Muscle Force

  • Emico Okuno
  • Luciano Fratin
Part of the Undergraduate Lecture Notes in Physics book series (ULNP)


Incorrect posture adopted daily causes immense forces on the column, that are, in general, responsible for low back pain. The forces that act on the hips during a walk are very large. Simplified models are used to calculate the magnitude of the involved forces. The principles that orient these calculations are the conditions for the static equilibrium of the body or parts of it.


Contact Force Intervertebral Disc Muscle Force Spinal Column Intervertebral Lumbar Disc 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emico Okuno
    • 1
  • Luciano Fratin
    • 2
  1. 1.Instituto de FísicaUniversidade de São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Faculdade de EngenhariaFundação Armando Álvares PenteadoSão PauloBrazil

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