Synchrony in Social Groups and Its Benefits

Chapter

Abstract

In recent years, social synchrony has attracted much attention from different research areas including biology, physics, psychology, and engineering. It is widely believed that synchrony, as an outcome of evolutionary selection, can increase the cohesion of social groups and thus lead them to perform better when dealing with complex tasks. This chapter briefly reviews several quantitative aspects of social synchrony, including how to measure and how to model it, the impact on it of the social network structure underlying the group, and its benefits to cooperation and productivity. We provide a case study of social synchrony among software developers in Apache, a distributed Open Source Software (OSS) project. In it, we illustrate how one could quantitatively study aspects of social synchrony. The results suggest that Apache software developers synchronize their work with each other, and work together in larger groups in relatively short periods. Such working synchrony increases productivity, in terms of the number of lines of code produced, and improves the efficiency of coordination among developers, in terms of communication overhead.

References

  1. Acebrón JA, Bonilla LL, Vicente CJP, Ritort F, Spigler R (2005) The Kuramoto model: a simple paradigm for synchronization phenomena. Rev Mod Phys 77(1):137–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aghdam MH, Ghasem-Aghaee N, Basiri ME (2009) Text feature selection using ant colony optimization. Expert Syst Appl 36(3):6843–6853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anthony M, Bartlett PL (2009) Neural network learning: theoretical foundations. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  4. Arenas A, Díaz-Guilera A, Pérez-Vicente CJ (2006) Synchronization reveals topological scales in complex networks. Phys Rev Lett 96(11):114102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arenas A, Díaz-Guilera A, Kurths J, Moreno Y, Zhou C (2008) Synchronization in complex networks. Phys Rep 469(3):93–153MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barabási A-L, Albert R (1999) Emergence of scaling in random networks. Science 286(5439):509–512MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barahona M, Pecora LM (2002) Synchronization in small-world systems. Phys Rev Lett 89(5):054101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beard RW, Hadaegh FY (2001) A Coordination architecture for spacecraft formation control. IEEE Trans Control Syst Technol 9(6):777–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blaabjerg F, Teodorescu RE, Liserre M, Timbus AV (2006) Overview of control and grid synchronization for distributed power generation systems. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 53(5):1398–1409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boccaletti S, Ivanchenko M, Latora V, Pluchino A, Rapisarda A (2007) Detecting complex network modularity by dynamical clustering. Phys Rev E 75(4):045102(R)Google Scholar
  11. Chatterjee S, Price B (1991) Regression analysis by example. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen J, Lu J-A, Zhan C, Chen G (2012) Laplacian spectra and synchronization processes on complex networks. In: Thai MT, Pardalos PM (eds) Handbook of optimization in complex networks: theory and applications. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 81–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chiang TC, Zheng D (2010) An empirical analysis of herd behavior in global stock markets. J Bank Financ 34(8):1911–1921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Choudhury MD, Sundaram H, John A, Seligmann DD (2009) Social synchrony predicting mimicry of user actions in online social media. In: The proceedings of the 2009 international conference on computational science and engineering, Vancouver, Canada, pp 151–158Google Scholar
  15. Costa LF, Rodrigues FA, Travieso G, Boas PRV (2007) Characterization of complex networks: a survey of measurements. Adv Phys 56(1):167–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Crick C, Munz M, Scassellati B (2006) Synchronization in social tasks: robotic drumming. In: The proceedings of the 15th IEEE international symposium on robot and human interactive communication, Hatfiled, UK, pp 97–102Google Scholar
  17. Deneubourg JL, Pasteels JM, Verhaeghe JC (1983) Probabilistic behaviour in ants: a strategy of errors? J Theor Biol 105(2):259–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Donetti L, Hurtado PI, Muñoz MA (2003) Entangled networks, synchronization, and optimal network topology. Phys Rev Lett 95(18):188701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dorigo M, Blum C (2005) Ant colony optimization theory: a survey. Theor Comput Sci 344:243–278MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  20. Dorigo M, Maniezzo V, Colorni A (1996) Ant system: optimization by a colony of cooperating agents. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern Part B: Cybern 26(1):29–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Emlen JJT (1952) Flocking behavior in birds. The Auk 69(2):160–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fæevik G, Tjentland K, Løvik S, Andersen IL, Bøe KE (2008) Resting pattern and social behaviour of dairy calves housed in pens with different sized lying areas. Appl Anim Behav Sci 114:54–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fortunato S (2010) Community detection in graphs. Phys Rep 486(3–5):75–174MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Freeman W (2000) A neurobiological role of music in social bonding. In: Wallin NL, Merker B, Brown S (eds) The origins of music. MIT, Cambridge, pp 411–424Google Scholar
