosphate (Emcyt) as treatment for metastatic renal carcinoma. Urology 17: 344–346, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Balducci L, Blumenstein B, Von Hoff DD, et al. Evaluation of fludarabine phosphate in renal cell carcinoma: a Southwest Oncology Group Study. Cancer Treat Rep 71: 543–544,1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Shevrin DH, Lad TE, Kilton Lj, et al. Phase II trial of fludarabine phosphate in advanced renal cell carcinoma: an Illinois Cancer Council Study. Invest New Drugs 7: 251–253,1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Rohde D, De Mulder PH, Weissbach L, et al. Experimental and clinical efficacy of 2’,2’- difluorodeoxycytidine (gemcitabine) against renal cell carcinoma. Oncology 53: 476–481,1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Stolbach LL, Begg CB, Hall T, et al. Treatment of renal carcinoma: a phase III randomized trial of oral medroxyprogesterone (Provera), hydroxyurea, and nafoxidine. Cancer Treat Rep 65: 689–692, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Fossa SD, Talle K. Treatment of metastatic renal cancer with ifosfamide and mesnum with and without irradiation. Cancer Treat Rep 64: 1103–1108,1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Heim ME, Fiene R, Schick E, et al. Central nervous side effects following ifosfamide monotherapy of advanced renal carcinoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 100: 113–116,1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    De Forges A, Droz JP, Ghosn M, et al. Phase II trial of ifosfamide/mesna in metastatic adult renal carcinoma. Cancer Treat Rep 71: 1103,1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Bodrogi I, Bald M, Sinkovics I, et al. Ifosfamide chemotherapy of metastatic renal cell cancer. Semin Surg Oncol 4: 95–96,1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Law TM, Mencel P, Motzer RJ. Phase II trial of liposomal encapsulated doxorubicin in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. Invest New Drugs 12: 323–325,1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Falkson CI. New formulation intravenous melphalan in the treatment of patients with metastatic renal cancer. Invest New Drugs 11: 93,1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Baumgartner G, Heinz R, Arbes H, et al. Methotrexate-citrovorum factor used alone and in combination chemotherapy for advanced hypernephromas. Cancer Treat Rep 64: 41–46,1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Stewart DJ, Futter N, Irvine A, et al. Mitomycin-C and metronidazole in the treatment of advanced renal-cell carcinoma. Am J Clin Oncol 10: 520–522,1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Hogan TF, Citrin DL, Freeberg BL. A preliminary report of mitotane therapy of advanced renal and prostate cancer. Cancer Treat Rep 65: 539–540,1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    De Jager R, Cappelaere P, Armand JP, et al. An EORTC phase II study of mitoxantrone in solid tumors and lymphomas. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 20: 1369–1375,1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Taylor SA, Von Hoff DD, Baker LH, et al. Phase II clinical trial of mitoxantrone in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma: a Southwest Oncology Group study. Cancer Treat Rep 68: 919–920, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    van Oosterom AT, Fossa SD, Pizzocaro G, et al. Mitoxantrone in advanced renal cancer: a phase II study in previously untreated patients from the EORTC Genito-Urinary Tract Cancer Cooperative Group. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 20: 1239–1241,1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Gams RA, Nelson 0, Birch R. Phase II evaluation of mitoxantrone in advanced renal cell carcinoma: a Southeastern Cancer Study Group Trial. Cancer Treat Rep 70: 921–922,1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Natale RB, Yagoda A, Kelsen DP, et al. Phase II trial of PALA in hypernephroma and urinary bladder cancer. Cancer Treat Rep 66: 2091–2092,1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Einzig AI, Gorowski E, Sasloff I et al. Phase II trial of taxol in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Cancer Invest 9: 133–136,1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    La Rocca RV, Stein CA, Danesi R, et al. A pilot study of suramin in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Cancer 67: 1509–1513,1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Motzer RJ, Nanus DM, O’Moore P, et al. Phase II trial of suramin in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma: treatment results, pharmacokinetics, and tumor growth factor expression. Cancer Res 52: 5775–5779,1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Park DK, Ryan CW, Dodlan ME, et al. A phase II trial of temozolomide in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer. Cancer Chem Pharm: (in press).Google Scholar
  106. Law TM, Ilson DH, Motzer RJ. Phase II trial of topotecan in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. Invest New Drugs 12: 143–145,1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Wong PP, Yagoda A, Currie VE, et al. Phase II study of vindesine sulfate in the therapy for advanced renal carcinoma. Cancer Treat Rep 61: 1727–1729,1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Fossa SD, Denis L, van Oosterom AT, et al. Vindesine in advanced renal cancer. A study of the EORTC Genito-urinary Tract Cancer Cooperative Group. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 19: 473–475, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Canobbio L, Boccardo F, Guarneri D, et al. Phase II study of navelbine in advanced renal cell carcinoma. Eur J Cancer 27: 804–805,1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wilding G, Kirkwood J, Clamon G, et al. Phase II trial of navelbine in metastatic renal cancer. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 12: 253,1993.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher M. George
    • 1
  • Walter M. Stadler
    • 2
  1. 1.Clinical Associate, Section of ematology/OncologyUniversity of Chicago Medical CenterChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Associate Professor, Sections of Hematology/Oncology and Urology, Departments of Medicine and SurgeryUniversity of Chicago Medical CenterChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations