Advertisement

Traditional Occupations in a Modern World: Career Guidance, Livelihood Planning, and Crafts in the Context of Globalization

  • Anita RatnamEmail author
Chapter
Part of the International and Cultural Psychology book series (ICUP)

Abstract

Neoliberal capitalism has posed several new challenges for career guidance and livelihood planning and has raised questions about the goals, techniques, ethics, and conceptual frameworks that currently guide their practice. At the same time, globalization and the growth paradigm have drawn attention to new forms of social and economic exclusion, worker alienation and disorientation, the precarious livelihoods of marginalized groups, and the politics of knowledge itself. In this chapter, both these sets of issues are brought together to examine what crafts have to offer the career guidance and livelihood planning discourse, and to explore ways in which career guidance and livelihood planning can reach out to crafts.

The chapter begins with an examination of the threats and opportunities that globalization has brought to crafts and craftspeople. In the second section, the ways in which career guidance and livelihood planning can contribute towards the repositioning of crafts as a modern career option are outlined. The role that career guidance and livelihood planning can play in translating crafts into meaningful careers for individuals, into sustainable livelihood systems for communities, and into engines of inclusive and sustainable growth through creative and cultural industry for marginalized regions and peoples is also examined. This includes developing a critique of the current growth paradigm; recognizing the porosity between art and craft and between tradition and modernity; and acknowledging crafts as meaningful work. Also, career guidance and livelihood planning can play a vital role in validating traditional knowledge in crafts, and in leveraging the flexibility that crafts offer in the context of volatile job markets. In the last section, attention is drawn to the challenges in providing relevant career guidance and livelihood planning services to young people from craft communities. The need for critical engagement with disadvantaged young people’s aspirations, with work codes in crafts communities, and with identities of artisans is identified as key areas. Often perceived as legacies of the past, it is argued that traditional crafts can be repositioned as creative and cultural industries for the future, and as career or livelihood options that redress social exclusion, disorientation, and the insecurity of a volatile labor market.

Keywords

Traditional Knowledge Career Guidance Sustainable Livelihood Creative Industry Meaningful Work 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Arulmani, G. (2009). Career counselling: A mechanism to address the accumulation of disadvantage. Australian Journal of Career Development, 19(1), 7–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arviso-One Feather, V., & Whiteman, H. (1985). American Indian and Alaska native career development youth manual: Leaders guide. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State Co-operative Extension Service.Google Scholar
  3. Baars, S. (2010). Social class, aspirations and cultural capital: A case study of working class children’s plans for the future and their parents’ involvement in life beyond the school gate (Institute for Social Change Working Paper 2010-05). Manchester, England: University of Manchester.Google Scholar
  4. Bennell, P. (2007). Promoting livelihood opportunities for rural youth: World development report. Rome, Italy: International Fund for Agricultural Development.Google Scholar
  5. Bouchart, D. (1993). Preliminary study on the status of craftworkers. Paris, France: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  6. Brady, D., & Denniston, R. (2006). Economic globalization, industrialization and deindustrialization in affluent democracies. Social Forces, 85(1), 297–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bureau of Labour Statistics. (2010). Green jobs. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/
  8. Chambers, R., & Conway, G. R. (1992). Sustainable rural livelihoods: Practical concepts for the 21st century (IDS Discussion Paper No. 296, pp. 7–8). Brighton, England: IDS.Google Scholar
  9. Cohen, P. (2006). Re-doing the knowledge: Labour, learning and life stories. Journal of Education and Work, 19(2), 109–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Connell, R. (2001). The men and the boys. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  11. Crawford, M. (2010). The case for working with your hands: Why office work is bad for us and fixing things feels good. London, England: Penguin.Google Scholar
  12. Creative and Cultural Skills and Crafts Council UK. (2009). The craft blueprint. London, England: Author.Google Scholar
  13. DeGraw, D. (2011). The occupy Wall Street movement, report from the frontlines: Origins of the 99% movement. Retrieved from http://www.globalresearch.ca/the-occupy-wall-street-movement/26864
  14. Donkin, L. (2001). Crafts and conservation—Synthesis report for ICCROM. Rome, Italy: International Centre for Study of Restoration of Cultural Property.Google Scholar
  15. Eaton, D., Collins, J., Morton, P., & Parnham, P. (2006). Moving back the walls. Retrieved from http://ctiweb.cf.ac.uk/news/events/beecon2006/pdf/P9_Pat_Morton.pdf
  16. European Association of Craft, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises. (2007). UEAPME comments on the energy policy communication of the European Commission and the energy policy conclusions from the spring summit 2007. Retrieved from http://www.ueapme.com/docs/pos_papers/2007/070424_Energy_Strategy_final_ECOFIS.pdf
  17. European Union. (2000). A memorandum on lifelong learning. Brussels, Belgium: Commission of the European Communities.Google Scholar
  18. Eversole, R. (2005). Challenging the creative class: Innovation, “creative regions” and community development. Australasian Journal of Regional Studies, 11(3), 353–362.Google Scholar
  19. Export Promotion Commission for Handicrafts (EPCH). (2013). Retrieved from http://www.epch.in/index.php
  20. Foucault, M. (1972). Archaeology of knowledge. London, England: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  21. Friel, M. (2012). Crafts: A hidden heart of creative industries. Tafter Journal, 44, 1–5.Google Scholar
  22. Galab, S., & Revathi, E. (2009). Understanding power-loom weavers’ suicides in Sircilla. Economic and Political Weekly, 44(8), 12–15.Google Scholar
  23. Gelatt, H. B. (1989). Positive uncertainty: A new decision-making framework for counselling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 36(2), 252–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Green, K. (2002, October). A rough trade: How artisan ironworkers mediated architectural modernism. A case study of early steel-framed architecture, the 1897 Wesleyan Church, Darwin. Paper presented at the Additions to Architectural History, XIXth Conference of the Society of Architectural Historians, Australia and New Zealand.Google Scholar
  25. Greenhalgh, P. (2002). Craft and modernity. Toronto, Canada: Coach House Books.Google Scholar
  26. Guichard, J. (2003). Career counseling for human development—An international perspective. The Career Development Quarterly, 51, 306–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gutman, L. M., & Akerman, R. (2008). Determinants of aspiration. London, England: Centre for Research on the Wider Benefits of Learning, Institute of Education. ISBN 978-0-9552810-7-5.Google Scholar
  28. Habermas, J. (1984). The philosophical discourse of modernity. Cambridge, England: Polity.Google Scholar
  29. Hobsbawm, E. (1996). Age of revolution 1789–1848. New York, NY: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  30. International Labour Organisation (ILO). (2010). Global employment trends for youth. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.Google Scholar
  31. Issac, B. (2005). Challenges facing crafts communities (Unpublished monograph). Bangalore, India: Samvada.Google Scholar
  32. Jencks, C., Crouse, J., & Mueser, P. (1983). The Wisconsin model of status attainment: A national replication with improved measures of ability and aspiration. Sociology of Education, 56(1), 3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jenschke, B. (2004). Career guidance challenges for the new century under an international perspective (Vol. 4). Buenos Aires, Argentina: Orientación y Sociedad.Google Scholar
  34. Jóhnson, G. (2008). Migration aspirations and immobility in a Malian Soninke village (Working Paper 10). Oxford, England: International Migration Institute, University of Oxford.Google Scholar