  25. French R, Schermerhorn JR, Rayner C, Rees G, Rumbles S, Hunt JG, Osborn RN (2008) Organizational behaviour. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. Fries P (2005) A mechanism for cognitive dynamics: neuronal communication through neuronal coherence. TRENDS Cogn Sci 9(10):474–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gaing Z-L (2003) Particle swarm optimization to solving the economic dispatch considering the generator constraints. IEEE Trans Power Syst 18(3):1187–1195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Girvan M, Newman MEJ (2002) Community structure in social and biological networks. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99(12):7821–7826MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  29. Gómez-Gardeñes J, Moreno Y, Arenas A (2007) Paths to synchronization on complex networks. Phys Rev Lett 98(3):034101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gonzales AL, Hancock JT, Pennebaker JW (2010) Language style matching as a predictor of social dynamics in small groups. Commun Res 37(1):3–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Haken H (2004) Synergetics: introduction and advanced topics. Springer, HeidelbergCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hong H, Kim BJ, Choi MY, Park H (2004) Factors that predict better synchronizability on complex networks. Phys Rev E 69(6):067105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hove MJ, Risen JL (2009) It’s all in the timing: interpersonal synchrony increases affiliation. Soc Cogn 27:949–960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hummel D (1983) Aerodynamic aspects of formation flight in birds. J Theor Biol 104(3):321–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kuramoto T, Yamagishi H (1990) Physiological anatomy, burst formation, and burst frequency of the cardiac ganglion of crustaceans. Physiol Zool 63(1):102–116Google Scholar
  36. Lakin JL, Jefferis VE, Cheng CM, Chartrand TL (2003) The chameleon effect as social glue: evidence for the evolutionary significance of nonconscious mimicry. J Nonverbal Behav 27:145–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lehmann J, Gonçalves B, Ramasco JJ, Cattuto C (2012) Dynamical classes of collective attention in Twitter. In: The proceedings of the 2012 international world wide web conference committee, Lyon, pp 251–260Google Scholar
  38. Lerman K, Ghosh R (2012) Network structure, topology, and dynamics in generalized models of synchronization. Phys Rev E 86(2):026108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lewis SM, Cratsley CK (2008) Flash signal evolution, mate choice, and predation in fireflies. Annu Rev Entomol 53:293–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Li C, Sun W, Kurths J (2007) Synchronization between two coupled complex networks. Phys Rev E 76(4):046204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Li D, Leyva I, Almendral JA, Sendiña-Nadal I, Buldú JM, Havlin S, Boccaletti S (2008) Synchronization interfaces and overlapping communities in complex networks. Phys Rev Lett 101(16):168701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lü J, Chen G (2005) A time-varying complex dynamical network model and its controlled synchronization criteria. IEEE Trans Autom Control 50(6):841–846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Macrae CN, Duffy OK, Miles LK, Lawrence J (2008) A case of hand waving: action synchrony and person perception. Cognition 109:152–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Merkle D, Middendorf M, Schmeck H (2002) Ant colony optimization for resource-constrained project scheduling. IEEE Trans Evol Comput 6(4):333–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mirollo RE, Strogatz SH (1990) Synchronization of pulse-coupled biological oscillators. SIAM J Appl Math 50(6):1645–1662MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  46. Moon BS (2001) A gaussian smoothing algorithm to generate trend curves. Korean J Comput Appl Math 8(3):507–518MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
  47. Motter AE, Zhou C, Kurths J (2005) Network synchronization, diffusion, and the paradox of heterogeneity. Phys Rev E 71(1):016116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Müller V, Lindenberger U (2011) Cardiac and respiratory patterns synchronize between persons during choir singing. PLoS One 6(9):e24893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Navlakha S, Bar-Joseph Z (2011) Algorithms in nature: the convergence of systems biology and computational thinking. Mol Syst Biol. doi:10.1038/msb.2011.78Google Scholar
