Ergogenic Aids and the Female Athlete

Chapter

Abstract

Female athletes tend to choose their supplements for different reasons than their male counterparts. Collegiate female athletes report taking supplements “for their health,” to make up for an inadequate diet, or to have more energy. Multivitamins, herbal substances, protein supplements, amino acids, creatine, fat burners/weight-loss products, caffeine, iron, and calcium are the most frequently used products reported by female athletes. Many female athletes are unclear on when to use a protein supplement, how to use it, and different sources of protein (whey, casein, and soy). This chapter addresses essential amino acid and branched chain amino acid supplementation. Along with recommendations for protein supplementation, creatine supplementation is discussed. Not all female athletes are concerned with building muscle. Burning fat is also a major concern for the female athlete. This may result in the athlete turning to products marketed for weight control (i.e., ginseng or ephedra). A product legal for over-the-counter (OTC) sales, however, can be illegal for athletic competition (i.e., ephedra). Competitive athletes should be aware of the banned substance list for their governing body and that OTC products are not currently regulated by the FDA. This lack of regulation can lead to OTC products that are contaminated with banned substances.

Keywords

Anabolic steroids BCAA Creatine Echinacea Ephedra Ginseng Protein Supplement 

References

  1. 1.
    Kristiansen M, Levy-Milne R, Barr S, Flint A. Dietary supplement use by varsity athletes at a Canadian University. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2005;15(2):195–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Froiland K, Koszewski W, Hingst J, Kopecky L. Nutritional supplement use among college athletes and their sources of information. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2004;14(1):104–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Herbold NH, Visconti BK, Frates S, Bandini L. Traditional and nontraditional supplement use by collegiate female varsity athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2004;14(5):586–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gruber AJ, Pope HG. Ephedrine abuse among 36 female weightlifters. Am J Addictions. 1998;7(4):256–61.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ziegler PJ, Nelson JA, Jonnalagadda SS. Use of dietary supplements by elite figure skaters. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003;13(3):266–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Whitehead MT, Martin TD, Scheett TP, Webster MJ. Running economy and maximal oxygen consumption after 4 weeks of oral echinacea supplementation. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(7):1928.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Whitehead MT, Martin TD, Scheet TP, Webster MJ. The effects of 4 wk of oral echinacea supplementation on serum erythropoietin and indices of erythropoietic status. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2007;17(4):378–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Congeni J, Miller S. Supplements and drugs used to enhance athletic performance. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2002;49(2):435–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Faigenbaum AD, Zaichkowsky LD, Gardner DE, Micheli LJ. Anabolic steroid use by male and female middle school students. Pediatrics. 1998;101(5):E6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    NCAA publications—research—substance use—national study of substance use trends among NCAA college student-athletes. Cited 7/31/2012. Available from: http://www.ncaapublications.com/p-4266-research-substance-use-national-study-of-substance-use-trends-among-ncaa-college-student-athletes.aspx
  11. 11.
    Yusko DA, Buckman JF, White HR, Pandina RJ. Alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs, and performance enhancers: a comparison of use by college student athletes and nonathletes. J Am Coll Health. 2008;57(3):281–90.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    ACSMps. Nutrition and athletes performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2009;41(3):709–31.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Campbell B, Kreider RB. Conjugated linoleic acids. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2008;7(4):237–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Layman DK, Shiue H, Sather C, Erickson DJ, Baum J. Increased dietary protein modifies glucose and insulin homeostasis in adult women during weight loss. J Nutr. 2003;133:405–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Volek JS, Forsythe C. Very-low carbohydrate diets, chapter 25. In: Antonio J, Kalman D, Stout JR, Greenwood M, Willoughby DG, Haff GG, editors. Essentials of sports nutrition and supplements. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2008. p. 581–603.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Clifton PM, Keogh JB, Noakes M. Long-term effects of a high-protein weight-loss diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(1):23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Noakes M. The role of protein in weight management. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17:169–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bilsborough S, Mann N. A review of issue of dietary protein intake in humans. Int J Sports Nutr Exc Metab. 2006;16:129–52.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    BØrsheim E, Tipton K, Wolfe SE, Wolfe RR. Essential amino acids and muscle protein recovery from resistance exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002;283:E648–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Paddon-jones D, Sheffield-Moore M, Zhang XJ, Volpi E, Wolf SE, Aarslan A, et al. Amino acid ingestión improves muscles protein síntesis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;286:E321–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tipton KD, Wolf R. Exercise, protein metabolism and muscle growth. Int J Sports Nutr Exc Metab. 2001;11(1):109–32.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kreider RB, Wilborn CD, Taylor L, Campbell B, Almada AL, Collins R, et al. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010;7:7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bianco A, Mammina C, Paoli A, Bellafiore M, Battaglia G, Caramazza G, et al. Protein supplementation in strength and conditioning adepts: knowledge, dietary behavior and practice in palermo, Italy. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2011;8:25.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Petroczi A, Naughton DP, Mazanov J, Holloway A, Bingham J. Performance enhancement with supplements: incongruence between rationale and practice. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2007;4(19):19.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Imdad A, Bhutta ZA. Effect of balanced protein energy supplementation during pregnancy on birth outcomes. BMC Publ Health. 2011;11 Suppl 3:S17.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Etzel MR. Manufacture and use of dairy protein fractions. J Nutr. 2004;134:996S–1002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hoffman JR, Falvo MJ. Protein- which is the best? J Sports Sci Med. 2004;13:118–30.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Snyder BS, Haub MD. Whey, casein, and soy proteins. In: Driskell JA, editor. Sports nutrition fast and proteins. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2007. p. 143–63.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Marshall K. Therapeutic applications of whey protein. Altern Med Rev. 2004;9(2):136–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Miller AL. Therapeutic considerations of L-glutamine: a review of the literature. Altern Med Rev. 1999;4(4):239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    McConell GK, Kingwell BA. Does nitric oxide regulate skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise? Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2006;34(1):36–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Stipanuk M, Stipanuk H. Role of the liver in regulation of body cysteine and taurine levels: a brief review. Neurochem Res. 2004;29(1):105–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mojtahedi MC, Thorpe MP, Karampinos DC, Johnson CL, Layman DK, Georgiadis JG, et al. The effects of a higher protein intake during energy restriction on changes in body composition and physical function in older women. J Gerontol Ser A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2011;66(11):1218.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Holm L, Olesen JL, Matsumoto K, Doi T, Mizuno M, Alsted TJ, et al. Protein-containing nutrient supplementation following strength training enhances the effect on muscle mass, strength, and bone formation in postmenopausal women. J Appl Physiol. 2008;105(1):274–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Koopman R. Dietary protein and exercise training in ageing. Proc Nutr Soc. 2011;70(1):104–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tipton K, Elliott TA, Cree MG, Wolf SE, Sanford AP, Wolfe RR. Ingestion of casein and whey proteins result in muscle anabolism after resistance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exc. 2004;36(12):2073–81.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Paul GL. The rationale for consuming protein blends in sports nutrition. J Am Coll Nutr. 2009;28(Suppl):464S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Boirie Y, Dangin M, Gachon P, Vasson M, Maubois J, Beaufrère B. Slow and fast dietary proteins differently modulate postprandial protein accretion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94(26):14930–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    West DWD, Burd NA, Coffey VG, Baker SK, Burke LM, Hawley JA, et al. Rapid aminoacidemia enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis and anabolic intramuscular signaling responses after resistance exercise. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94(3):795.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hasler CM. The cardiovascular effects of soy products. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2002;16(4):50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zhan S, Ho SC. Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein containing isoflavones on the lipid profile. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81(2):397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
  43. 43.
    Skidmore-Roth L. Mosby’s handbook of herbs & natural supplements. 1st ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2001.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cook M, Cribb PJ. Effective nutritional supplement combinations chapter 9. In: Greenwood M, Kalman DS, Antonio J, editors. Nutritional supplements in sports and exercise. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2008. p. 259–319.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cribb PJ, Williams AD, Hayes A. A creatine-protein-carbohydrate supplementation enhances responses to resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exc. 2007;39(11):1960–8.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Dangin M, Guillet C, Garcia-Rodenas C, Gachon P, Bouteloup-Demange C, Reiffers-Magnani K, et al. The rate of protein digestion affects protein gain differently during aging in humans. J Physiol. 2003;549(Pt 2):635–44.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Dangin M, Boirie Y, Guillet C, Beaufrère B. Influence of the protein digestion rate on protein turnover in young and elderly subjects. J Nutr. 2002;132:3228S–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pennings B, Boirie Y, Senden J, Gijsen AP, Kuipers H, van Loon L. Whey protein stimulates postprandial muscle protein accretion more effectively than do casein and casein hydrolysate in older men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93(5):997–1005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Tang JE, Moore DR, Kujbida GW, Tarnopolsky MA, Phillips SM. Ingestion of whey hydrolysate, casein, or soy protein isolate: effects on mixed muscle protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in young men. J Appl Physiol. 2009;107(3):987–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Moore RD, Robinson MJ, Fry JL, Tang JE, Glover EI, Wilkinson SB, et al. Ingested protein dose response of muscle and albumin protein synthesis after resistance exercise in young men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89:161–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Tarnopolsky MA, Timmons BW. Protein: quantity and quality, chapter 7. In: Driskell JA, editor. Sports nutrition fats and proteins. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2007. p. 109–42.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lamont LS, McCullough AJ, Kalhan SC. Gender differences in leucine, but not lysine, kinetics. J Appl Physiol. 2001;91(1):357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lamont LS, McCullough AJ, Kalhan SC. Gender differences in the regulation of amino acid metabolism. J Appl Physiol. 2003;95(3):1259–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Young VR, Tharakan JJ. Nutritional essentiality of amino acids and amino acid requirements in healthy adults in clinical nutrition. In: Cynober LC, editor. Metabolic and therapeutic aspects of amino acids in clinical nutrition. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2004. p. 439–70.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wilkinson SB, Tarnopolsky MA, Macdonald MJ, Macdonald JR, Armstrong D, Phillips SM. Consumption of fluid skim milk promotes greater muscle protein accretion after resistance exercise than does consumption of an isonitrogenous and isoenergetic soy- protein beverage. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(4):1031.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Dillon EL, Sheffield-Moore M, Paddon-Jones D, Gilkison C, Sanford AP, Casperson SL, et al. Amino acid supplementation increases lean body mass, basal muscle protein synthesis, and insulin-like growth factor-I expression in older women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94(5):1630–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wolfe RR. Regulation of muscle protein by amino acids. J Nutr. 2002;132:3219S–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Cribb PJ, Hayes A. Effects of supplement timing and resistance exercise on skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Med Sci Sports Exc. 2006;38(11):918–1925.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    La Bounty PM, Campbell BI, Wilson J, Galvan E, Berardi J, Kleiner SM et al. International society of sports nutrition position stand: meal frequency. J. Int. Soc. Sports. Nutr. 2011;8(4):1–12.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Willoughby DS, Stout JR, Wilborn CD. Effects of resistance training and protein plus amino acid supplementation on muscle anabolic, mass, and strength. Amino Acids. 2007;32:467–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Breen L, Phillips SM. Skeletal muscle protein metabolism in the elderly: Interventions to counteract the “anabolic resistance” of ageing. Nutr Metab. 2011;8:68.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Yang Y, Breen L, Burd NA, Hector AJ, ChurchwardVenne TA, Josse AR, et al. Resistance exercise enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis with graded intakes of whey protein in older men. Br J Nutr. 2012;108(10):1780–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bohe J, Low A, Wolfe RR, Rennie MJ. Human muscle protein synthesis is modulated by extracellular, not intramuscular amino acid availability: a dose-response study. J Physiol. 2003;552(Pt 1):315–24.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Figueroa Alchapar J, Naclerio F. Ayudas ergogenicas nutricionales para la actividad fisica y el deporte. In: Naclerio F, editor. Deportivo, fundamentos y aplicaciones en diferentes deportes. Medica Panamericana; 2011. p. 517-37Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kerksick C, Harvey T, Stout J, Campbell B, Wilborn C, Kreider R, et al. International society of sports nutrition position stand: nutrient timing. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2008;5:17.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kerksick C, Leutholtz B. Nutrient administration and resistance training. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2005;2(1):50–67.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Rasmusen CJ. Nutritional supplement for endurance athletes chapter 11. In: Greenwood M, Kalman DS, Antonio J, editors. Nutritional supplements in sports and exercise. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2008. p. 369–407.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Willoughby DS, Rosene JM. Effects of oral creatine and resistance training on myogenic regulatory factor expression. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35(6):923–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Mourier A, Bigard AX, De Kerviler E, Roger B, Legrand H, Guezennec CY. Combined effects of caloric restriction and branched-chain amino acid supplementation on body composition and exercise performance in elite wrestlers. Int J Sports Med. 1997;18(1):47–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Campbell B, Kreider RB, Ziegenfuss T, La Bounty P, Roberts M, Burke D, et al. International society of sports nutrition position stand: Protein and exercise. J. Int. Soc. Sports. Nutr. 2007;doi:10.1186/1550-2783-4-8:4:8.