  35. Kao, G., & Tienda, M. (1998). Educational aspirations of minority youth. American Journal of Education, 106(3), 349–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kawlra, A. (2001). The tradition in crafts. Indian Folk Life, 1(4), 6–7.Google Scholar
  37. Kirkham, P. (1998). Humanizing modernism: The crafts, ‘functioning decoration’ and the Eameses source. Journal of Design History, 11(1), 15–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Krumboltz, J. D., & Levin, A. S. (2004). Luck is no accident: Making the most of happenstance in your life and career. Atascadero, CA: Impact.Google Scholar
  39. Lareau, A. (2011). Unequal childhoods: Class, race, and family life (2nd ed.). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  40. Lees-Maffei, G., & Sandino, L. (2004). Dangerous liaisons: Relationships between design, craft and art. Journal of Design History, 17(3), 207–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Leong, F. T. L., & Pearce, M. (2011). Desiderata: Towards indigenous models of vocational psychology. International Journal for Educational Vocational Guidance, 11, 65–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Liebel, M., & Roy, T. (2003). Handmade in India: Preliminary analysis of crafts producers and crafts production. Economic and Political Weekly, 38(51/52), 5366–5376.Google Scholar
  43. Lipsey, R. (1977). Coomaraswamy (Vol. 3, Bollingen Series LXXXIX). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  44. McDowell, L. (2003). Redundant masculinities. Malden, MA: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Medel-Añonuevo, C. (Ed.). (2002). Integrating life long learning perspectives. Hamburg, Germany: UNESCO Institute of Education.Google Scholar
  46. Morgan, G. (2008, December). The just in time self? Work aspirations and the limits of flexibility in the creative economies. Paper presented at the TASA Annual Conference, Melbourne, Australia.Google Scholar
  47. Nayak, A. (2006). Displaced masculinities: Chavs, youth and class in the post-industrial city. Sociology, 40(5), 813–881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nixon, D. (2006). “I just like working with my hands”: Employment aspirations and the meaning of work for low-skilled unemployed men in Britain’s service sector. Journal of Education and Work, 19(2), 201–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2004). Career guidance and public policy: Bridging the gap. Paris, France: OECD & European Commission.Google Scholar
  50. Planning Commission of India. (2007). 11th five year plan, Chapter 5: Rural urban livelihoods. New Delhi, India: Author.Google Scholar
  51. Pye, E. (1988). Artisans in economic development. Ottawa, Canada: International Development Centre.Google Scholar
  52. Rajagopalan, R. (2011). Crafts economics and impact study. Retrieved from http://www.craftscouncilofindia.org/research.html
  53. Ratnam, A. (2011). Traditional occupations in a modern world: Implications for career guidance and livelihood planning. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 11(2), 95–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Renne, E. P. (1997). Traditional modernity and the economics of hand-woven cloth production in Southwestern Nigeria. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 45(4), 773–792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Scoones, I. (1998). Sustainable rural livelihoods (IDS Working Paper 72). Retrieved from http://www.ids.ac.uk/files/dmfile/Wp72.pdf
  56. Scrase, T. J. (2003). Precarious production: Globalisation and artisan labour in the third world. Third World Quarterly, 24(3), 449–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sethi, R. (2010). Coming out of the shadow (Unpublished manuscript). New Delhi, India: Craft Revival Trust.Google Scholar
  58. State Council of Educational Research and Training (SCERT). (2005). Fishing craft and gear technology: Teachers source book. Kerala, India: Department of Education, Government of Kerala.Google Scholar
  59. United Nations. (2011). World youth report. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unyin/documents/wyr11/
  60. UNCTAD/UNDP. (2008). Creative economy report 2008: The challenge of assessing the creative economy towards informed policy-making. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.Google Scholar
  61. United Nations Development Programme. (2011). Human development report 2011. Retrieved from http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2011/
  62. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (1995). Our creative diversity: Report of the World Commission on Culture and Development. Paris, France: Author.Google Scholar
  63. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (2006). Ten-year plan of action 1990–1999 for the development of crafts in the world. Paris, France: Author.Google Scholar
  64. Walker, R., Scrine, C., & Shepherd, C. (2008). Job aspirations of young indigenous people in the East Kimberley: Making new tracks. Perth, Australia: Kulunga Research Network, Telethon Institute for Child Health Research.Google Scholar
  65. Watts, A. G. (2001). Career guidance and social exclusion: A cautionary tale. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 29(2), 157–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Watts, A. G., & Fretwell, D. H. (2004). Public policies for career development: Case studies and emerging issues for designing career information and guidance systems in developing and transition economies. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  67. World Bank. (2006). 2007 World development report: The next generation. Washington, DC: Author.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. World Commission on Environment and Development. (1987). Our common future (Chap. 5, Annex to General Assembly document A/42/427). Retrieved from http://www.un-documents.net/wced-ocf.htm

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SamvadaBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations