Interleukin 1 (IL-1) Induces the Activation of Stat3

  • Ahmet Arman
  • Philip E. Auron
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 534)


Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is involved in a variety of immune system activities, such as acute phase response, fever and cartilage breakdown. The acute phase response is a result of injury, virus or bacterial infection, all of which induce acute phase protein synthesis. Expression of the acute phase proteins is predominantly regulated by IL-1 and IL-6; however, the liver centrally regulates the acute-phase response by inducing the release of acute phase reactants (APRs). There are two classes of these acute phase reactants. IL-1 induces class 1 acute phase proteins, such as serum amyloid A and 1acid glycoprotein, synergistically, with or without IL-6. However, class 2 APRs, including various anti-proteases and 2-macroglobin, are induced only by IL-6. The promoters of some of the acute phase genes contain regulatory respond elements called acute phase response elements (APRE). APRE bind to transcription factors termed acute-phase response factor (AFRF) or to the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, (Stat3). Additional types of regulatory elements found in promoters of APRs are CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) and nuclear factor-N3 (NF-NB) binding elements that bind to C/EBP family of transcription factors such as NF-IL6, C/EBPI and NF-NB respectively. IL-1 only activates NF-A8 and C/EBP transcription factors; however, IL-6 activates Stat3 molecules.


Tyrosine Phosphorylation Nuclear Extract Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay Hep3B Cell Serine Phosphorylation 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmet Arman
    • 1
    • 2
  • Philip E. Auron
    • 1
  1. 1.The New England Baptist Bone and Joint InstituteHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Environmental Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringMarmara UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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