  71. 71.
    Guoyao W. Intestinal mucosal amino acid catabolism. J Nutr. 1998;128(8):1249–52.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Meeusen R, Watson P, Dvorak J. The brain and fatigue: new opportunities for nutritional intervention? J Sports Sci. 2006;24(7):773–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Newsholme EA, Leech AR. Biochemical for the medical sciences. New York: Wiley; 1994.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Newsholme EA, Blomstrand E. Branched-chain amino acids and central fatigue. J Nutr. 2006;136:274S–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Shimomura Y, Inaguma A, Watanabe S, Yamamoto Y, Muramatsu Y, Bajotto G, et al. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation before squat exercise and delayed-onset muscle soreness. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2010;20(3):236–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Shimomura Y, Yamamoto Y, Bajotto G, Sato J, Murakami T, Shimomura N, et al. Nutraceutical effects of branched-chain amino acids on skeletal muscle. J Nutr. 2006;136(2):529S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Antonio H, Sanders M, Kalman D, Woodgate D, Street C. The effects of high dose glutamine ingestion on weightlifting performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2002;16(1):157–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Walsh NP, Blannin AB, Bishop NC, Robson PJ, Robson S, Gleeson M. Effect of oral glutamine supplementation on human neutrophil lipopolysa-ccharide-stimulated degranulation following prolonged exercise. Int J Sports Nutr Exerc Metabol. 2000;10:39–50.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Gibala MJ. Regulation of skeletal muscle amino acid metabolism during exercise. Int J Sports Nutr Exc Metab. 2001;11(1):87–108.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Phillips GC. Glutamine: the nonessential amino acid for performance enhancement. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2007;6(4):265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Cuisinier C, Ward RJ, Francaux M, Sturbois X, de Witte P. Changes in plasma and urinary taurine and amino acids in runners immediately and 24 h after a marathon. Amino Acids. 2001;20(1):13–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Lagranha CJ, Levada-Pires A, Sellitti DF, Procopio J, Curi R, Pithon-Curi T. The effect of glutamine supplementation and physical exercise on neutrophil function. Amino Acids. 2008;34(3):337–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Alvares TS, Meirelles CM, Bhambhani YN, Paschoalin V, Gomes P. L-arginine as a potential ergogenic aid in healthy subjects. Sports Med. 2011;41(3):233–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Fricke O, Baecker N, Heer M, Tutlewski B, Schoenau E. The effect of L-arginine administration on muscle force and power in postmenopausal women. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2008;28(5):307–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Karlic H, Lohninger A. Supplementation of L-carnitine in athletes: does it make sense? Nutrition. 2004;20(7–8):709–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Calfee R, Fadale P. Popular ergogenic drugs and supplements in young athletes. Pediatrics. 2006;117(3):e577–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Barr SI, Rideout CA. Nutritional considerations for vegetarian athletes. Nutrition. 2004;20(7–8):696–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Tokish JM, Kocher MS, Hawkins RJ. Ergogenic aids: a review of basic science, performance, side effects, and status in sports. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32(6):1543–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Stevenson SW, Dudley GA. Creatine loading, resistance exercise performance, and muscle mechanics. J Strength Cond Res. 2001;15(4):413–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Vandenberghe K, Goris M, Van Hecke P, Van Leemputte M, Vangerven L, Hespel P. Long-term creatine intake is beneficial to muscle performance during resistance training. J Appl Physiol. 1997;83(6):2055–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Bucci LR. Selected herbals and human exercise performance. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72 Suppl 2:624S–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Winterstein AP, Storrs CM. Herbal supplements: considerations for the athletic trainer. J Athl Train. 2001;36(4):425–32.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Bahrke MS, Morgan WP, Stegner A. Is ginseng an ergogenic aid? Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009;19(3):298–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Palisin TE, Stacy JJ. Ginseng: is it in the root? Curr Sports Med Rep. 2006;5(4):210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Vogler BK, Pittler MH, Ernst E. The efficacy of ginseng. A systematic review of randomised clinical trials. E J Clin Pharmacol. 1999;55(8):567–75.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Engels H. Effects of ginseng supplementation on supramaximal exercise performance and short-term recovery. J Strength Cond Res. 2001;15(3):290–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Dowling EA, Redondo DR, Branch JD, Jones S, McNabb G, Williams MH. Effect of eleutherococcus senticosus on submaximal and maximal exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996;28(4):482–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Barrett B, Brown R, Rakel D, Mundt M, Bone K, Barlow S, et al. Echinacea for treating the common cold: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2010;153(12):769.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Turner RB, Riker DK, Gangemi JD. Ineffectiveness of echinacea for prevention of experimental rhinovirus colds. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000;44(6):1708.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Turner RB, Bauer R, Woelkart K, Hulsey TC, Gangemi JD. An evaluation of echinacea angustifolia in experimental rhinovirus infections. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(4):341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Powers ME. Ephedra and its application to sport performance: another concern for the athletic trainer? J Ath Train. 2001;36(4):420–4.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Dietary supplements > guidance for industry: final rule declaring dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids adulterated because they present an unreasonable risk; small entity compliance guide; Cited [7/31/2012]. Available from: http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/GuidanceDocuments/DietarySupplements/ucm072997.htm
  103. 103.
    Shekelle PG, Hardy ML, Morton SC, Maglione M, Mojica WA, Suttorp MJ, et al. Efficacy and safety of ephedra and ephedrine for weight loss and athletic performance: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2003;289(12):1537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Juhn MS. Popular sports supplements and ergogenic aids. Sports Med. 2003;33(12):921–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Ahrendt DM. Ergogenic aids: counseling the athlete. Am Fam Physician. 2001;63(5):913–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Graham TE. Caffeine and exercise: metabolism, endurance and performance. Sports Med. 2001;31(11):785–807.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Mangus BC, Trowbridge CA. Will caffeine work as an ergogenic aid? the latest research. Ath Therapy Today. 2005;10(3):57–62.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Doherty M, Smith P, Hughes M, Davison R. Caffeine lowers perceptual response and increases power output during high-intensity cycling. J Sports Sci. 2004;22(7):637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Greer F, McLean C, Graham TE. Caffeine, performance, and metabolism during repeated wingate exercise tests. J Appl Physiol. 1998;85(4):1502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Astorino TA, Matera AJ, Basinger J, Evans M, Schurman T, Marquez R. Effects of red bull energy drink on repeated sprint performance in women athletes. Amino Acids. 2012;42(5):1803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Candow DG, Kleisinger AS, Grenier S, Dorsch KD. Effect of sugar-free red bull energy drink on high-intensity run time-to-exhaustion in young adults. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(4):1271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Ivy JL, Kammer L, Ding Z, Wang B, Bernard JR, Liao Y, et al. Improved cycling time-trial performance after ingestion of a caffeine energy drink. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009;19(1):61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Kazemi F, Gaeini A, Kordi A, Rahnama M, Rahnama R, Rahnama N. The acute effects of two energy drinks on endurance performance in female athlete students. Sport Sci Health. 2009;5(2):55–60.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Evans NA. Current concepts in anabolic-androgenic steroids. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32(2):534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Pluim BM. Current perspective. the athlete’s heart: a meta-analysis of cardiac structure and function. Circulation. 1999;101(3):336–45.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Whyte GP, George KJ, Nevill AJ, Shave RJ, Sharma SJ, Mckenna WJ. Left ventricular morphology and function in female athletes: a meta-analysis. Int J Sports Med. 2004;25(5):380–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Krumbach CJ, Ellis DR, Driskell JA. A report of vitamin and mineral supplement use among university athletes in a division I institution. Int J Sport Nutr. 1999;9(4):416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Nielsen P, Nachtigall D. Iron supplementation in athletes current recommendations. Sports Med. 1998;26(4):207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Beard J, Tobin B. Iron status and exercise. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;72(2):594S.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Barzel US, Massey LK. Excess dietary protein can adversely affect bone. J Nutr. 1998;128(6):1051–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Dawson-Hughes B. Interaction of dietary calcium and protein in bone health in humans. J Nutr. 2003;133(3):852S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Heaney RP. Excess dietary protein may not adversely affect bone. J Nutr. 2008;128(6):1054.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Geyer H, Parr MK, Koehler K, Mareck U, Schanzer W, Thevis M. Nutritional supplements cross-contaminated and faked with doping substances. J Mass Spec. 2008;43:892–902.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Reeds PJ. Dispensable and indispensable amino acids for humans. J Nutr. 2000;130(7):1835S.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of KinesiologyTexas Wesleyan UniversityFt. WorthUSA
  2. 2.Centre of Sport Science and Human PerformanceUniversity of Greenwich, School of ScienceKentUK

Personalised recommendations