Advertisement

Easter Island pp 155-175 | Cite as

The Endemic Marine Invertebrates of Easter Island: How Many Species and for How Long?

  • Christopher B. Boyko

Abstract

By whatever name it is called, Easter Island, Isla de Pascua, or Rapa Nui, this small (ca. 106 km2) spot of land in the central Pacific Ocean (27° 08’S, 109°20’W) has the distinction of being perhaps the most isolated spot on earth. It is approximately 3800 km from the South American mainland to the east, and over 2200 km from it’s nearest neighbor to the west, Pitcairn Island. The closest landmass is tiny Sala y Gómez 415 km to the east, a bleak uninhabited rock. Easter Island is, of course, most famous for its anthropological history, and the numerous stone statues (moai) that dot the landscape. Not surprisingly, most of the preservation effort directed at Easter Island in this century has been towards these archaeological and cultural artifacts. That the biological component of the island has received less attention is also not surprising, given the relatively depauperate fauna and flora reported on and around the island. What animals lived on the island in historical times is unknown and the few terrestrial species living there today, from the common isopods to the ubiquitous hawks, were introduced either on purpose (hawks from Chile for rodent control; see Klemmer and Zizka, 1993) or by accident (cosmopolitan isopod species brought in on plants). Of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna, only the insects have been studied in any detail (Compos & Peña, 1973); there are no comprehensive published accounts of the sparse isopod, mollusk, or flatwork freshwater faunas to date (see Kuschel, 1963; Klemmer and Zizka, 1993).

