On-Animal Methods for Studying Echolocation in Free-Ranging Animals
Although still relatively new, sound sampling tags are proving to be powerful tools for studying echolocation in the wild. Compared to remote camera or listening systems that receive only fleeting glimpses of individuals, a tag follows an animal for periods of hours as it navigates and forages in its natural environment. Sensors can be added to sample movements, physiological parameters, and the environment of the animal. Such multisensor sound tags have been used extensively on odontocetes enabling fine-scale studies of prey search, selection, and capture behaviors that are expanding our knowledge of species traditionally thought of as hard to study. Given the severe weight constraint on tags for bats, short-range telemetry devices are still the only option for on-animal sound sensing. These have been used to study signal adaptation in captive animals but telemetry range is limited for outdoors use.
On-animal sound recordings can be difficult to interpret because of the density of the data and because of limitations associated with the location of the tag on the animal. New creative ways to explore multidimensional datasets that convey also the uncertainties inherent in these data are essential to unlock the full potential of sound tags in echolocation studies. Standardized ways to exchange and compare data are also needed to combine the small numbers of tag deployments typically achievable into a larger ecological picture.
KeywordsBats Echogram Event detection Foraging Movement sensors Sensor fusion Sound recording Sound-source parameters Tags Toothed whales Visualization
Thanks to T. Horiuchi, P. Madsen, N. Aguilar, T. Hurst, and A. Surlykke for helpful discussions. Funds from the National Oceanographic Partnership Program, a Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution senior technical award, the Marine Alliance for Science and Technology, Scotland, and a Marie Curie Career Integration Grant, supported the preparation of this chapter.
- Arranz, P., Aguilar de Soto, N., Madsen, P. T., Brito, A., Bordes, F., & Johnson, M. P. (2011). Following a foraging fish-finder: diel habitat use of Blainville’s beaked whales revealed by echolocation. PLoS ONE, 6(12), e28353.Google Scholar
- Burgess, W. C. (2008). A miniature acoustic recording tag: Applications to assess marine wildlife response to sound (No. GS0105A-0801). Santa Barbara, CA: Greeneridge Sciences, Inc.Google Scholar
- Caccamise, D. F., & Hedin, R. S. (1985). An aerodynamic basis for selecting transmitter loads in birds. Wilson Bulletin, 97(3), 306–318.Google Scholar
- Grewal, M. S., Weill, L. R., & Andrews, A. P. (2007). Global positioning systems, inertial navigation, and integration. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
- Henson, O. W., Jr., Bishop, A. L., Keating, A., Kobler, J. B., Henson, M. M., Wilson, B., & Hansen, R. (1987). Biosonar imaging of insects by Pteronotus p. parnellii, the mustached bat. National Geographic Research, 3, 82–101.Google Scholar
- Hiryu, S., Katsura, K., Lin, L. K., Riquimaroux, H., & Watanabe, Y. (2005). Doppler-shift compensation in the Taiwanese leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros terasensis) recorded with a telemetry microphone system during flight. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 118(6), 3927–3933.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Houser, D., Martin, S. W., Bauer, E. J., Phillips, M., Herrin, T., Cross, M., Vidal, A., & Moore, P. W. (2005). Echolocation characteristics of free-swimming bottlenose dolphins during object detection and identification. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 117(1), 2308–2317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Johnson, M. P., Madsen, P. T., Zimmer, W. M. X., Aguilar de Soto, N., & Tyack, P. L. (2006). Foraging Blainville’s beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) produce distinct click types matched to different phases of echolocation. Journal of Experimental Biology, 209(24), 5038–5050.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kay, S. (1998). Fundamentals of statistical signal processing, Vol. 2: Detection theory. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Liu, C. M., Hsu, H. W., & Lee, W. C. (2008). Compression artifacts in perceptual audio coding. IEEE Transactions on Audio , Speech , and Language Processing , 16(4), 681–695. Google Scholar
- Marshall, G., Bakhtiari, M., Shepard, M., Tweedy III, J., Rasch, D., Abernathy, K., Joliff, B., Carrier, J., & Heithaus, M. R. (2007). An advanced solid-state animal-borne video and environmental data-logging device (Crittercam) for marine research. Marine Technology Society Journal, 41(2), 31–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mitani, Y., Sato, K., Ito, S., Cameron, M. F., Siniff, D. B., & Naito, Y. (2003). A method for reconstructing three-dimensional dive profiles of marine mammals using geomagnetic intensity data: Results from two lactating Weddell seals. Polar Biology, 26(5), 311–317.Google Scholar
- Orfanidis, S. J. (2010). Introduction to signal processing. Rutgers University. (available free at: www.ece.rutgers.edu/~orfanidi/intro2sp).
- Read, A. J., & Westgate, A. J. (1997). Monitoring the movements of harbour porpoises ( Phocoena phocoena ) with satellite telemetry. Marine Biology , 130, 315–322. Google Scholar
- Riquimaroux, H., Osawa, Y., & Watanabe, Y. (2007). Strategy for vocalization taken by FM bats during group flight measured by a wireless microphone system. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America , 121(5), 3037 (abstract only). Google Scholar
- Ropert-Coudert, Y., Kato, A., Liebsch, N., Wilson, R. P., Muller, G., & Baubet, E. (2004). Monitoring jaw movements: A cue to feeding activity. Game and Wildlife Science, 21(1), 1–20.Google Scholar
- Ward Shaffer, J., Moretti, D., Jarvis, S., Tyack, P. L., & Johnson, M. P. (2013). Effective beam pattern of the Blainville’s beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris) and implications for passive acoustic monitoring. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 133(3), 1770–1784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wilson, R. P., & Wilson, M. P. (1988). Dead reckoning: a new technique for determining penguin movements at sea. Meeresforschung, 32, 155–158.Google Scholar
- Wilson, R. P., White, C. R., Quintana, F., Halsey, L. G., Liebsch, N., Martin, G. R., & Butler, P. J. (2006). Moving towards acceleration for estimates of activity-specific metabolic rate in free-living animals: The case of the cormorant. Journal of Animal Ecology, 75(5), 1081–1090.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wilson, R. P., Liebsch, N., Davies, I. M., Quintana, F., Weimerskirch, H., Storch, S., Lucke, K., Siebert, U., Zankl, S., Müller, G., Zimmer, I., Scolaro, A., Campagna, C., Plötz, J., Bornemann, H., Teilmann, J., & McMahon, C. R. (2007). All at sea with animal tracks: Methodological and analytical solutions for the resolution of movement. Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 54(3), 193–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar