Techniques of Stereotactic Localization

  • Victor C. K. TseEmail author
  • M. Yashar S. Kalani
  • John R. Adler


In the past 50 years, the application of stereotactic techniques has transformed neurosurgery; it provides a platform for the development of minimal invasive surgery and functional neurosurgery. This chapter gives a historical overview in the evolution of stereotactic localization techniques and the ingenious application of stereotactic principles in the development of stereotactic radiosurgery. The latter not only changes the landscape in radiation therapy, but has undoubtedly changed our philosophy and approaches in the treatment of a variety of neurological diseases.


Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Stereotactic Radiosurgery External Auditory Meatus Stereotactic Frame Deep Brain Structure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Clarke RH, Horsley V. On a method of investigating the deep ganglia and tracts of the central nervous system (cerebellum). Br Med J. 1906;2:1799–800.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zernov DN. L´encephalometrie. Rev Gen Clin Ther. 1890;19:302.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zernov DN. Entsefalometr—ustroistvo dlya lokalizatsii mozgovych structur u zhivogo cheloveka. Predvaritel’noe soobshenie. Encephalometer—a device for localising cerebral structures in a living man. A preliminary communication. Trudy Fiziko-meditsynskogo Obshestva Moscovskogo Universiteta 1889; 2:70–80. (Rus).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kirschner M. Arch Klin Chir. 1923;176(581):581–620.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dandy WE. Ventriculography after injection of contrast into the ventricles. Ann Surg. 1918;68(1):5–11.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Reichert T, Hassler R. Special method of stereotaxic brain operation. Proc Roy Soc Med. 1955;48:469–70.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Leksell L. The stereotaxic method and radiosurgery of the brain. Acta Chir Scand. 1951;102:316–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Oldendorf WH. The quest for an image of brain: a brief historical and technical review of brain imaging techniques. Neurology. 1978;28(6):517–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cormack AM. Representation of a function by its line integrals, with some radiological applications. J Appl Phys. 1963;34:2722–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brown RA, Nelson JA. Invention of the N-localizer for stereotactic neurosurgery and its use in the Brown-Roberts-Wells stereotactic frame. Neurosurgery. 2012;70(2 Suppl Operative):173–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Brown RA, Nelson J. The origin of the N-localizer for stereotactic neurosurgery. Cureus. 2012;4(8):e55. doi: 10.7759/cureus.55. Scholar
  12. 12.
    Leksell L. Stereotaxis and tomography, a technical note. Acts Neurochirurgica. 1980;52:1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Reinhardt HF, Zweifel HJ. Interactive sonar-operated device for stereotactic and open surgery. Sterotact Funct Neurosurg. 1990;54:393–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Verhey LJ. Immobilizing patients and positioning for radiotherapy. Semin Radiat Oncol. 1995;5:100–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Soete G, Van de Steene J, Verellen D, Vinh-Hung V, Van den Berge D, Michielsen D, Keuppens F, De Roover P, Storme G. Initial clinical experience with infrared-reflecting skin markers in the positioning of patients treated by conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2002;52:694–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Further Reading

  1. Levy M. A Short history of stereotactic neurosurgery.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Victor C. K. Tse
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. Yashar S. Kalani
    • 2
  • John R. Adler
    • 3
  1. 1.Kaiser Permanente Medical GroupRedwood CityUSA
  2. 2.Division of Neurological SurgeryBarrow Neurological Institute, St. Joseph’s Hospital and Medical CenterPhoenixUSA
  3. 3.NeurosurgeryStanford University and Chief of New Clinical Applications at Varian Medical SystemsStanfordUSA

Personalised recommendations