Keywords

Marine Invertebrate Hermit Crab Spiny Lobster Marine Fauna Endemic Taxon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Banta, W.C., 1991, The Bryozoa of the Galapagos, pp. 371–389. In: James, M.J. (ed.). Galapagos Marine Invertebrates. Taxonomy, Biogeography, and Evolution in Darwin’s Islands. Plenum Press, New York. 474 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Barnard, J.L., 1970, Sublittoral Gammaridea (Amphipoda) of the Hawaiian Islands. Smithsonia Contr. Zoology 34: 286 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Barnard, J.L., 1991, Amphipoda of the Galapagos Islands, pp. 193–206. In: James, M. J. (ed.). Galapagos Marine Invertebrates. Taxonomy, Biogeography, and Evolution in Darwin’s Islands. Plenum Press, New York. 474 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Blake, J.A., 1991, The polychaete fauna of the Galapagos Islands, pp. 75–96. In: James, M.J. (ed.) Galapagos Marine Invertebrates. Taxonomy, Biogeography, and Evolution in Darwin’s Islands. Plenum Press, New York. 474 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Botosaneanu, L., 1987, A new thalassostygobiont species of Cyathura (Isopoda: Anthuridea) from the south-east Pacific. Stygologia 3: 296–204.Google Scholar
  6. Briggs, J.C., 1974, Marine Zoogeography. McGraw-Hill, New York. 475 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Brusca, R.C., 1987, Biogeographic relationships of Galapagos marine isopod crustaceans. Bull. Mar. Sci.41(2): 268–281.Google Scholar
  8. Campos, L., and Peña, L.E., 1973, Los insectos de Isla de Pasqua. Revue Chil. Ent. 7: 217– 229.Google Scholar
  9. Cañete, J.I., 1997, Descripción de cinco especies de Polynoidae (Polychaeta) de isla de Pascua. Rev. Biol. Mar. Oceanogr. 32: 189–202.Google Scholar
  10. Castilla, J.C., and Rozbczylo, N., 1987, Invertebrados marinos de Isla de Pascua y Sala y Gomez. In: Islas Oceanicas Chilenas: Conocimiento Cientifico y Necesidades de Investigaciones. Ediciones Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago. 356 pp.Google Scholar
  11. Desqueyroux-Faúndez, R., 1990, Spongiaires (Demospongiae) de I’1’Ile de Pâques (Isla de Pascua). Revue Suisse Zool. 97: 373–409.Google Scholar
  12. DiSalvo, L. H., and Randall, J.E., 1993, The marine fauna of Rapanui, past and present, pp. 16–23. In: Fischer, S.R. (ed.). Easter Island Studies. Contributions to the History of Rapanui in Memory of William T. Mulloy. Oxbow Monograph 32.Google Scholar
  13. DiSalvo, L.H., Randall, J.E., and Cea, A., 1988, Ecological reconnaissance of the Easter Island sublittoral marine environment. Natl Geogr. Res. 4: 451–473.Google Scholar
  14. Dumont, H.J., and Martens, K., 1996, The freshwater microcrustacea of Easter Island. Hydrobiologia 325: 83–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eldredge, L.G., and Miller, S.E., 1995, How many species are there in Hawaii? Bishop Mus. Occ. Pap. 41: 3–18.Google Scholar
  16. Fell, F.J., 1974, The echinoids of Easter Island (Rapa Nui). Pac. Sci. 28: 147–158.Google Scholar
  17. Fernandez, J. and Villalba, C. 1986, Contribucion al conocimiento del genero Caligus Müller, 1785 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida) en Chile. GayanaZool. 50: 37–62.Google Scholar
  18. Foster, B.A., and Newman, W.A., 1987, Chthamalid barnacles of Easter Island; peripheral Pacific isolation of Notochthamalinae new subfamily and hembeli-group of Euraphiinae (Cirripedia: Chthamalidoidea). Bull. Mar. Sci. 41: 322–336.Google Scholar
  19. Fransen, C.H.J.M., 1987, Notes on caridean shrimps of Easter Island with descriptions of three new species. Zool. Meded. 61:501–531.Google Scholar
  20. Garth, J.S., 1973, The brachyuran crabs of Easter Island. Proc. California Acad. Sci., 4th ser. 39:311–336.Google Scholar
  21. Garth, J.S., 1985, On a small collection of brachyuran Crustacea from Easter Island obtained by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Downwind Expedition of 1958. Occ. Pap. Allan Hancock Found., n. ser. 3: 12 pp.Google Scholar