  50. Neda Z et al (2000) Self-organizing processes: the sound of many hands clapping. Nature 403:849–850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Nishikawa T, Motter AE, Lai Y-C, Hoppensteadt FC (2003) Heterogeneity in oscillator networks: are smaller worlds easier to synchronize? Phys Rev Lett 91(1):014101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Otte D (1980) On theories of flash synchronization in fireflies. Am Nat 116(4):587–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Oh E, Rho K, Hong H, Kahng B (2005) Modular synchronization in complex networks. Phys Rev E 72(4):047101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Paladino MP, Mazzurega M, Pavani F, Schubert TW (2010) Synchronous multisensory stimulation blurs self-other boundaries. Psychol Sci 21:1202–1207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Park K, Lai Y-C, Gupte S (2006) Synchronization in complex networks with a modular structure. Chaos 16(1):015105MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pinzger M, Gall HC (2010) Dynamic analysis of communication and collaboration in OSS projects. In: Collaborative software engineering. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 265–284Google Scholar
  57. Poli R, Kennedy J, Blackwell T (2007) Particle swarm optimization. Swarm Intell 1(1):33–57CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  58. Posnett D, D’Souza R, Devanbu P, Filkov V (2013) Dual ecological measures of focus for software development. In: The proceedings of the 2013 international conference of software engineering, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  59. Ravasz E, Somera AL, Mongru DA, Oltvai ZN, Barabási A-L (2002) Hierarchical organization of modularity in metabolic networks. Science 297(5586):1551–1555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Scharfstein DS, Stein JC (1990) Herd behavior and investment. Am Econ Rev 80(3):465–479Google Scholar
  61. Schweitzer F, Garcia D (2010) An agent-based model of collective emotions in online communities. Eur Phys J B 77(4):533–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Shaw E (1978) Schooling fishes: the school, a truly egalitarian form of organization in which all members of the group are alike in influence, offers substantial benefits to its participants. Am Sci 66(2):166–175Google Scholar
  63. Siegfried WR, Underhill LG (1975) Flocking as an anti-predator strategy in doves. Anim Behav 23:504–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Singh KP, Basant A, Malik A, Jain G (2009) Artificial neural network modeling of the river water quality-a case study. Ecol Model 220(6):888–895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sullivan RT (1981) Insect swarming and mating. Fla Entomol 64(1):44–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sun J, Bollt EM, Porter MA, Dawkins MS (2011) A mathematical model for the dynamics and synchronization of cows. Phys D: Nonlinear Phenom 240(19):1497–1509MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  67. Valdesolo P, Ouyang J, DeSteno D (2010) The rhythm of joint action: synchrony promotes cooperative ability. J Exp Soc Psychol 46(4):693–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Vellido A, Lisboa PJG, Vaughan J (1999) Neural networks in business: a survey of applications. Expert Syst Appl 17:51–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wang XF, Chen G (2002) Pinning control of scale-free dynamical networks. Phys A: Stat Mech Appl 310(3–4):521–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wiltermuth SS, Heath C (2009) Synchrony and cooperation. Psychol Sci 20:1–5Google Scholar
  71. Woolley AW, Chabris CF, Pentland A, Hashmi N, Malone TW (2010) Evidence for a collective intelligence factor in the performance of human groups. Science 330(6004):686–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Xuan Q, Li Y, Wu T-J (2006) Growth model for complex networks with hierarchical and modular structures. Phys Rev E 73(3):036105CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  73. Xuan Q, Li Y, Wu T-J (2009) Optimal symmetric networks in terms of minimizing average shortest path length and their sub-optimal growth model. Phys A: Stat Mech Appl 388(7):1257–1267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Xuan Q, Gharehyazie M, Devanbu P, Filkov V (2012) Measuring the effect of social communications on individual working rhythms: a case study of open source software. In: The proceedings of 2012 ASE/IEEE international conference on social informatics, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  75. Yan F, Chen G (2013) Distributed consensus and coordination control of networked multi-agent systems. In: Kocarev L (ed) Consensus and synchronization in complex networks. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 51–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Yu W, DeLellis P, Chen G, Bernardo MD, Kurths J (2012) Distributed adaptive control of synchronization in complex networks. IEEE Trans Autom Control 57(8):2153–2158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Zhou T, Zhao M, Chen G, Yan G, Wang B-H (2007) Phase synchronization on scale-free networks with community structure. Phys Lett A 368(6):431–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  2. 2.Zhejiang University of TechnologyHangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations