Advertisement

Energy Policy Planning for Climate-Resilient Low-Carbon Development

  • Andrea M. Bassi
  • Prakash (Sanju) Deenapanray
  • Pål Davidsen
Chapter
Part of the Understanding Complex Systems book series (UCS)

Abstract

Climate change has emerged as arguably the biggest threat facing human development in the twenty-first century. The current stock of atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) is large enough to cause climate change and climate variability. International efforts have been undertaken to stabilize atmospheric GHGs and to limit average global temperature rise to 2 °C (Randall, WIREs Clim. Chang. 1:598–605, 2010). If current emissions continue unabated, it is expected that the temperature rise will be between 4 °C and 6 °C; that can be reached towards the end of this century. Under this “do nothing” scenario, all nations would be losers. It is, therefore, in humanity’s interest to do something about the current state of affairs. Although adapting to climate change and climate variability is important, the safest adaptation would be large-scale reduction in atmospheric GHG emissions. It has been shown recently that limiting global temperature increase to 2 °C above pre-industrial levels could be achieved through the “wedging the gap” approach consisting of 21 coherent major initiatives that together would trigger greenhouse gas emission reductions of around 10 Gt CO2e by 2020, plus the benefits of enhanced reductions in air-pollutant emissions (Blok, Höhne, van der Leun, Harrison, Nat. Clim. Chang. 2:471–474, 2012). Emissions reductions can be achieved broadly through a combination of: (1) policy measures that provide for financial and economic incentives (e.g., feed-in tariffs for renewable energies) or disincentives (e.g., carbon tax), and (2) market-based mechanisms such as carbon trading, both of which would be required to implement the “wedging the gap” approach. Further, this novel approach would require unprecedented global scale coordination and cooperation.

Keywords

New market mechanism NAMAs Low-carbon economy Green economy Climate change mitigation GHGs 

References

  1. Adger, W.N., Agrawala, S., Mirza, M.M., Conde, C., O’Brien, K., Pulhin, J., et al.: Assessment of adaptation practices, options, constraints and capacity. In: Parry, M.L., Canziani, O.F., Palutikof, J.P., Linden, P.J.v.d., Hanson, C.E. (eds.) Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, pp. 717–743. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2007)Google Scholar
  2. Barlas, Y.: Formal aspects of model validity and validation in system dynamics. Syst. Dyn. Rev. 12(3), 183–210 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bassi, A.M., Deenapanray, P.N.: A green investment analysis using system dynamics modelling—the case study of Mauritius. Small States: Econ. Rev. Stat. 16, 256 (2012)Google Scholar
  4. Bassi, A., Yudken, J.: Climate policy and energy-intensive manufacturing: a comprehensive analysis of the effectiveness of cost mitigation provisions in the American Energy and Security Act of 2009. Energy Policy. 39, 4920–4931 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bassi, A., Yudken, J., Ruth, M.: Climate policy impacts on the competitiveness of energy-intensive manufacturing sectors. Energy Policy. 37, 3052–3060 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bassi, A.M., Wang’ombe, C., Kirui, G., Njaramba, L.N., Barasa, D.O., Muema, J.N., et al.: Strengthening Institutional Capacity for Integrated Climate Change Adaptation & Comprehensive National Development Planning in Kenya. Government of Kenya, Nairobi (2011)Google Scholar
  7. Beaurain, F., Schmidt-Traub, G.: Developing CDM programmes of activities: a guidebook. South Pole Carbon Asset Management (2010)Google Scholar
  8. Blok, K., Höhne, N., van der Leun, K., Harrison, N.: Bridging the greenhouse-gas emission gap. Nat. Clim. Chang. 2, 471–474 (2012)Google Scholar
  9. Center for Clean Air Policy: The Road to NAMAs—Global Stories of Successful Climate Actions. Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington (2011)Google Scholar
  10. Central Intelligence Agency: The World Factbook 2011. Retrieved from The World Factbook 2011. www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html (2011). Accessed October 2012
  11. Central Statistics Office: Environment Statistics—2011. Central Statistics Office, Port Louis (2012)Google Scholar
  12. Flavin, C.: Building a low-carbon economy. In: Flavin, C. (ed.) State of the World. WorldWatch Institute, Washington (2008)Google Scholar
  13. GIZ: Nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs): steps for moving a NAMA from idea towards implementation, draft 8.2. GIZ (2011)Google Scholar
  14. Global Commons Institute: Contraction and convergence—an international conceptual framework for preventing dangerous climate change (2010)Google Scholar
  15. Government of Kenya: Kenya Vision 2030. Government of Kenya, Nairobi (2007)Google Scholar
  16. Government of Mauritius: Second National Communication Under the UNFCCC. Government of Mauritius, Port Louis (2010)Google Scholar
  17. Hemmati, M.: Multi-Stakeholder Processes for Governance and Sustainability: Beyond Deadlock and Conflict. Earthscan, London (2002)Google Scholar
  18. Hinostroza, M., Lütken, S., Aalders, E., Pretlove, B., Peters, N., Holm Olsen, K.: Measuring Reporting Verifying—A Primer on MRV for Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions. UNEP Risø Centre, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (2012)Google Scholar
  19. Höhne, N., den Elzen, M., Weiss, M.: Common but differentiated convergence (CDC): a new conceptual approach to long-term climate policy. Clim. Policy. 6, 181–199 (2006)Google Scholar
  20. International Energy Agency: World Energy Outlook 2010. Power generation cost assumptions, Paris (2010)Google Scholar
  21. Klein, D.E., Ma, H., Helme, N., Wang, C.: Technology-based sectoral NAMAs: a preliminary case study of China’s cement and iron and steel sectors. Center for Clean Air Policy (2009)Google Scholar
  22. Kollmus, A., Zink, H., Polycarp, C.: Making Sense of the Voluntary Carbon Market: A Comparison of Carbon Offset Standards. WWF, Germany (2008)Google Scholar
  23. Kuik, O.J., Lima, M.B., Gupta, J.: Energy security in a developing world. WIREs Clim. Chang. 2, 627–634 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Meadows, D.: The Unavoidable A Priori, excerpt from Randers, Elements of the System Dynamics Method (1980)Google Scholar
  25. Ministry of Renewable Energy and Public Utilities: Long-Term Energy Strategy 2009–2025. Government of Mauritius, Port Louis (2009)Google Scholar
  26. Moellendorf, D.: Climate change and global justice. WIREs Clim. Chang. 3, 131–143 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Randall, S.: History of the 2 °C climate target. WIREs Clim. Chang. 1, 598–605 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Stockholm Environment Institute: The economics of climate change in Kenya (2009)Google Scholar
  29. United Nations Environment Management Group: Working towards a balanced and inclusive green economy, a United Nations system-wide perspective (2011)Google Scholar
  30. United Nations Population Division: World population prospects: the 2006 revision, New York (2007)Google Scholar
  31. US Congress: H.R. 2454, the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009, Washington (2009)Google Scholar
  32. US Congressional Budget Office: The estimated costs to households from the cap-and-trade provisions of H.R. 2454, Washington (2009)Google Scholar
  33. US Department of Commerce: Bureau of Economic Analysis. National economic accounts, national income and product accounts table, Washington (2008)Google Scholar
  34. US Department of Energy: Energy market and economic impacts of the American Power Act of 2010. Energy Information Administration, Washington (2010a)Google Scholar
  35. US Department of Energy: International Energy Annual 2010. Energy Information Administration, Washington (2010b)Google Scholar
  36. van Asselt, H., Berseus, J., Gupta, J., Haug, C.: Nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) in developing countries: challenges and opportunities, Free University Amsterdam, Amsterdam (2010)Google Scholar
  37. Yudken, J., Bassi, A.M.: Climate policy impacts on the competitiveness of energy-intensive manufacturing sectors. National Commission on Energy Policy, Bipartisan Policy Center, Washington (2009)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea M. Bassi
    • 1
  • Prakash (Sanju) Deenapanray
    • 2
  • Pål Davidsen
    • 3
  1. 1.Founder and CEO, KnowlEdge Srl (KE)Director, Centre for Systemic Planning (CSP)CastellanzaItaly
  2. 2.Director, Ecological Living in Action (ELIA)Director, Centre for Systemic Planning (CSP)La GauletteMauritius
  3. 3.System Dynamics GroupUniversity of BergenBergenNorway

Personalised recommendations