  22. Garth, J.S., 1991, Taxonomy, distribution, and ecology of Galapagos Brachyura, pp. 123–145. In: James, M.J. (ed.). Galapagos Marine Invertebrates. Taxonomy, Biogeography, and Evolution in Darwin’s Islands. Plenum Press, New York. 474 pp.Google Scholar
  23. Haig, J., 1974, Calcinuspascuenis, a new hermit crab from Easter Island (Decapoda, Anomura, Diogenidae). Crustaceana 27: 27–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Holthuis, L.B., 1972, The Crustacea Decapoda Macrura (the Alpheidae excepted) of Easter Island. Zool. Meded. 476: 29–54, 2 pls.Google Scholar
  25. Holthuis, L.B., 1991, Marine lobsters of the world. FAO Fisheries Synopsis 125 (13): 292 pp.Google Scholar
  26. Kay, E.A., 1977, Introduction to the revised edition, pp. 4–11. In: Devaney, D.M. and Eldredge, L.G. (eds.). Reef and Shore Fauna of Hawaii. Section 1: Protozoa through Ctenophora. Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Spec. Publ. 64 (1).Google Scholar
  27. Kay, E.A., 1991, The marine mollusks of the Galápagos determinants of insular marine faunas. pp. 235–252. In: James, M.J. (ed.). Galápagos Marine Invertebrates. Taxonomy, Biogeography, and Evolution in Darwin’s Islands. Plenum Press, New York. 474 pp.Google Scholar
  28. Klemmer, K., and Zizka, G., 1993, The terrestrial fauna of Easter Island, pp. 24–26. In: Fischer, S.R. (ed.). Easter Island Studies. Contributions to the History of Rapanui in Memory of William T. Mulloy. Oxbow Monograph 32.Google Scholar
  29. Kohn, A.J., 1978, Gastropods as predators and prey at Easter Island. Pac. Sci. 32: 35–37.Google Scholar
  30. Kohn, A.J., and Lloyd, M.C., 1973, Marine polychaete annelids of Easter Island. Int. Revue Ges. Hydrobiol. 58:691–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kropp, R.K., and Haig, J., 1994,Petrolisthes extremus, a new porcelain crab (Decapoda: Anomura: Porcellanidae) from the Indo-Pacific. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 107: 312– 317.Google Scholar
  32. Kuschel, G., 1963, Composition and relationship of the terrestrial faunas of Easter, Juan Fernandez, Desventuradas, and Galapágos Islands. Occ. Pap. California Acad. Sci. 44: 79– 95.Google Scholar
  33. Mah, C, 1998, new records, taxonomic notes, and a checklist of Hawaiian starfish. Bishop Mus. Occ. Pap. 55:65–71.Google Scholar
  34. Maluf, L.Y., 1991, Echinoderm fauna of the Galapagos Islands, pp. 345–367. In: James, M.J. (ed.). Galápagos Marine Invertebrates. Taxonomy, Biogeography, and Evolution in Darwin’s Islands. Plenum Press, New York. 474 pp.Google Scholar
  35. Martin, P. and Poppe, G.T., 1989, Notes on the Mollusca of Easter Island: Cypraea. Hawaiian Shell News 37(10): 1, 7.Google Scholar
  36. Massin, C, 1996, The holothurians of Easter Island. Bull. Inst. Royal Sci. Nat. Belgique 66: 151–178.Google Scholar
  37. McLaughlin, P.A., and Haig, J., 1989, On the status of Pylopaguropsis zebra (Henderson), P. magnimanus (Henderson), and Galapagurus teevanus Boone, with descriptions of seven new species of Pylopaguropis (Crustacea: Anomura: Paguridae). Micronesica 22: 123– 171.Google Scholar
  38. Moyano, H.I., 1991, Bryozoa marinos Chilenos VIII: una sintesis zoogeografica con consideraciones sistematicas y la description de diez especies y dos generos nuevos. GayanaZool. 55:305–389.Google Scholar
  39. Newman, W.A., and Foster, B.A., 1983, The Rapanuian faunal district (Easter and Sala y Gomez): in search of ancient archipelagos. Bull. Mar. Sci. 33: 633–644.Google Scholar
  40. Osorio, C, 1991, Charonia tritonis (Linne 1758) en Isla de Pascua (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Cymatiidae). Rev. Biol. Mar. Valparaiso 26: 75–80.Google Scholar
  41. Orosio, C, 1995, Dos nuevos registros de Isognomiidae (Mollusca Bivalvia) para Isla de Pascua, Chile, Rev. Biol. Mar. Valparaíso 30: 199–205.Google Scholar
  42. Osorio, C., and Atan, H., 1993, Relaciones biologias entre Luetzonia goodingi Rehder, 1980 (Gastropoda, Stiliferidae) parasito de Echinometra insularis Clark, 1972 [sic] (Echinoidea) en Isla de Pascua. Rev. Biol. Mar. Valparaíso 28: 99–109.Google Scholar
  43. Osorio, C., and Cantuarias, V., 1989, Vertical distribution of the mollusks on the rocky intertidal of Easter Island. Pac. Sci. 43: 302–315.Google Scholar
  44. Osorio, C, Brown, D., Donoso, L., and Atan, H., 1999, Aspects of the reproductive activity of Cypraea caputdraconis from Easter Island (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Cypraeidae). Pac. Sci. 53: 15–23.Google Scholar
  45. Poizat, C.H., and Osorio, C, 1991, Aplysia (Varria) dactylomela asymetrica, sous-espece nouvelle (gasteropode, opisthobrache), a l’Ile de Pâques, Chili. Mésogee 51: 59–63.Google Scholar
  46. Porteous, J.D., 1993, The modernization of Rapanui, pp. 225–227. In: Fischer, S.R. (ed.). Easter Island Studies. Contributions to the History of Rapanui in Memory of William T. Mulloy. Oxbow Monograph 32.Google Scholar
  47. Prado, R., 1983, Nota sobre cefalopodos decapodos colectados alrededor de las Islas de Pascua y Sala y Gomez. Bol. Soc. Biol. Conception 54: 159–162.Google Scholar
  48. Rehder, H.A., 1980, The marine mollusks of Easter Island (Isla de Pascua) and Sala y Gómez. Smithsonian Contrib. Zool. 289: 167 pp.Google Scholar
  49. Rozbaczylo, N., and Castilla, J.C., 1988, A new species of polychaeta, Scololepis anakenae (Polychaeta: Spionidae) from Easter Island, south Pacific Ocean, with ecological comments. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 101: 767–772.Google Scholar
  50. Saavedra, M., Carvacho, A., and Letelier, S., 1996, Nuevo registro de Metabetaeus minutus (Whittelegge) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Alpheidae) en Isla de Pascua. Rev. Biol. Mar. Valparaiso 31: 117–122.Google Scholar
  51. Schilder, F.A., 1965, The geographical distribution of cowries (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Veliger7: 171–183.Google Scholar
  52. Segers, H., and Dumont, H.J., 1993, Zoogeography of Pacific Ocean Islands: a comparison of the rotifer faunas of Easter Island and the Galapagos archipelago. Hydrobiologia 255/256: 475–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Senders, J., and Martin, P., 1987, Description d’une nouvelle sous-espece de Cypraeidae en provenance de l’Ile de Pâques. Apex 2: 13–24.Google Scholar
  54. Stunkard, H. W., 1965, A digenetic trematode, Botulus cablei, n. sp., from the stomach of the lancetfish, Alepisaurus borealis Gill, taken in the south Pacific. Biol. Bull. Woods Hole 128:488–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Villalba, C, 1987, Contribucion al concimiento del genero Hatschekia Poche, 1902 en Chile (Copepoda: Hatschekiidae). Bol. Soc. Biol. Concepción 57: 155–170.Google Scholar
  56. Villalba, C, and Fernandez, J., 1985, Parasitos deMola ramsayi (Giglioli, 1883) (Pices: Molidae) en Chile. Bol. Soc. Biol. Concepción 56: 71–78.Google Scholar
  57. Wells, J.W., 1983, Annotated list of the scleractinian corals of the Galápagos, pp. 213–291. In: Glynn, P.W. and Wellington, G.M. (eds.). Corals and Coral Reefs of the Galapagos Islands. University of California Press, Berkeley. 330 pp.Google Scholar
  58. Wicksten, M.K., 1991, Caridean and stenopodid shrimp of the Galapagos Islands, pp. 147– 156. In: James, M.J. (ed.). Galápagos Marine Invertebrates. Taxonomy, Biogeography, and Evolution in Darwin’s Islands. Plenum Press, New York. 474 pp.Google Scholar
  59. Wouters, K., 1997, A new genus of the family Pontocyprididae (Crustacea, Ostracoda) from the Indian and Pacific Oceans, with the description of two new species. Bull. Inst. Royal Sci. Nat. Belgique 67: 67–76.Google Scholar
  60. Zullo, V.A., 1991, Zoogeography of the shallow-water cirriped fauna of the Galapagos Islands and adjacent regions in the tropical eastern Pacific, pp. 173–192. In: James, M.J. (ed.). Galápagos Marine Invertebrates. Taxonomy, Biogeography, and Evolution in Darwin’s Islands. Plenum Press, New York. 474 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher B. Boyko
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Invertebrate ZoologyAmerican Museum of Natural HistoryNew York
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of Rhode IslandKingston

Personalised recommendations